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minating influences under which it hail vokeil under their influence, and asbeen for centuries, and was still ac- suming å station to which it had no customed to exert its faculties, when claim on pretences utterly false, pro that glorious burst of national enthu- mulgated the constitution of 1812. siasm took place, to which the voice of That promulgation was for the moEngland answered with the note of an ment overlooked by many who were universal sympathy, and the vow of a quite aware of what was meant, from fraternal co-operation. The priests, the natural reluctance to anything like the nobles, the peasants, the whole discussion in the then state of the people, rose as with one heart-it was country-many, very many, rather a nation, not a faction, that called than let the French' know that the and it was a nation, not a faction, that nation was not at one, thought themmade answer.
selves justified, and in so far, doubtless, · Within the Spanish nation, how, they were so, in giving no external ever, there did already exist a faction, resistance. But this would not do. and this faction was destined to be the The prejudices of the great muss of the instrument for heaping upon it evils, nation were insulted, at the same moof a new kind indeed, but not inferiorment when the church and the nobito those under which it had long been lity were thus openly attacked ; and contented to labour. faction had the church, robbed of her power and been rearing itself unseen, and unno- her patrimony, and the nobility robticed, which was now to take advan- bed by one scratch of the pen, of all tage of a time of danger, that ought their privileges, nay, deprived of all to have united all, for the rash pro- power whatever in the state, and the mulgation of opinions that could not people of Spain, accustomed for cenhave, and had not, any other effect turies to reverence their clergy, and but that of rending asunder every obey their feudal lords, refused, from bond of union that did exist; and that moment, to continue that patrio. which, but for the presence of the tic warfare, which, in its first moveEnglish army, must have been the ments, had commanded the admirameans of laying the Spanish nation tion, and roused the hopes, of the prostrate and fettered at the feet of world. They said, these men are not Napoleon.
for our Spain, no, nor for the right It had been the curse of Spain, that Spain ; they are for a Spain of their whatever notions of civil liberty had own imagining, an unchristian, a refound access among any classes of her publican, a French Spain. If Frenchpopulation, had come in tainted with men must rule us, we prefer living the Jacobinical extravagances of infi- Joseph to dead Voltaire-let them del and revolutionary France. The fight their own battle-the cause is priests themselves had known no me
no longer ours.-Sir Howard Douglas, llium between their breviaries and the in his excellent Pamphlet,* dwells at Dictionnaire Philosophique. And now, great length on the events we have at the moment when the result of all thus rapidly glanced over-We must those French principles and schemes make room for his summing up of was visibly embodied before their eyes, their consequences. in the presence of a French invading
“ As nearly the whole of Spain was army, headed by the lieutenants of a French military despot, even now it occupied by the troops of Napoleon at was that these rash men dared to pol- formed, very few of the members of that
the time the Extraordinary Cortes was lute for the first time the ears of their body were duly elected by the provinces own countrymen with the open enun- and towns of old Spain which they were ciation of all the most violent and in- supposed to represent; and still fewer of solent dogmas of the creed of infidelity the members who took their seats as deand Republicanism. These were the puties for the colonies, were chosen by men who took to themselves the name ihe actual voice of any regularly constiof Liberales ; they consisted for the tuted body of the people. But, as at that most part of mercantile mena few period there were many individuals whom nobles, and but a few, joined with the troubles of the war had driven from them--and the Cortes of Cadiz con the provinces, and also many South
* Crisis of Spain.
American merchants, natives, and others, kingdom the most violent opposition,
santry were neutralized, and the only de-
and other persons connected with South Constitution, proceeds to peruse the folAmerica, were the chief instruments in lowing extracts of addresses which were getting up the Constitution ; and there printed and circulated in the country, and were not wanting agents to help them, which truly, as well as prophetically chasome from bad motives, and otliers from racterize that code." pure, though erroneous views. One great
And again object was to retain empire over their colonies. Jealous of Great Britain, they re “ A government not blinded by the fused her proffered mediation between most intemperate degree of revolutionary Spain and her revolted possessions, and zeal, but really legislating for the wholethought to retain dominion over them by some correction of the evils they wished the united system of legislature, intro to reform, should have considered the deduced in the new code. So zealous, in- fection of the church, in such a nation as deed, were they in the pursuit of this vain Spain, a decisive obstacle to any strong object, that they determined to combine measures, and sure to produce violent recoercion with their policy, and in 1811 actions if persevered in. But far from actually sent a large armament, consisting being deterred, the Cortes proceeded to of several regiments, from Galicia, then heap fuel on the flame. the only province in Spain unoccupied by “ The framers of the constitution, al. the French, and that at a time when the though they did not respect the religious Captain-General of that province was re- prejudices of the people for whom they presenting his force as insufficient, desti were legislating, were so fearful of them, tute of money, and in want of equipment that none of the reforms intended to be of every kind. Yet the government of introduced in the church establishments, Cadiz found means to equip that arma. were noticed in the constitution; and the ment!
