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Qua duri bello gens Marrucina, fidemqué
Exuere indocilis sociis Frentanus in armis.

SIL. ITAL. XV. 569.

Marrucina simul Frentanis æmula pubes
Corfini populos magnumque Teate trahebat.

ID. VIII. 521.

Appian is the only author who has particularly mentioned Frentani as having joined the coalition of the petty states of central Italy against Rome; (Civ. Bell. I. 39.) but even without the authority of 'this writer we could not doubt that this people would unite in support of the common cause with the surrounding states, to whom they were bound by consanguinity, and other political ties.

Whatever may have been their former extent of territory, we find it restricted by the geographers of the Augustan age to the tract of country lying between the mouths of the Aternus and Tifernus, which separated it from the Marrucini to the north, and from Apulia to the south. (Mel. II. 4. Plin. III. 11. and 12. Ptol. p. 66.) Though it extended also in the interior towards Samnium, and the sources of the rivers above mentioned, the few cities of the Frentani with which we are acquainted appear to have been situated on the coast.

The first of these is Ortona, which Strabo terms Ortona. the naval arsenal of the Frentani. (V. 241.) It is also noticed by Pliny (III. 11.) and Ptolemy. (p. 66.) This town still retains its ancient site and name.

South of Ortona, and more inland, was Anxa- Anxanum.

9 Cluverius and other writers, referring to a period previous to the division of Augustus, have removed the southern confines

of the Frentani to the river
Frento, now Fortore. Ital. Ant.
II. p. 1205. Romanelli, t. iii.

p. 9.



num, (Ptol. p. 66.) which occupied the site now called Lanciano vecchio. The name of this town seems to have been also written Anxa and Anxia. (Plin. III. 11. Front. de Col.) From the latter author it appears that Anxanum was a Roman colony".

Beyond the river Sagrus was Buca, a seaport town, mentioned by several ancient writers, but the position of which is now subject to much uncertainty. Strabo seems to place it near Teanum, on the confines of Apulia; (V. 241.) but elsewhere he states that it was separated from Teanum by an interval of 200 stadia, or 25 miles: (VI. 285.) it is probable, therefore, that there must be an error in the first passage. (Cf. Plin. III. 12. Mel. II. 4. Ptol. p. 66. Steph. Byz. v. Búßns.) A modern topographer, who founds his opinion on the reports of local antiquaries and ancient ecclesiastical records, informs us, that the ruins of Buca are to be seen at a place named Pennat.

Further along the coast, Vasto d'Ammone represents Histonium, once the haunt of savage pirates; who, as Strabo reports, formed their dwellings from the wrecks of ships, and in other respects lived more. like beasts of prey than civilized beings". (V. 242.) This town is, however, afterwards enumerated by Frontinus among the colonies of Rome; and its ruins, which are still visible, attest that it was not wanting in splendour and extent*. (Cf. Mel. II. 4.

On the antiquities of Anxanum, see Romanelli Scoverte Frentane, t. ii. p. 100. and Topogr. Ant. del Regn. di Nap. I.


$ Holstenius saw that for Buba we should read Buca. Not. in

Steph. Byz.

tRomanelli, t. iii. p. 40.

u It should be observed, that there is an error in the text of Strabo, where the name of this town is written ̓Ορτώνιον. * Romanelli, t. iii. p. 32.

Plin. III. 12. Ptol. p. 66.) Beyond is the mouth of the Trinius, Trigno, with its port. (Plin. III. 12.) Trinius fl. We learn from inscriptions and other monuments that the small town and port of Termoli, situate near this river, was anciently called Interamna. The InterTifernus, now Biferno, terminates the description of the Ager Frentanus to the south. (Plin. III. 12. Ptol. p. 66. Mel. II. 4.)


Tifernus fl.

In addition to the abovementioned towns belonging to the Frentani, an Italian writer, who has paid particular attention to the antiquities of this portion of Italy, points out some ruins which retain the name of Civita di Sangro, on a height above the right bank of that river, as the probable site of a town, the inhabitants of which are termed by Pliny Carentini, or Caraceni Infernates". The same writer Caraceni has discovered at Foreto, on the left bank of the Sangro, and near Francavilla, some remains of an ancient town, which he identifies with the Urbs Urbs FeFerentana, said by Livy to have been taken by the consul Aulius Cerretanus, A. U. C. 435. (IX. 16.) This seems also to have been the opinion of earlier antiquaries2.


In the last section, the course of the Appian way was described through Campania as far as Capua; from that point therefore we may resume the detail of its stations and distances as far as Beneventum, and from thence again through the different ramifications of the same route to the confines of Apulia.

y Romanelli Scoverte Frentane, vol. i. Art. Città di Saro,


e Topogr. Ant. t. iii. p. 49.
z Id. t. iii. p. 68.




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From Beneventum, one branch of the Appian way proceeded through the country of the Hirpini to Venusia in Apulia, and from thence to Tarentum and Brundusium. Another branch took a more northerly direction on leaving Beneventum, and passing the Apennines near Æquotuticum, led to Canusium in Apulia, and from thence along the coast to Brundusium: the latter part of this road was called Via Egnatia. (Strab. VI, p. 282.)

The first is thus detailed in the Antonine Itine

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The second branch of the Appian way is thus

traced in the Itinerary of Antoninus.

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Between these two routes was an intermediate one, only known to us from the description of Horace, to which I have already alluded, with reference to Trivicum; in the vicinity of which town that poet rested after leaving Beneventum. He proceeds to inform us, that twenty-four miles beyond, he came to a place the name of which could not be expressed in

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