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phases of this widespread, tenacious custom, is some simple, fundamental idea, through which, in some way, the general notion of love or fruitfulness shall be symbolized in the apple. This requirement is not satisfied by the hypothesis that the apple represented the breast, and, for that reason, and because the writers who so understood the practice are late writers, I am inclined to believe that they were themselves deceived by the commonness of the comparison of apple and breast, and invented, while they supposed, very likely, that they were following tradition, a symbolism of their own.

My conclusion is that in the remotely ancient attribution of the apple and the apple-kind, as typical of all fruitfulness, to Aphrodite the alma Venus of Lucretius's invocation and its connexion also with other divinities of like functions (such as Dionysus, the god of vegetation, and Ge, the mother of all things), originated the meaning which it was felt to have when employed in courtship and the marriage ceremony. So much seems fairly plain. But the evidence on the subject left by the classical authors does not enable us to take the next step, and offer an explanation of the fact that the apple was used in preference to other objects, as representing the lifegiving functions of these deities. The original association of Aphrodite and the apple may very likely have been purely accidental, arising from a very ancient connexion, in some locality, of the worship of the apple-tree and the worship of a goddess of love. If one of these cults spread, it might naturally carry the other with it, and the apple-tree, which started, let us suppose, as an independent god, might, in the course of time, come to be looked upon as owing its sacred character simply to its being in some sense an emblem of Aphrodite.

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τίνος ἐπιστημόνως λέγεις; ἢ σκυτῶν τομῆς ; — PLATO.


1) Φησὶ γὰρ ὁ Σωκράτης ἐκ τεττάρων τῶν ἀναγκαιοτάτων πόλιν συγκεῖσθαι, λέγει δὲ τούτους ὑφάντην καὶ γεωργὸν καὶ σκυτοτόμον καὶ οἰκοδόμον.

In all save the most primitive of Edens the Socratic rule above set forth holds good: man must be clothed and fed and shod and housed, and carpenter, cobbler, farmer, and weaver will always find a place. So in Greece, though a kindlier climate enabled the inhabitants to reduce such protections to their lowest terms, we find the shoemaker briskly at work.

With his brethren of the forge, the tan-yard, the rule, and the loom, he appears again and again in our extant literature, serving now to point the philosopher's moral, as in Plato and Aristotle, now to illustrate the orator's logic, or to receive the comic poet's abuse, but ever spoken of in familiar terms as a daily acquaintance. We are thus prevented from supposing, as a cursory inspection of vase-paintings might perhaps lead us to suppose, that the unshod

1 I have tried to see what we could learn from the literature of the fifth and fourth centuries as to our subject. It is not my purpose here to discuss, except indirectly, the monumental evidence. The principal modern articles on the subject are: HERMANN, Griech. Privatalt., pp. 180-184, 185-196; BLÜMNER, Technologie, I, pp. 267-286; Iwan von Müller, Gr. Privatalt. (Handbuch, Vol. IV, I pt. 2d ed. 2), pp. 103-104, 245, 249; BLÜMNER, Leben u. Sitten, I, pp. 60-67; III, pp. 158, 160; GUHL U. KONER, Leben d. Gr. u. Röm. (ed. 6, curav. R. Engelmann), pp. 306-309; BAUMEISTER, Denkmäler s.v. FUSSBEKLEIDUNG (I, p. 574); SCHUHMACHER (III, pp. 1587-1588); SMITH, Dict. Ant. s.vv. calceus, baucides, carbatina, cothurnus, embas, endromis, sandalium; DAREMBERG ET SAGLIO; Dictionnaire, s.vv. arbyle, baucides, blautae, carbatina, cothurnus, crepida, diabathrum, embas. 2 Arist. Pol. 4. 4. p. 1291a. 13.

foot was the rule in Hellas. The Spartans indeed, by the law of Lycurgus, enjoined this on their youth :

2) Xenophon, De Rep. Lac. 2. 3: ἀντί γε μὴν τοῦ ἁπαλύνειν τοὺς πόδας ὑποδήμασιν ἔταξεν ἀνυποδησίᾳ κρατύνειν, νομίζων εἰ τοῦτ ̓ ἀσκήσειαν, πολὺ μὲν ῥᾷον ἂν ὄρθια ἐκβαίνειν, ἀσφαλέστερον δὲ πρανῆ καταβαίνειν, καὶ πηδῆσαι καὶ ἀναθορεῖν καὶ δραμεῖν θᾶττον ἀνυπόδητον εἰ ἠσκηκὼς εἴη τοὺς πόδας ἢ ὑποδεδεμένον.

We read that the old Agesilaus felt this habit of his early years still strong upon him in age. So Aelian 1:

3) ̓Αγησίλαος ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος γέρων ἤδη ὢν ἀνυπόδητος πολλάκις καὶ ἀχίτων προῄει . . . καὶ ταῦτα ἑωθινὸς ἐν ὥρᾳ χειμερίῳ.


