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requirements, and in 1808, by another decree, they obtained a Consistorial Church of their own, with two pastors. They occupied the old church and cloister of the Billettes, where they opened a free school in 1812, and this was the only Protestant institution of the kind in the city for several years. Three years after its foundation it contained one hundred scholars of both sexes, one-half that number being children of Lutheran parents. Rapid progress was subsequently made, and in 1850 the denomination had six places of worship in Paris, with six pastors and eight schools. Just prior to the disastrous war in 1870 there were twelve pastors, fourteen churches or chapels, and forty-eight schools in the city. At the present time, I believe, there are twelve churches, twenty pastors and curates, and about forty schools. The charities of this Church, the relief of the poor, and the visits paid to hospitals and prisons, are on the same basis as those of the French Reformed Church already described.
One of the most useful Lutheran societies of Paris is one known as the "Comité de Patronage des Apprentis et des Jeunes Ouvriers, et Maison Ouvrière." This association was established in 1847, and has now annually under its protection from seventy to eighty young apprentices or workmen. The aim of its founders was "to exert a moral and Christian influence over youths belonging to the Church, and by its efforts to assist in making them honest workmen, good citizens, and above all faithful Christians." The association secures suitable employment for the children placed under its care, according to the state of their health and their natural aptitude for the work, supervising the terms of the apprentice's contract, and afterwards assigning to him a patron—a member of the association-who watches his interests and gives him timely advice or encouragement, as circumstances permit. These apprentices, who meet on Sunday for moral and religious instruction, are formed into a society of their own, and the solidarity of feeling thus established follows them in after years. The Maison Ouvrière, a sort of workman's home, is another link in the same friendly chain, and is a potent means of keeping many young men out of the snares which would necessarily beset them if they lived in comfortless lodgings, and passed their evenings, out of sheer weariness, at different places of amusement, in search of something like recreation or a mere change-often for the worse rather than the better.
Such institutions as these, and others specially devoted to the industrial training of their inmates-preparing them for different branches of trade-exist in connection with various religious denominations in Paris. Of course the government of each one of them is of the paternal kind. And as the mere mention of paternal
government is sufficient with many in this country to raise a perfect storm of derision, as though all government is not more or less based on the principle so roundly abused, there is some danger lest our insular pride or prejudice should blind us to the examples so worthily set us by our neighbours. As Mr. E. J. Watherston pointed out at the Cheltenham Social Science Congress, the French during the past sixteen years have accomplished great things in training women for employments of a superior kind, and finding work for them when so trained, whilst in the United Kingdom, with a much larger surplus female population, daughters who ought to be taught to work are, through the lack of some central organization, such as that of the Patronage Societies of France, allowed to grow up idle and incompetent. Let us look at the facts. One of the principal societies referred to is presided over by the Archbishop of Paris. Another is under the care of the Jews. By means of these agencies, and those connected with other denominations, 62,000 women were added, between 1860 and 1872, to those employed in Paris industries alone. Since then, it is believed, the movement has made even more rapid strides. Schools for typography, silk-weaving, drawing and modelling, metal-working, watch and clock making, have been founded, the result being that these arts are admirably taught, both theoretically and practically, after a preliminary general education. The payment by fees for pupils is strictly enforced, experience having proved, as Mr. Watherston says, that the root of all honest work is that it must be remunerative. He adds that "there should be union of the managers of training schools with all manufacturers or others wishing to employ female labour, and that the union must aim both to give employment and to advise as to the directions in which it may be sought, and into which it may be extended." The system here recommended is, in fact, based on the principles so wisely laid down (as the result has proved) for the management of the Orphanages established in the early part of the century by the different religious bodies of Paris, and which of late years have served as models for a wider application of industrial training to women, in order to fit them for occupations formerly monopolized by men. H. W. R.
(To be continued.)
SCRAPS OF CHURCH HISTORY.
NO. VIII. MONTANISM.
MONTANISM Originated in the latter half of the second century (many writers fixing the date at A.D. 157, others, including Eusebius, at
A.D. 171) with the teaching of Montanus, a native of Ardabar, in Mysia, on the borders of Phrygia. Montanus was a convert to Christianity, and laid claim to the possession of prophetic and extraordinary inspirational powers, being, he alleged, the Paraclete promised by Christ to reveal to the Church a higher degree of truth than had been vouchsafed to the apostles and their contemporaries. His chief helpers were two Phrygian ladies, known as the Phrygian Prophets, and amongst his followers were Sabellius and Tertullian.
Some writers class Montanus as a heresiarch, while others, including Dr. Pinnock and the writer of the Hulsean Prize Essay for 1877, incline to the opinion that he taught nothing opposed to the creeds of the Church, but chiefly taught the necessity of great changes in matters of external order and church discipline.
The Montanists affected great austerity of life. They refused to associate in church fellowship, or to admit to the communion those who had been guilty of any crime or had contracted second marriages. They also enforced the duty of frequent rigid fasts, and held it to be unlawful to hide themselves or to fly in times of persecution.