only article under the head of Religion, “ When the Constitution came to be (Art. 12,) is an intolerant declaration, promulgated and proclaimed, it was very that the Roman Catholic Faith is the apparent, from the way in which it was only national religion, and that the exer. received, that it was not in conformity cise of none other will ever be permitted. with the state of public opinion in by far “ This was intended to procure the the greater part of Spain. Persons who support of the clergy, in the establishment may have been presènt when it was pro of the constitution, and not to agitate the claimed in the capital, sea-ports, and great people with any notice of intended altecommercial towns, (where it was in ge- rations; and this article in the new code neral considered as conducive to the fa has been quoted by commentators on it, vourite measure of retaining possession to prove that the priesthood of Spain of their colonies,) might think otherwise; bave no just grounds to be dissatisfied but it is a fact, that in a great number of with the measures of the Cortes. But the cities,-in most of the towns,-in all the priesthood were not so easily deceivthe villages, and universally amongsted, or, at least, the Cortes spon took steps the peasantry in the interior of the coun to undeceive them. For very soon after try, it was received with dissatisfaction, the constitution was promulgated, the with disgust, and, in many places, with measures affecting the clergy were taken abhorrence.
into consideration. It is not necessary to “ So apprehensive, indeed, were some notice these farther than may be suffi. of the authorities, acting under the pro cient to account for the opposition of the visional government, lest popular com clergy to a system, which does not apmotion should take place against it, that pear to the reader of the article Reliin March, 1812, they prevented the mea gion in the constitution, to call for their sure of arming the peasantry of Galicia, disapprobation. On the 16th of June, who had applied for arms to defend their 1812, was published an act for abolishing own country, at that time menaced by tithes throughout the monarchy! The the enemy; and in other parts of Spain, measure was announced with a preamble, like fears dictated similar precautions ! called the Parte Legal, in which it is as
“ Nor were these apprehensions with serted, that the precept or obligation out ground. This will not appear ex for paying tithes was entirely abolished traordinary to the reader, who, having at the death of Jesus Christ.' considered the real dispositions of the “ This was the most injudicious act people, and the true character of the new the Cortes had yet committed. It is
*.“ El precepto de pagar diezmos quedo enter amonte abolido con la muerte de Jesu Christo."
plain, that the measure must have been the new constitution to be proclaimed in contemplated when the constitution was every city, town, and village, recovered executed; and the super-eminent folly from the possession of the enemy. It of doing the deed, and doing it in such a was received, as has been already obserway, put it in the power of the clergy to ved, with great apparent satisfaction in add the charge of hypocrisy and decep- Madrid, in certain great cities, and in all tion to the other, which they denomina sea-ports and commercial towns; but not ted a sacrilegious usurpation of the rights so elsewhere. of the church, and of their rights of pro “ It was evident to the whole army, perty.
