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forces must be concentrated on the field and he distinctly gives us to under. of battle.'

stand, that, upon the system of the “ Make offensive war like Alexander, great captains of antiquity, he formed Hannibal, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne, that new and brilliant tactique which Prince Eugene, and Frederic. Read overwhelmed Europe. His coup-d'-æil again and again the history of their 88 of the campaigns of Alexander, Cæsar, campaigns; model yourself upon them.

&c. is rapid, but striking, and might That is the only way to become a great com form, in the hands of some of our mimander, and to obtain the secrets of the litary scholars, the nucleus of a work of

remarkable interest and instruction. “ The garrisons of fortified places ought to be drawn from the population, and not

“ Alexander crossed the Dardanelles from the active army. Provincial regi- in the year 334 before the Christian era, ments of militia were intended for this with an army of 40,000 men, of which an service."

eighth part was cavalry. He forced the

passage of the Granicus, which was deThe Great Captains.

fended by an army under Memnon, a “ Alexander conducted eight cam

Greek, who commanded on the coast of paigns in Asia and India ; Hannibal, Asia for Darius; after which he employseventeen-one in Spain, fifteen in Italy, ed the whole of the year 333 in establishand one in Africa; Cæsar, thirteen-eight ing his power in Asia Minor. He was against the Gauls, and five against Pom- supported by the Greek colonies on the pey's legions ; Gustavus Adolplus, three shores of the Black Sea and Mediterra-one in Livonia against the Russians, nean-Sardis, Ephesus, Tarsus, Miletus, and two in Germany against the House &c. The Kings of Persia allowed the of Austria ; Turenne, eighteen--nine in provinces and cities to govern themselves France, and nine in Germany; Prince by their peculiar laws. Their empire was Eugene, thirteen-two against the Turks, an union of confederate states; it did not five in Italy against France, and six on the form a single nation ; and this circumRhine, or in Flanders; Frederic, eleven stance facilitated its conquest. As Alex-in Silesia, Bohemia, and on the Elbe.- ander aimed only at the throne of the The history of these 88 campaigns would Persian monarch, he easily appropriated be a complete treatise on the art of war.” the rights of sovereignty to himself, be

In this enumeration of the “ thun. cause he respected the usages, manners, derbolts of the field,” he omits Mith- and laws of the people, who suffered no ridates, Pompey, and Sylla, among change of condition. the Ancients. Among the great names

“In the year 332 he encountered Daof later times, Marlborough is omit- rius, who, at the head of 600,000 men, ted, probably from pique, though his occupied a position near Tarsus, on the campaigns were made a teri-book in the banks of the Issus, in the straits of CiliEcole Militaire. Wellington it would

cia; defeated him, entered Syria, took of course be vain to look for in Napo

Damascus, where the great King's trea

sures were deposited, and laid siege to leon's enumeration. Napoleon him

Tyre. That proud metropolis of the corrself made fourteen campaigns—two in Italy, five in Germany, two in Africa months. He took Gaza, after a two

merce of the world stopped him for nine and Asia, two in Poland and Russia,

months' siege, crossed the desert in seven one in Spain, and two in France. His

days, entered Pelusium and Memphis, first was in 1796, when he crossed the

and founded Alexandria. He met with Alps from Savona.

no obstacle, because Syria and Egypt were The study of the “ 88 campaigns” always connected by interest with the was not gratuitously advised by Na Greeks; because the Arabian nations depoleon. French education is not deep- tested the Persians, and their batred was ly classic, and Turenne, and the war founded on religion; and, finaily, because minister of the day, occupy a larger the Grecian troops of the Satraps joined space in the French military mind than the Macedonians. In less than two years, the whole stately genius of antiquity. after two battles, and four or five sieges, But Napoleon's soul was war, and all the coasts of the Black Sea, from the the traces that survive of his thoughts Phasis to Byzantium, and those of the and studies, give the impression of a Mediterranean as far as Alexandria, all vivid and absorbing passion for all that Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, were submade the art of supreme soldiership. dued by his arms. Arrian, Cæsar, and Polybius, were “ In 331 he repassed the desert, entamong bis perpetual investigations; camped at Tyre, crossed Cælesyria, cu