But the chief feature of Montanism lay in the claim to superior religious knowledge. The Montanists regarded themselves as the only real Christians, the sole members of "The Church." They regarded themselves as spiritually-minded (pneumatici), and regarded all opponents as carnally-minded (psychici). For some time they were content to mingle with other Christians, not being anxious to separate themselves from the general body of the professed disciples of Christ. It was not until Praxeas, who in common with the great majority of the Church in Asia Minor denied the reality of the prophetic gifts claimed by the Montanists, urged the Bishop of Rome to deny them the privilege of communion, that the Montanists began to form themselves into a separate sect, and laid themselves open to be regarded as schismatics. From this time, though their numbers were large, their power began to decline, and the one sect became many. Many of the prevalent heresies were incorporated with Montanistic views, and the Montanists were declared excommunicated by several councils and bishops.
Möhler classes Swedenborg among the modern Montanists, and Mr. De Soyres, the writer of the Hulsean Prize Essay to which we have alluded, repeats the charge. Swedenborg certainly claims to be the medium through whom the Lord brings to the world a renovated system of religious truth. But in one respect the two teachers are the very opposite of each other. Montanus had no new message except the one to favour his own elevation, whereas Swedenborg sank the
question of the messenger, and directed the attention of his readers to the truths that he was commissioned to present. Montanus mainly insisted upon unimportant matters of external life and order. Swedenborg, on the other hand, unfolded important principles of spiritual philosophy. Montanus sought to sway the world by means of trifling alterations on the mere fringe of existence. Swedenborg went down
into the deep mysteries of existence itself.
Swedenborg presents us with his credentials in the form of new and grander conceptions of God, the Word, and Human Life. He lays no claim to the rôle of a prophet. He is a SEER—a seer of truth. And we find in the writings of Swedenborg just such an improvement upon old forms of thought in relation to spiritual things as devout believers in the promises of the Lord Jesus Christ have a right to expect.
The essential fact of Montanism was Montanus; the essential fact of Swedenborgianism is the spiritual sense of the Divine Word. And it is to this unparalleled exaltation of the sanctity and the power of the Word that Swedenborg ever appeals in proof of the genuineness and the authority of his mission.
Montanism flourished bravely for a short period, and was finally condemned and excommunicated as its tendencies were more plainly discerned. Swedenborgianism, on the contrary, has been condemned at the very outset, but it has lived through the long winter, and if we read the signs of the times aright, there is every prospect of its growth and prosperity in the days to come.
ERRATUM.-Page 215, line 13, for serenaded read venerated.
FROM LONDON TO TOLEDO AND BACK.
NO. IV. FROM MADRID TO ARANJUEZ, TOLEDO, ZARAGOZA, PAMPLONA, AND RETURN TO FRANCE.
INDISPOSITION having somewhat interfered with the due continuation of my papers, I must ask my readers to forgive a delay arising from a cause so imperative, and to favour me with their attention while I describe my journey further in those interesting portions of Spain which I visited after leaving the capital.
I departed from Madrid at seven in the morning of October 21st
for Toledo, where I arrived at half-past ten. We passed through Aranjuez, where there is a royal palace, which I determined to notice on my return, and continued the journey to Toledo, the ancient Moorish capital of Spain, which is at present the chief point of attraction. The station at Toledo is about a mile from the town, to which, however, there is a very good road. Toledo stands boldly up, having for its base a rocky hill, with the Tagus going half round the city. It is surrounded by walls, having many towers and gates, but all evincing the ruin of extreme age. Old statues here and there occur on the road without noses and hands-poor stumps, maimed and weather-beaten, the forlorn relics of human glory. Toledo was the Gothic capital of Spain, then the capital of the Moors for seven hundred years, and afterwards the Christian capital until Philip II. founded Madrid. Formerly it contained 200,000 inhabitants, now it has only 13,000, and is a quiet, very quiet, but clean place. It is called the navel of Spain, indeed of the universe. It has a good marketplace, a noble governor's castle called the Alcazar, and many ruins of churches, monasteries, castles, and other buildings in all directions, including two ancient synagogues, the Jews formerly having been numerous in Toledo as in other parts of Spain.
The Tagus is here a spirited river, and with a moderate amount of engineering might be made navigable for more than 300 miles to Lisbon, enriching the country immensely with commerce and abundance of every kind; but, like the other great rivers, scarcely a boat is anywhere to be seen upon it. All is the quietude of laziness and helplessness. Any sensible diligent government that would promote the planting of the country with trees, make the splendid rivers available, and adopt free trade, would increase the comfort and wealth of Spain beyond measure. The wilderness and solitary places would rejoice, and the desert would blossom as the rose. Twice the number of the present population might exist in abundance, and brown barren wastes might be covered with plenty.
Toledo was and is the ecclesiastical capital, the Canterbury of Spain. In Philip II.'s time the archbishops were considered next in pomp to the Pope. They were great in peace and war.
The cathedral, the glory of Toledo, is indeed a magnificent Gothic building. In majesty, in variety of beauty, in richness of decoration, it seems to me to surpass the cathedral of Seville, but this is a point on which great authorities differ. It was begun in 1226 by St. Ferdinand on the site of a mosque which he pulled down to make room for his cathedral, but which the ecclesiastics say had formerly been a Christian church erected to the Virgin in her lifetime, and