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EVANGELICALISM.-One of the promi- now exceedingly numerous, particularly nent and most active parties of the Estab- in the large provincial towns, and the lished Church is the Evangelical. The re- collections of money for missionary and vival which took place towards the close of other Church purposes are larger than the last and the beginning of the present in any other community in the kingcentury was largely promoted by this dom. All this is admitted by the leadparty. Its members maintain the autho- ing journal, but, contends the writer, the rity of the written Word against the party is not what it was. And this is tradition of Rome and the Romanizing admitted by Canon Ryle, who writes: practices of the Establishment. In their "I admit freely that other schools of interpretation of the Word they adopted thought have come to the front in the the doctrines of the Reformers; and as Church of England which are quite as these are fading away from the active zealous and as popular in some quarters thoughts of men, the question of the as the Evangelical school, and can point very existence of the party, as its great to numerous adherents. We have no teachers laboured and taught fifty years longer any monopoly of Evangelical since, has been called in question. The truth, and I am not ashamed to say that death of Dr. M'Neile has afforded an occa- I thank God for it." sion to the Times to raise this question, This discussion has naturally attracted and their leading article on the subject the attention of the organs of religious has caused quite a flutter among the opinion. The existence of great changes remnants of the party. The Times is admitted by all parties; the cause of of January 31st wrote: "To men of the these changes is not seen. Society has present generation, indeed, the old entered on a new condition, thought is Evangelical party of the Church of free, and the dogmas of the past are imEngland, once so powerful and trium- possible in the present. To maintain the phant, must wear somewhat of the aspect position of the Church much external of one of those seaports of ancient fame, zeal is manifested, and doubtless from which the sea, with all its storms much of this earnestness is sincere. and currents, all its busy burden of life But the Church will not be preserved by and turmoil and contest, has long since public shows or gaudy decorations any ebbed away. Its mouldering buildings more than by the narrow creed of the and forsaken quays still attest its former old Evangelical party. Earnest zeal and importance and its lost place in the fervent external worship must be united world; but the life and commerce of with rational faith and Christian conmodern times now sweep past it to newer duct to secure the assent of the thoughthavens, and it remains a goodly but de- ful and secure the hold of the Church on caying monument of past activity and the hearts and lives of the people. forgotten warfare."
This statement of the Times is chal- ART.-William Morris, Esq., M.A., lenged by Dean Close, whose great age the well-known poet, writer, and artist, and long connection with the party who this year fills the office of President makes him acquainted with its history to the Birmingham School of Art, deduring nearly the whole of the present livered an address to the students on century, and by Canon Ryle, one of the Art, in the Town Hall, on the 19th most eminent of its present active mem- February, of which some brief extracts bers. These writers appeal to the large will probably interest our readers by number of professed Evangelicals in the their breadth of view and by the someChurch. The Islington meeting, which what novel way in which he applies the commenced in a private room, now assembles three hundred strong. The subject. churches and congregations of the party which at the commencement of the century could be counted on the fingers are
doctrines of uses and delights to his
After an historical sketch, showing that in every age and in all nations whose art remains are famous the com
mon people were artists in their common work, and evidently delighted in it, he said: "I wish people to understand that the art we are striving for is a good thing that all can share. That thing which I understand by real art is the expression by man of his pleasure in labour. I do not believe that he can be happy in his labour without expressing that happiness; and especially is this so when he is at work at anything in which he specially excels. So natural does this idea seem to us that we imagine to ourselves that the earth and the very elements rejoice in doing their appointed work; and the poets have told us of the spring meadows smiling, of the exultation of the fire, of the countless laughter of the sea. Oh, if I could only persuade you of this, that the chief duty of the civilized world to-day is to set about making labour happy for all, to do its utmost to minimize the amount of unhappy labour, I should have made a good night's work of it. Do not, at any rate, shelter yourselves from any misgiving you may have behind the fallacy that the artlacking labour of to-day is happy work; for the most of men it is not so. But there is a token of its being most unhappy work, which you cannot fail to understand at once-a grievous thing that token is-and I beg of you to believe that I feel the full shame of it as I stand here speaking of it; but if we do not admit that we are sick, how can we be healed? This hapless token is that the work done by the civilized world is mostly dishonest work. I cannot forget that in my mind it is not possible to dissociate art from morality, politics, and religion. I believe there are two virtues much needed in modern life if it is ever to become sweet; and I am quite sure they are absolutely necessary in sowing the seed of an art which is to be made by the people and for the people, as a happiness for the maker and the user. These virtues are honesty and simplicity of life. To make my meaning clearer, I will name the opposing vice of the second of these-luxury -to art. Also I mean by honesty the careful and eager giving his due to every man, the determination not to gain by any man's loss, which in my experience is not a common virtue. But note how the practice of either of these virtues will make the other easier to us.