during the movements of 1812, how luke. “ It is not necessary to remark farther warm the Spanish people had become. upon the genius and character of the Spa- . The British army was, indeed, everynish code, the mischievous tendencies of where well received ; but the people which are, it is to be feared, about to committed themselves no farther than convulse Europe. It is almost entirely a by giving shouts of vivas. The Spanish prure democracy. A mode of election, regular armies were not recruited by a whose basis is universal suffrage-short single man in the provinces they occu(biennial) parliaments—a legislature com- pied during the campaign; all attempts posed only of the commons estate? to organize a popular force were ineffecKing without power, without a council tual ; a plan which had been proposed, of his own nomination-in the hands of of trying to incorporate Spanish recruits an executive council nominated and paid in the allied army, under British officers, by the commons—a council, wit ut failed; the advance of the army into the whose • dictamen' the King can do no centre of the country, which had been thing, and in which his ministers (who undertaken to encourage, and to produce, are also excluded from seats in the Cor- as it was expected, supporting movetes) have no voice-the monarch's will ments amongst the people, had no such liable to be forced upon all occasions, if results; and, after an arduous campaign, the Cortes persevere in pushing any bill the allied army returned to Portugal, to a third passing.–Ministers made re without having accomplished more by sponsible for acts which they have no the glorious victory at Salamanca, than share in forming, (for the consejo de es the temporary occupation of Madrid, and tado is the King's only council,) and no the evacuation of Andalusia. voice in voting--the army and the navy “ The war proceeded; and, notwithunder the authority of the commons standing the apathy which the bulk of house, in all that relates to regulations, the Spanish people now exhibited, was discipline, order of advancement, pay, brought to a successful termination, administration, and in short all that be- mainly through the exertions of the Brilongs to their constitution and good or. tish government, by the abundant means der. These are the discordant elements it furnished by the gallantry of her of which the Spanish constitution was troops, and by the admirable manner in formed, by which it is impoisoned, and which they were commanded by the ilout of which have arisen disorders which, lustrious Wellington,” if they be not purged, will transmit her
Ferdinand, then, was placed, in confrom civil war to the greater horrors of sequence of the success of the English military despotism. Those who support armies within, and the success of the ed the constitution originally, were call
allied armies beyond Spain, at the ed liberales ; those who opposed it, ser.
head of a nation effectually disunited. viles; and here it was evident to close observers, a furious party spirit was form
The triumph of the moment-the
drunken joy that overspread all Eued, which was destined, ere long, to deluge Spain with the blood of her sons,
rope, was felt in Spain too; and he and Europe with the mischief of its prin- tions, which he was blockhead enough
was received with universal acclamaciples.
" The constitution is dated March the to consider as the language of universal 19th, 1812; but its actual promulgation
and deliberate submission. The feeling was deferred until the expected successes
which the constitutionalists must have of the approaching campaign should re- had, that they themselves had, since cover territories in which to proclaim it. their ascendancy,done much to thwart,
“ When the French army, defeated at and almost nothing to forward, the gloSalamanca, retired from all that part of rious march of events, must have, no the country, and the siege of Cadiz was doubt, cowed them a little at the moraised, the Spanish government caused ment. The old nobles, and the priest
... 198. Od.
...... 20s. Od.
... 5. Od. ... -S. Od
27s. Od. ... 258. Od.
Pease & Beans. Ist,., 358. Od. 1st,... 25s. 6d. 1st....... 22s. Od. Ist....... 215. Od. 2d, ...32s. 6d. 2d, ...24s. Od. 2d, .20s. Od.
...20s. Od. 3d,......15s. Od. 3d,
Tuesday, Dec. 9. Beef (174 oz. per lb.) 0s. 3d. to Os. 6d. | Quartern Loaf Os. 8d. to Os. 9d. Mutton Os. 3d. to Os. 60. New Potatoes (28 lb.) Os. Od. to Os.
Os. 7d. to 0s. 9d. Fresh Butter, per lb. Is. 2d. to Os. Od. Pork
Os. 3d. to 0s. 5d. Salt ditto, per stone 16s. Od. to 183. Od. Lamb, per quarter . Os. Od. to Os. Od. Ditto, per lb.
1s. Od. to Os. Od. Tallow, per stone 6s. 6d. to 7s. Od. Eggs, per dozen
ls. Od. to Os. Od. HADDINGTON.-Dec. 12.
Beans. Ist, ....34s. Od. 1st, -s. Od. Ist; ... 20s. Od. 1st, ....21$. Od. 1st, ....21s. O 2d, ....33s. Od. 2d, ... - $. Od. | 2d,.....18s. Od. | 2d, ....193. Od. 2d, ....19s. Od. 3d, ....32s. Od. 3d, ... -S. Od. 3d, ....16s. Od. | 3d, .... 175. Od. 3d, ....17s. Od.
Beans. 1st, 318. Od. 1st, 25s. Od. 1st, 20s. Od. 1st, 16s. 6d.