Plato, with his poetic sympathy for Spartan theories, reckons care for shoes among the vanities which the philosopher will lightly esteem, and in the Laws tabooes them for his warrior youth along with all manner of hats, as impairing the natural vigor of the godprovided coverings for head and feet:

4) Plato, Legg. 12. 942 D and E:

καὶ τό γε μέγιστον, τὴν τῆς κεφαλῆς καὶ ποδῶν δύναμιν μὴ διαφθείρειν τῇ τῶν ἀλλοτρίων σκεπασμάτων περικαλυφῇ, τὴν τῶν οἰκείων ἀπολλύντας πίλων τε καὶ ὑποδημάτων γένεσιν καὶ φύσιν.

Socrates, as we know, in summer and winter, in city and field, trusted to these οἰκεῖα ὑποδήματα of his own hardy feet.

5) Plato, Phaedrus 229 Α: Δεῦρ ̓ ἐκτραπόμενοι κατὰ τὸν ̓Ιλισσὸν ἴωμεν. εἶτα ὅπου ἂν δόξῃ ἐν ἡσυχίᾳ καθιζησόμεθα.

Εἰς καιρὸν, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἀνυπόδητος ὢν ἔτυχον. σὺ μὲν γὰρ δὴ ἀεί. ῥᾷστον οὖν ἡμῖν κατὰ τὸ ὑδάτιον βρέχουσι τοὺς πόδας ἰέναι καὶ οὐκ ἀηδές, ἄλλως τε καὶ τήνδε τὴν ὥραν τοῦ ἔτους καὶ τῆς ἡμέρας.

And this he did even when ordinary mortals betook themselves to felt wrappings and leggings of sheepskin to shut out the cold, so that his friends recall with gusto his rare concessions to custom, as when, “in best bib and tucker,” and with shoes on his feet, he went to dine at Agatho's. We are told that some others, too, at Athens,


1 Var. Hist. 7. 13.

2 Phaedo 64 D.

8 Cf. with the Phaedrus passage above Xen. Mem. 1. 6. 2. and Ameips. Conn. frag. ap. Diog. Laert. 2. 27 (Kock, I, 672. 9), where Socrates is called “the bane of shoemakers." 4 Plato, Sympos. 220 B.

5 Id. ibid. 174 A, and infra, 118.


men of simple habits and Spartan endurance, like Lycurgus the financier,' and Phocion the orator, went habitually unshod; but the very fact that these are so cited, not to mention the other idiosyncrasies of costume and custom attributed to each, marks them as exceptions to a rule almost universal.

As few men went barefoot all the time, so there were times when most men put off their shoes. Indoors, whether at meals (6, 7) or in bed (8, 9, 10) or at the bath (11), or at exercise in gymnasium or palaestra, men never wore anything on their feet.3

6) Ar. Vesp. 103-104 :

εὐθὺς δ ̓ ἀπὸ δορπηστοῦ κέκραγεν ἐμβάδας,
κἄπειτ ̓ ἐκεῖσ ̓ ἐλθὼν προκαθεύδει πρῲ πάνυ.

7) Eubulus, Dolon. frag. 30 (Kock, II, 175. 30):

ἐγὼ κεχόρτασμαι μὲν, ἄνδρες, οὐ κακῶς,
ἀλλ ̓ εἰμὶ πλήρης, ὥστε καὶ μόλις πάνυ
ὑπεδησάμην ἅπαντα δρῶν τὰς ἐμβάδας.

8) Arist. De. Part. Anim. 4. 10. p. 687a. 28:

ἀλλ ̓ οἱ λέγοντες ὡς συνέστηκεν οὐ καλῶς ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἀλλὰ χείριστα τῶν ζῴων (ἀνυπόδητόν τε γὰρ αὐτὸν εἶναί φασι καὶ γυμνὸν καὶ οὐκ ἔχοντα ὅπλον πρὸς ἀλκήν) οὐκ ὀρθῶς λέγουσιν. τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλα μίαν ἔχει βοήθειαν καὶ μεταβάλλεσθαι ἀντὶ ταύτης ἑτέραν οὐκ ἔστιν, ἀλλ ̓ ἀναγκαῖον ὥσπερ ὑποδεδεμένον ἀεὶ καθεύδειν.

9) Ar. Eccl. 313-315, and 319:

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1 Pseud.-Plutarch, Vit. X. Orat. p. 842 C.

2 Plutarch, Phocion 4.

8 Women did not usually remove their shoes indoors, except at night. Cf. s.v. Περσικαὶ, infra, p. 89. 4 Ap. Ath. 3. 100 A.

5 This whole passage is beautifully illustrated by the marble relief of Aesculapius and the sick man (Hirt. Bilderbuch f. Myth. Arch. u. Kunst, I, XI, 3). The

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