For if our wants are few, we shall have but little chance of being driven by our wants into injustice; and if we are fixed in the principle of giving every man his due, how can our self-respect bear that we should give too much to ourselves. And in art, and in that preparation for it without which no art that is stable or worthy can be, the raising namely of those classes which have heretofore been degraded, the practice of these virtues would make a new world of it. For if you be rich your simplicity of life will both go towards smoothing over the dreadful contrast between waste and want which is the great horror of civilized countries, and will also give an example and standard of dignified life to those classes which you desire to raise, who, as it is, indeed, being like enough to rich people, are given both to envy and to imitate the idleness and waste that the possession of much money produces. And apart from the morality of the matter, let me tell you that though simplicity in art may be costly as well as uncostly, at least it is not wasteful, and nothing is more destructive to art than the want of it. I have never been into any rich man's house which would not have looked the better for having a bonfire made outside of it of nine-tenths of all that it held. Indeed, our sacrifice on the side of luxury will, it seems to me, be little or nothing, for as far as I can make out what people usually mean by it, it is a gathering of possessions which are but sheer vexations to the owner, or a chain of pompous circumstance which checks and annoys the rich man at every step. Yes, luxury cannot exist without slavery of some kind or other, and its abolition will be blessed, like the abolition of other slaveries, by the freeing both of the slaves and their masters. Lastly, if besides attaining to simplicity of life, we attain also to the love of justice, then will all things be ready for the new springtime of the arts. For those of us that are employers of labour, how can we bear to give any man less money than he can decently live on, less leisure than his education and self-respect demand; or those of us who are workmen, how can we bear to fail in the contract we have undertaken, or to make it necessary for a foreman to go up and down spying out our mean tricks and evasions; or we the shopkeepers-can we endure to lie that we may shuffle off our losses
on to some one else's shoulders; or we the public-how can we bear to pay a price for a piece of goods which will help to trouble one man, to ruin another, and starve a third? Or, still more, I think, how can we bear to use, how can we enjoy something which has been a pain and a grief for the maker to make?"
THE APOSTOLIC EPISTLES.-The Louth Times, in a review of the "True Christian Religion," which is described by a New Church correspondent as "evidently the expression of a careful and unprejudiced opinion formed after a perusal of the book," repeats the objection to Swedenborg that he rejects the writings of the Apostles and other books of the Bible. This objection was quite natural in the beginning of the New Church, when the orthodox Churches held very extensively, if not generally, the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures; but at the present day, when the most lax opinions prevail respecting the inspiration of the Divine Word, the objection seems sadly out of time. To the remonstrance of a New Church writer who takes the signature of "Auxiliary," the editor responds: "Notwithstanding what the evidently honest writer of the above remarks so earnestly pleads, by way of apology for Swedenborg's estimate of so many books of the Bible, as books devoid of a continuous spiritual sense, we still think we do him (Swedenborg) no injustice by our statement that he flings away half the Scriptures because they cannot be made to square with his system. With what Swedenborgians may be doing with the said books now we are not concerned; the question is, How did Swedenborg regard them? We would at once retract or modify our somewhat strong assertion if we could be shown, from his own words, that he looked at them from much the same point of view as that of orthodox Christians." Swedenborg gives the following statement respecting the writings of the apostles in one of his letters to Dr. Beyer (Documents, vol. ii. p. 240, Document 224):
"In respect to the writings of the Apostles and Paul, I have not quoted them in the Arcana Cœlestia,' because they are doctrinal writings, and consequently are not written in the style of
the Word, like those of the prophets, of David, of the Evangelists, and the Book of Revelation. The style of the Word consists altogether of correspondences, wherefore it is effective of immediate communication with heaven; but in doctrinal writings there is a different style, which has indeed communication with heaven, but mediately. They were written thus by the Apostles, that the New Christian Church might be commenced through them; wherefore matters of doctrine could not be written in the style of the Word, but they had to be expressed in such a manner as to be understood more clearly and intimately. The writings of the Apostles are, nevertheless, good books of the Church, insisting on the doctrine of charity and its faith as strongly as the Lord Him self has done in the Gospels and the Book of Revelation; as may be seen and found evident by every one who in reading them directs his attention to these points.