tered Damascus, passed the Euphrates and the deserts in his rear, without fortand Tigris, and defeated Darius in the resses, and at a distance of nine hundred plains of Arbella, as that prince was ad- leagues from Macedon! Or suppose he vancing against him at the head of a still had been vanquished by Porus when more numerous army than that of the driven from the Indus!” Issus. Babylon opened itsgates to him. In It will be observed, that, mingled 330, he forced the pass of Suza, took that with the general lesson of those daztown, Persepolis, and Pasagarda, where zling and romantic triumphs, there is was the tomb of Cyrus. In 329 he turn the particular defence of the commened towards the North, and entered Ec- tator. Napoleon had been charged batana, extended his conquests to the Caspian Sea, punished Bessus, the vile labours to prove that this rashness is

with rashness as a principle. He here assassin of Darius, penetrated into Scy- but another name for rapidity, for the thia, and defeated the Scythians. It was

command of circumstances, for the in this campaign that he disgraced so many trophies by the murder of Parme

sure seizure of that success which alnio. In 328 he forced the passage of the

ways escapes the tardy, the timid, and Oxus, received 16,000 recruits from Ma.

the cold.--His review of Hannibal's cedon, and subjected the neighbouring na

career is urged by the same intention. tions. It was in this year that he killed “ In the year 218, before the Christian Clitus with his own hand, and required era, Hannibal left Carthage, passed the the Macedonians to worship him, which Ebro and the Pyrenees, which mountains they refused to do. In 327 he passed the were previously unknown to the CarthaIndus, defeated Porus in a pitched battle, ginian arms; crossed the Rhone and the took him prisoner, and treated him as a farther Alps, and, in his first campaign, king. He intended to pass the Ganges, established himself in the midst of the but his army refused. He sailed on the Cisalpine Gauls, who, constantly hostile Indus in 326, with 800 ships. On reach to the Ronan people, sometimes victors ing the ocean, he sent Nearchus, with a over them, but more frequently vanquishfleet, to coast the Indian Sea as far as the ed, had never been subjected to their Euphrates. In 325 he spent sixty days sway. In this march of four hundred in crossing the Desert of Gedrosia, enter- leagues he spent five months; he left no ed Kermann, returned to Pasagarda, Per- garrison nor depots in his rear; kept up sepolis, and Suza, and married Statira, no communication with Spain or Carthe daughter of Darius. In 324 he again thage, with which latter place he had no marched towards the north, passed to intercourse until after the battle of ThraEcbatana, and ended his career at Baby- symene, when he communicated by the lon, where he was poisoned.

Adriatic. A more vast, comprehensive “ His mode of warfare was methodical; scheme, was never executed by man. it merits the highest praise ; none of his Alexander's expedition was much less daconvoys were intercepted; his armies con- ring and difficult, and had a much greater stantly kept increasing ; the moment chance of success. This offensive war when they were weakest, was when he was nevertheless methodical—the Ciscommenced operations at the Granicus. alpine people of Milan and Boulogne beBy the time he arrived at the Indus, his came Carthaginians to Hannibal. Had numbers were tripled, without reckoning he left fortresses or depôts in his rear, he the corps commanded by the governors of must have weakened his army, and hathe conquered provinces, which were com zarded the success of his operations; he posed of invalided or wearied Macedo- would have been vulnerable at all points. nians, recruits sent from Greece, or drawn In 217 he passed the Appenines, beat from the Greek troops in the service of the Roman army in the plains of Thrasythe Satraps, or, finally, of foreigners raised mene, converged about Rome, and occuamong the natives in the country. Alex. pied the lower coasts of the Adriatic, ander merits the glory he has enjoyed for whence he communicated with Carthage. so many ages among all nations. But In the year 216, eighty thousand Romans suppose he had been defeated on the Issus, attacked him, and he defeated them at where the army of Darius was drawn up the field of Cannæ. Had he marched six in order of battle on his line of retreat, with days afterwards, he would have entered its left to the mountains, and its right to the Rome, and Carthage would have been the sea; whilst the Macedonians had their right mistress of the world! The effect of this towards the mountains, their left towards great victory was, however, immense. the sea, and the pass of Cilicia behind Capua opened its gates ; all the Greek cothem. Or suppose he had been beaten lonies, and a great number of towns of at Arbella, with the Tigris, the Euphrates, Lower Italy, espoused the victorious side, VOL. XIV.

z

and abandoned the cause of Rome. Han- like Hannibal, he kept his hostages, manibal’s principle was to keep all his troops gazines, and hospitals.

