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The other authors who have spoken of this place, are Scylax. Peripl. p. 5. Scymn. Ch. v. 326. Mel. II. 4. Plin. III. 11. Ptol. p. 6. Considerable vestiges, situated near the station called Torre di Mare, on the coast, indicate its ancient position d.

The rivers Basiento and Salandella, which we Casuentus cross soon after, are the Casuentus and Acalandrus of Pliny. (III. 11.)

fl.

Acalan

drus fl. Heraclea. Aciris fl.

Heraclea, situated between the Aciris and Liris, was founded by the Tarentini after the destruction of the ancient city of Siris, which stood at the mouth of the latter river. A. C. 428. (Strab. VI. 263. Diod. Sic. XII.36.) This city is rendered remarkable in history, as being the seat of the general council of the Greek states. Alexander of Epirus is said to have attempted to remove the assembly from the territory of the Tarentines, who had given him cause for displeasure, to that of Thurii. (Strab. VI. 280.) Heraclea is noticed by Livy. (I. 18. and VIII. 24. Plut. vit. Pyrr. Cicer. pro Balb. 22. Plin. III. 11.) Antiquaries seem agreed in fixing the site of this town at Policoro, about three miles from the mouth of the river Aciris, now Agrif, where considerable remains are yet visible.

On the right bank of the same river, and about

d Swinburne's Travels, sect. 36. p. 273. Antonini, Lucania. p. 3. disc. 5. Romanelli, t. i. p. 275.

The coins of this city generally represent Hercules contending with the lion. The epigraph is HPA. or HPAKAHION. Mionnet, Med. des Anc. Suppl. t. i. p. 295. Sestini, Monet. Vet.

e This fact has been further
confirmed by the discovery of
the celebrated bronze tables near
p. 16.
this city, on which so much eru-
dition and labour have been be-
stowed bythe learned Mazzocchi.

f Mazzocchi, Prodr. ad Heracl. Pseph. Diatr. II. 7. Romanelli, t. i. p. 257.

Lucana.

five miles from the ruins of Heraclea, is Anglona, supposed to represent Pandosia, which we know was Pandosia not far distant from thence; as Plutarch, in his life of Pyrrhus, states that the first battle in which that monarch defeated the Romans was fought between Heraclea and Pandosia, and other writers affirm that the action took place near the former town. (Flor. I. 18. Oros. IV. 1.) The bronze tables of Heraclea also distinctly mention Pandosia as being in its neighbourhood; a great question however has arisen among topographers relative to this place, which remains still undecided. Are we to identify this city with the well known Pandosia, which Strabo and Livy allude to in speaking of Alexander king of Epirus, who met his death in its vicinity? I apprehend we ought to decide in the negative, for reasons which will be subsequently stated. And this is likewise the opinion of Mazzocchi 8, Holstenius 1, and other modern antiquariesi. Romanelli, however, endeavours to adapt all the citations of ancient writers to one and the same city, which he places at Anglonak.

A passage of Aristotle, wherein he speaks of the footsteps of Hercules being shewn near Pandosia, a town of Iapygia, (de Mirab.) may with more probability be referred to this city.

Siris, situated at the mouth of the river of the same Siris. name, now Sinno, was said to have been founded by a Trojan colony', which was afterwards expelled by

g Diatr. in Tab. Heracl. II. 6.

h Adnot. p. 308.

i Sertor. Quattrim. ad Barr. Not. p. 77. Grimaldi, Annal. del. regn, di Nap. t. iii. p. 114.

k T. i. p. 265.

This passage is disputed, but the reading adopted by the French editor of Strabo seems the best. See his note, t. ii. p. 335.

some Ionians, who migrated from Colophon under the reign of Alyattes king of Lydia; and having taken the town by force, changed its name to that of Poliæum. (Strab. VI. 264. Aristot. de Mirab. Athen. XII. 45. Lycophr. v. 978. Steph. Byz. v. Zípış.) The earliest writer who has mentioned this ancient city is the poet Archilochus cited by Athenæus ; (XII. 5.) he speaks with admiration of the surrounding country, and in a manner which proves that he was well acquainted with its beauties.

Οὐ γάρ τι καλὸς χῶρος, οὐδ ̓ ἐφίμερος,
Οὐδ ̓ ἐρατὸς, οἷος ἀμφὶ Σίριος ῥοάς.