Ist, 2d, 2d, 23s. Od. 2d, 18s. Od. 2d,
2d, 3d, , 20s. Od. 3d, 16s. Od 3d,
... -S. Od. Average Prices of Corn in England and Wales, from the Returns received in the Week
ended Dec. 6. Wheat, 51s. 100.-Barley, 28s. 4d.-Oats, 21s. 70.-Rye, 32s. Od.-Beans, 34s. 8d.-Pease, 345. Sd. London, Corn Exchange, Dec. 8.
Liverpool, Dec. 9. d. d.
8. d. S. d. Wheat, red, old 46 to 58 Maple, new - to - Wheat, per 70 lb. Amer. p. 196 lb. Fine ditto 10 to 42 White pease.
30 to 35|Eng. new 7 9 to 8 8 Sweet, U.S. 28 0 to 32 0 Superfine ditto 44 to 49 Ditto, boilers . 36 to 40 Foreign ..4 0 to 19 Do. in bond - 0 to - 0 Ditto, new 32 to 38 Small Beans,new 33 to 38| Waterford 6 6 to 7 0 Sour free . 30 0 to 33 0 White, old 52 to 65 Ditto, old 36 to 40||Limerick - 0 to - Oatmeal, per 210 lb. Fine ditto 4) to 50 Tick ditto, new 30 to 34 Drogheda 6 9 to 7 3 English 27 O to 50 O Superfine ditto 52 to 56 Ditto, old 31 to 36||Dublin 6 4 to 6 10 Scotch . . 23 0 to 260 Ditto, new 35 to 44 Feed oats 19 to 22||Scotch old 8 6 to 9 6Irish .. 23 0 to 26 0 Rye
36 to 40 Fine ditto 22 to 23|Irish Old . 6 6 to 8 4 Bran,p.241b. 1 3 to 1 Barley, new 21 to 23|Poland ditto 20 to 24 Barley, per 60 lbs. Fine ditto. 24 to 26 Fine ditto 25 to 26 Eng.
Butter, Beef, de,
4 6 to 5 0 Superfine ditto 28 to 31 Potato ditto 21 to 21|Scotch
- 0 to
- 0Butter,p.cwt. s. d. s. d. 48 to 52 Fine ditto. 25 to 26||Irish 4 3 to 4 9 Belfast, new 89 0 to 91 0 Fine 52 to 58 Scotch 27 to 28||Oats, per 15 lb.
Newry 81 0 to 86 0 Hog Pease 30 to 32 Flour, per sack 50 to 55 Eng. new 3 0 to 5 2 Waterford . 79 0 to 80 O Maple 31 to 33 Ditto, seconds 45 to 48Irish do.. 5 to 3 i Cork,pic.2d, 18 0 - 0
Scotch do. 5 0 to 3 2
3d dry 72 0 to 00
Mess 78 0 to 84 0 Must. White, . 10 to 10 6,Hempseed to- Middling 7 0 to 7 9 p. barrel 50 0 to 56 O Brown, new 9 to 14 0 Linseed, crush, -to - Beans, perq.
Pork, p. bl. Tares, per bsh. 5 to 96 - Fine
English 0 to 42 0 Mess 65 0 to 67 0 Sanfoin,per qr. 30 to 35 Rye Grass, • 16 to 24 0 Irish
36 0 to 40 01 Middl. . 60 O to 620 Turnips, bsh. 10 to 15 a Ribgrass, 28 to 34 Rapeseed, p.). £23 to 25 Bacon, p.cwt. - Red & green 10 to 14 o Clover, red cwl.54 to 75 of Pease,
grey32 0 to 36 6 Short mids. 46 0 to 48 O - Yellow, 9 to 11 0 - White ... 62 to 72 0-White :41 0 to 50 0 Sides 44 0 to 45 0 Caraway, cwt. 46 to 54 o Coriander . 12 to 13 0Flour, English,
Hams, dry, 54 0 to 56 0 Canary, per qr. 50 to 52 0 Trefoil .. 10 to 23 Ollp.2401b.fine38 0 to 48 O Green ..0 to 0 Rape Seed, per last, £24 to £25.
Mirish, 2ds 36 0 to 47 O Lard, rd.p.c.50 0 to 52 0