On the same in junction ; to have no garrison but in a principles, he conducted his seven other single place, which he reserved to him- campaigns in Gaul. self; to hold his hostages, his great ma “ During the winter of 57, the Belchines, his prisoners of distinction, and gians raised an army of 300,000 men, his sick, depending on the fidelity of his which they placed under the command of allies for his communications. He main Galba, King of Soissons. Cæsar, baving retained himself sixteen years in Italy, with ceived intelligence of this event from the out receiving any succours from Carthage; Rhemi, his allies, hastened to encamp on and he only evacuated Italy by order of the Aisne. Galba, baving no hopes of his government, to fly to the defence of forcing his camp, passed the Aisne to adhis country. Fortune betrayed him at vance on Rheims; but Cæsar frustrated Zama, and Carthage ceased to exist. But this maneuvre, and the Belgians dishad he been vanquished at Trebbia, Thra- banded ; all the towns of this line subsymene, or Cannæ, what greater disasters mitted in succession. The people of Haicould have happened than those which nault surprised him on the Sombre, in followed the battle of Zama? Although the vicinity of Mauberge, before he had defeated at the gates of his capital, he time to draw up in line; out of eight lecould not save his army from utter de- gions which he then had, six were engastruction.”

ged in raising the intrenchments of the Napoleon's avowed tactique was to camp, and two were still in the rear with rush forwards; to take the enemy in the baggage. Fortune was so adverse to the moment of hesitation; to overawe

him on this day, that a body of cavalry the heavy armies chained to their lines from Treves deserted him, and spread a and fortresses, by the impetuous pre- report of the destruction of the Roman sence of a force that fell upon them like army wherever they went; he was, howthe whirlwind or the thunder, unex

ever, victorious. pected and irresistible. The Toujours “ In the year 56, he advanced, at one en avant was his motto ; and he shews push, on Nantes and Vannes, detaching that it was the motto of all the masters corps of considerable strength into Norof war. He defends himself and them mandy and Acquitain. The nearest point from the charge of fool-hardiness; he of his depots at that time was Toulouse, proves that they risked much, but it from which place he was distant 130 was to gain all.

leagues, and separated by mountains, “Cæsar was forty-one years of age when great rivers, and forests. he commanded in his first campaign, in

“ In the year 55, he carried the war to the year 58, before the Christian era, 140 Zutphen, in the interior of Holland, years after Hannibal. The people of Hel

where 400,000 barbarians were passing vetia had left their country to settle on

the Rhine to take possession of the lands the shores of the ocean, to the number of of the Gauls; he defeated them, killing 300,000; they had ninety thousand men the greater part, and driving the others to in arms, and were crossing Burgundy.

a considerable distance. He then repassThe people of Autun called Cæsar to ed the Rhine at Cologne, crossed Gaul, their assistance. He left Vienne, a fort- embarked at Boulogne, and made a deress of the Roman province, marched up scent in England. the Rhone, passed the Saone at Chalons, “ In the year 54, he once more crossed came up with the army of the Helvetians the Channel, with five legions, conquered a day's march from Autun, and defeated

the banks of the Thames, took hostages, them in a long disputed battle. After for- and returned into Gaul before the equicing them to return to their mountains, nox. In autumn, having received intellile repassed the Saone, took possession of gence that his lieutenant Sabiņus had Besancon, and crossed the Jura to fight been slaughtered near Treves, with fifteen the army of Ariovistus, which he met a cohorts, and that Quintus Cicero was befew marches from the Rhine, defeated it, sieged in his camp at Tongres, he assemand forced it to re-enter Germany. At

bled 8000 or 9000 men, commenced his this battle he was ninety leagues from

march, defeated Ambiorix, who advanced Vienne; at the battle with the Helve to meet him, and relieved Cicero. tians, seventy leagues. In this campaign “ In the year 53, he suppressed the he constantly kept the six legions which revolt of the people of Sens, Chartres, composed his army joined in a single Treves, and Liege, and passed the Rhine corps. He left the care of his communi. a second time. cations to his allies, having always a “ The Gauls were already in agitation; month's provisions in a fortress, where, the insurrection burst forth on every side.