In the passage from which this quotation is taken, Athenæus represents the inhabitants of Siris as rivalling in all respects the luxury and affluence of the Sybarites; and Herodotus enumerates two citizens, of Siris and Sybaris, among the suitors of Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes, tyrant of Sicyon. These cities, about 540 years A. C. had reached at that period the summit of their prosperity and opulence. Shortly afterwards, according to Justin, (XX. 2.) Siris was almost destroyed in a war with the neighbouring towns of Metapontum and Sybaris. We should be led however to imply from the expression of Themistocles in Herodotus, that if the Lacedæmonians did not await the enemy at Salamis, the Athenians would sail to Italy and found Siris; that this city was then deserted. (VIII. 62.) Finally, when the Tarentines settled at Heraclea, they removed all the Sirites to the new town of which Siris became the harbour. (Diod. Sic. XII. 36. Strab. VI. 263.) No vestiges of this ancient colony are now

apparent, but it stood probably on the left bank, and at the mouth of the Sinnom. This river, somewhat higher up, receives the little stream of Serrapotomo, which may be the Syrapus of Vibius Sequester. (de Syrapus fl. flum. et font.)

About twelve miles to the south-west of Siris is the village of Nucara", supposed to represent the ancient Lagaria, said to have been founded by a party Lagaria. of Phocians, headed by Epæus the architect of the wooden horse. (Strab. VI. 263. Lycophr. v. 930. Aristot. de Mirab.) The wine of this district was in great repute, (Strab. loc. cit. Plin. XIV. 6. Athen. I. 47.) and is still much esteemed °. A little beyond is the small river Calandro, the name of which bears some affinity to the Acalandrus, mentioned by AcalanStrabo as flowing in the vicinity of Thurii. (VI. 283.) We have already noticed another stream of that name near Metapontum.

drus fl.

Leutarnia, an ancient city named by Lycophron Leutarnia. only, is supposed by the topographers of Calabria to be Albidona¶.

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The river Cylistarnus, noticed by the same poet, Cylistarnus

m The antiquity of Siris is further evinced by its coins, the style and character of which are of a very remote date. Some of these have the epigraph CEIRIZ, others CEI and CIR, A very rare and curious one indicates an alliance between Pyxus, or Buxentum, and Siris. The inscriptionisIV XOEM-MONIqIM i. e. Pyxoes-Sirinos: the latter

VOL. II.

word is written backwards. Ses-
tini, Monet. Vet. p. 17. Lanzi,
t. i. p. 106.

n Cluver. Ital. Antiq. II. p.
1272. Mazzocchi, Diatr. I. 5.
Antonini, Lucan. p. iii. disc. 2.
"Romanelli, t. i. p. 248.
p Id. t. i. p. 245.

9 Barrio, de ant. et sit. Ca-
labr. 1. v. c. 18. Antonini, Lucan.
p. iii. disc. 1.

A, a

Al.

Cossa.

Sybaris.

is generally identified with the little stream now called Racanello".

Ὃς ἀμφὶ Σῖριν καὶ Κυλιστάρνου γάνος
Ἔπηλυς οἴκους τῆλε νάσσεται πάτρας.

v. 946. Near its source antiquaries place Cossa, an inland Enotrian city, as Stephanus Byz. reports, on the authority of Hecatæus. (v. Kóroa.) Cæsar, who calls it Cosa, states, that T. Annius Milo was slain before its walls, when besieging the place in Pompey's cause. (Civ. Bell. III. 22.) Pliny, who adverts to the same event, terms this place "Castellum Carissanum,” but some MSS. read "Cosanum." Cluverius was nearly correct in his supposition that Cassano might occupy the site of this ancient towns; for more modern topographers have in fact discovered its ruins at Cività, a village close to the former place'.

Sybaris, situated between the river of the same name and the Crathis, was founded, as it is said, by the people of Trozene, not long after the siege of Troy; (Aristot. Polit. V. 3. Solin. 8.) but these were subsequently joined by a more numerous colony of Achæans, under the conduct of Iseliceus, (Strab. VI. 263.) about the year 720. A. C. (Euseb. Chron. II.) The rise and progress of this celebrated republic must have been wonderfully rapid. We are told that it held dominion over four different people and twenty-five towns; and that the city extended fifty stadia, or upwards of six miles, along the Crathis. But the number of its inhabitants, which are computed at 300,000 by several ancient writers, and

Barrio, de ant. et sit. Calabr. 1. v. c. 18. Antonin. loc. cit.

s Ital. Ant. II. 1205. t Anton. Lucan. p. iii. disc.1. Romanelli, t. i. p. 240.

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