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Rutgers College

New York ...Chicago

Harvard University

.Oahu College, Honolulu

.....Clark College .....Yale University Cornell University

Ass't-Professor FRANK H. HANKINS, Ph.D......
Ass't-Professor ELLSWORTH HUNTINGTON, Ph.D..
Professor J. W. JENKS, LL.D...........

GEORGE HEBER JONES, D.D..............

...Seoul, Korea

JOHN P. JONES, D.D.............

.Madura, India

Associate Professor A. L. KROEBER, Ph.D........ University of California

Professor GEORGE TRUMBULL LADD, LL.D......

.Yale University Harvard University

Professor EDWARD C. MOORE, Ph.D..

PUBLISHER

K. NATERAJAN.......

Bombay, India

JAMES A. ROBERTSON, L.H.D......

.Manila .Columbia University

Professor WM. R. SHEPHERD, Ph.D..

Associate Professor PAYSON J. TREAT, Ph.D........Stanford University Ass't-Professor FREDERICK W. WILLIAMS.

Yale University

LOUIS N. WILSON, Litt.D.......

.Clark University

Articles intended for publication, and all correspondence relating to the editorial department of the JOURNAL, should be addressed to Dr. George H. Blakeslee, Clark University, Worcester, Mass.

Books for review, exchanges, subscriptions, and all correspondence relating thereto, should be addressed to Dr. Louis N. Wilson, Clark University Library, Worcester, Mass.

Copyright, 1912, Clark University.

The printing of this number was completed June 21, 1913.

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SIR ROBERT HART AND HIS LIFE WORK IN CHINA
By Edward B. Drew, A.M., Commissioner of Chinese Imperial
Maritime Customs, retired.

I propose to set before you, as best I may, the life work of Sir Robert Hart-a career which Professor Williams of Yale in his recent book on the Burlingame Mission pronounces "the most remarkable and creditable of any European, perhaps, in Asia during the (nineteenth) century."

To this China-loving company I would present my late chief as one who served China with a life-time's unflagging devotedness; and to this body of students I offer his achievements as a convincing example of that wholesome terrestrial kind of genius which is said to consist "in days' works."

Robert Hart was born in Portadown, County Armagh, in the north of Ireland, on February 20, 1835. He was the oldest of twelve children. His father Henry Hart was fairly well to do and a stern Wesleyan; his mother, a daughter of Mr. John Edgar, was a tender woman who ever held the affections of her children. Not long after Robert's birth the family moved to Hillsborough where he attended his first school, and where the family home long remained. At the age of eleven he was sent for a year to a Wesleyan school in Taunton, England; his father taking him there in person. At Taunton he began the study of Latin; and Latin he delighted in and read to the end of his life, it being his daily custom to read some classic author while taking his morning tea. His next move was to the Wesleyan Connexional School at Dublin. Here he was graduated at the top of his class at the age of fifteen, with a reputation for love of mischief, as well as for studiousness and a brilliant mind. His solicitous father elected to send him to the new Queen's

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THE JOURNAL OF RACE DEVELOPMENT, VOL. 4, No. 1, 1913

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University at Belfast, rather than to Trinity College, Dublin-preferring to keep his son near home where he might watch closely over his conduct and where pious influences should guard his character.

In 1853, at the age of eighteen, young Hart received his B.A. degree. He had also taken scholarships and medals in literature and in logic, and had won the distinction of Senior Scholar. It was in this part of his career that he became a favorite student of McCosh, afterwards president of Princeton; and both Dr. McCosh and Sir Robert Hart ever recalled with pleasure their relations at this period, if indeed they did not actually correspond by letter so long as they lived.

Before determining his choice of a profession, Hart began studying for the master's degree; but while he was thus engaged, an opportunity offered itself for competing for a junior post in the British government's consular service in China. He entered as a candidate; but so distinguished had been his university career that he was given the appointment at once without examination. He arrived in China in 1854, and continued for five years in the British consular service, gradually acquiring the Chinese language while serving at Hongkong, Ningpo and Canton, and becoming familiar with both the British and Chinese side of international relations.

His early official experience was gained from the British governor of Hongkong, Sir John Bowring (well known by his noble hymns) and under such able consuls as Alcock, Thomas Taylor Meadows, and Parkes. For most of this period Hart's post was at Ningpo-near enough to the scene of the momentous events then enacting in China to excite the intensest interest of an observant, thoughtful and ambitious young man. The Taiping rebellion was in full career; the rebel leader had already been established at Nanking as his capital for a full year when Hart reached China; and from Ningpo he could observe the Taiping expeditions against Peking. In the study of these stirring times he must have found a stimulating example in his senior, Consul Meadows, who sympathised with the Taipings and in 1856 produced

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