During the winter of 52, the whole po- the space between the Ebro and the pulation rose ; even the faithful people of Sierra Morena, established peace in AnAutun took part in the wars. The Ro dalusia, and returned to make his entry man yoke was odious to the people of into Marseilles, which city his troops had Gaul. Cæsar was advised to return in- just taken ; he then proceeded to Rome, to the Roman province, or to repass the exercised the dictatorship there for ten Alps; he adopted neither of these plans.' days, and departed once more to put himHe then had ten legions; he passed the self at the head of twelve legions, which Loire and besieged Bourges, in the depth Antony bad assembled at Brindisi. of winter, took that city, in the sight of “ In the year 48, he crossed the Adrithe army of Vercingetorix, and laid siege atic with 25,000 men, held all Pompey's to Clermont; he failed, lost his hostages,' forces in check for several months, until, magazines, and horses; these were at being joined by Antony, who had crossNevers, the place of his depot, of which ed the sea in defiance of the fleets of the the people of Autun took possession.' enemy, they marched in junction on Nothing could appear more critical than Dyrrachium, Pompey's place of depot, his situation. Labienus, his lieutenant, which they invested. Pompey encampwas kept in alarm by the people of Paris ; ed a few miles from that place, near the Cæsar ordered him to join him, and, with sea. Upon this, Cæsar, not content with his whole army in junction, laid siege to having invested Dyracchium, invested Alesia, in which town the Gallic army the enemy's camp also. He availed himhad enclosed itself. He occupied fifty self of the summits of the surrounding days in fortifying his lines of counterval- hills, occupied them with twenty-four lation and circumvallation. Gaul raised a forts, which he raised, and thus establishnew army, more numerous than that ed a countervallation of six leagues. Pom. which she had just lost; the people of pey, hemmed in on the shore, received Rheims alone remained faithful to Rome. provisions and reinforcements by sea, by The Gauls arrived to compel him to raise means of his fleet, which commanded the the siege ; the garrison united its efforts Adriatic. He took advantage of his cenwith theirs, during three days, in order tral position, attacked and defeated Cæto destroy the Romans in their lines. sar, who lost thirty standards, and thirty Cæsar triumphed over all obstacles; Ale- thousand soldiers, the best of his veteran sia fell, and the Gauls were subdued. troops. His fortunes appeared to totter;

“ During this great contest, the whole he could expect no reinforcements; the of Cæsar's army was in his camp; he left sea was closed against him; Pompey no point vulnerable. He availed himself had every advantage. But Cæsar made a of his victory to regain the affections of march of fifty leagues, carried the war inthe people of Autun, amongst whom he to Thessaly, and defeated Pompey's arpassed the winter, although he made suc my in the plains of Pharsalia. Pompey, cessive expeditions, at a hundred leagues almost alone, though master of the sea, distant from each other, with different fled, and presented himself as a suppliant troops. At length, in the year 51, he on the coast of Egypt, where he fell by laid siege to Cahors, where the last of the the hand of a base assassin. Gallic army perished. The Gauls became “ A few days after, Caesar went in purRoman provinces, the tribute from which suit of him to Alexandria, where he was added to the wealth of Rome eight mil. besieged in the palace and amphitheatre lions of money annually.

by the populace of that great city, and “ In Cæsar's campaigns of the civil the army of Achillas. At length, after war, he conquered, by following the same nine months of danger and continuai method and the same principles, but he battles, the loss of any one of which ran much greater risks. He passed the would have been fatal to him, he triumphRubicon with a single legion; at Corfi- ed over the Egyptians. nium, he took thirty cohorts; and, in “ In the meantime, Scipio, Labienus, three months, drove Pompey out of Italy. and King Juba, ruled in Africa, with fourWhat rapidity! what promptitude! what teen legions, the remains of Pompey's boldness! Whilst the ships necessary for party; they had numerous squadrons, and passing the Adriatic, and following his scoured the sea. At Utica, Cato breathed rival into Greece, were preparing, he the hatred he felt into every bosom. passed the Alps and Pyrenees, crossed Cæsar embarked with a few troops, reachCatalonia at the head of 900 horse--a ed Adrumetum, sustained reverses in seforce scarcely sufficient for his escort veral engagements, but being at length arrived before Lerida, and, in forty days, joined by his whole army, defeated Scisubdued Pompey's legions commanded pio, Labienus, and King Juba on the by Afranius. He then rapidly traversed plains of Thapsus. Cato, Scipio, and Jul

ba killed themselves. Neither fortresses, fought two battles; was victorious both numerous squadrons, nor the oaths and at Leipzig and Lutzen, but met his death duties of states, could save the vanquish in the latter field. In this short career, ed from the ascendancy and activity of the however, he established a great reputavictor. In the year 45, the sons of Pom- tion, by his boldness, the rapidity of his pey having assembled in Spain the rem- movements, the discipline and intrepidity nants of the armies of Pharsalia and of bis troops. Gustavus Adolphus was Thapsus, found themselves at the head of actuated by the principles of Alexander, a more numerous force than that of their Hannibal, and Cæsar. father. Cæsar set out from Rome, reach He pursues this review through the ed the Guadalquivir in twenty-three days, campaigns of Turenne-whom he conand defeated Sextus Pompey at Munda. siders as altogether superior to his rie It was there that, being on the point of val Montecuculi—and those of Fredelosing the battle, and perceiving that his old rie and Eugene. His own campaigns, legions seemed shaken, it is said he had the most triumphant and celebrated of thoughts of killing himself. Labienus fell them all, are rapidly traversed, and in the battle. The head of Sextus Pom- his military similitude to the race of pey was laid at the victor's feet. Six conquerors sustained in every shape of months after, in the Ides of March, Cæsar profound theory and fierce and resistwas assassinated in the midst of the Ro- less execution. It is here that we see man Senate. Had he been defeated at Napoleon in his true point of distincPharsalia, Thapsus, or Munda, he would have suffered the fate of the great Pom- pulsive or contemptible. As a politi

tion. In all other aspects he was repey, Metellus, Scipio, and Sextus Pompey. Pompey, to whom the Romans cian, ignorant, narrow, and tyrannical; were so much attached; whom they sur

as an individual, vicious, mean, and named the Great, when he was but cruel; but, as a soldier, exhibiting the

first rank of genius; bold, compretwenty-four years of age; who, after conquering in eighteen campaigns, triumphed hensive, indefatigable, and original. over three parts of the world, and carried Englishmen are not likely to be the the Roman name to such an elevation of adulators of this scourge of the human glory; Pompey, defeated at Pharsalia,

race; but it is impossible to look upon there closed his career. Yet he was mas

his rise and his career, the sudden ter of the sea, while his rival had no splendour in which he shot above the fleet.

clouds of that stormy and sullen Re“ Cæsar's principles were the same as

volution; the mighty mastery with those of Alexander and Hannibal; to keep which he wielded the national strength, his forces in junction ; not to be vulne- broken and dismayed as it had been; rable in any direction; to advance rapid- the appalling rapidity with which he ly on important points; to calculate on crushed all that Europe had been buildmoral means, the reputation of his arms, ing up of sovereignty for ages, without and the fear he inspired ; and also on po- acknowledging that Napoleon was litical means, for the preservation of the among the most powerful and most fidelity of his allies, and the obedience of formidable spirits that ever influenced the conquered nations,

society. Mankind may well rejoice that “ Gustavus Adolphus crossed the Bal- he is in his grave. Of what other man tic, took possession of the isle of Rugen for these thousand years can it be said, and Pomerania, and led his forces to the that his life was a terror, and his death Vistula, the Rhine, and the Danube. He a relief to the world?

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