"RECEIVING STRANGERS."-One of the marked features of the New Age is its broad and widespreading charity. And this charity which, in its outburst of generous feeling, has often been administered in an indiscriminate and sometimes in a mischievous manner, is gradually being brought under the control of prudent thought and useful regulations. It is a teaching of the New Church that charity to be genuine must be united with faith, and directed by laws of wisdom. To this law of charity many of the benevolent are awakening. They have been led to deeper thought on the subject by the teaching of the political economists, combined with their own experience of the effects of indiscriminate almsgiving. Kind feeling is thus brought under the guidance of knowledge and understanding, and led to improve its methods of working. The change seems difficult, and at first not pleasant. " Schemes for alleviation and reforms meet us at every turn; but in our attempts to solace ourselves by giving alms we are met by innumerable difficulties, and hampered and bewildered by unanswerable admonitions both from within and without about the danger of pauperising, till some of us scarcely dare offer a cup of beef-tea to a sick neighbour for fear of demoralising him and offending
against the canons of political economy and the organization of charity." Such are the words of Miss C. E. Stephen in the opening paragraph of an instructive paper on this subject in the January number of the Nineteenth Century.
Love is stimulative of thought, and thought inspired by affection is fruitful in resources. The more than questionable good of some modes of charitable effort has led to the adoption of others in which failure is next to impossible. "By degrees one and another here and there are finding out simple, harmless, priceless boons which can be given with an open hand and a generous heartboons which are twice blessed' in the delight_they_afford to him that gives and to him that takes: such gifts as we should not be ashamed to offer to our most honoured friends." Among the gifts enumerated are flowers, pictures, toys to sick children, etc. etc. "Another such simple but fruitful discovery has been made by a lady, who, last summer, engaged a little four-roomed cottage, close to her own garden-gate in the country, and in it received in the three summer months a succession of children from the crowded parts of London, in batches of six or seven; each batch under the care of some hard-working person, known to the children's parents; each little batch staying a week in the country, 'on a visit to a friend, like other people,' and returning home loaded with little gift - books, toys, little shawls, flowers, cakes, and fruit' these last being little remembrances from kind neighbours, who, by the hostess's wish, abstained from giving money to the children the object throughout being to avoid making it a 'charity business,' and to preserve the idea of a simple visit." The transition from children to adults is easy and natural. Hitherto we have visited the poor at their houses, and provided for them in hospitals and asylums of various kinds. The reception of them occasionally in the houses of the rich, and the exercise towards them of a kind and unostentatious hospitality would, in the estimation of Miss Stephen, bless both the recipients and the dispensers of this generosity. But this would only be possible by the cheerful and sympathetic co-operation of the servants; and in this the writer sees one of the most hopeful features of the scheme. But
this, which is morally hopeful, is at first glance most difficult. Many mistresses would say, if they spoke out quite honestly, 'How can we let our servants exercise hospitality when we don't speak to them ourselves once in a month, except to give necessary orders, and when we don't half trust them, and want all their time for ourselves, and have much ado as it is to keep their friends and followers out of our kitchens?' But," continues Miss Stephen, "is not this state of things in itself a great evil? and would not the very fact of joining in a common effort of hospitality be the best cure for it?" But might there not be a difficulty on the side of the servants? "I believe," writes Miss S., "that if the mistresses wished it, nothing would be easier. believe that we can form but a faint idea of the amount of power and will. ingness to help which is latent in the vast army of women-servants who fill the houses of the comfortable classes. I believe few mistresses know half the acts of kindness which are done downstairs, the signs of an amount of kindly feeling which, if recognised and encouraged and directed by the mistress of the house, might blossom into quite incalculable usefulness. And what hinders this recognition and sharing in each other's efforts? Whence comes the strange distance and deadness which has crept in between the two branches of our households? No doubt it is owing to many causes; but the chief of them seem to me to be want of thought and want of a common object. If mistresses would give as much thought to perfecting their relations with their own servants as many of them now do to benefiting the poor, they might bring about more improvement, and a more spreading self-multiplying blessing than any one who has not tried it would dream of." The suggestion thus made might, and doubtless would, involve difficulties in their accomplishment, but they show a desire to arrive at "a more excellent way" of discharging the "debts of charity" than is usually attempted. They open up, too, the prospect of culture and usefulness in the household, and are in keeping with one of the Divine statements to the righteous in the description of the judgment to which all will be subject, I was a stranger, and ye took me in."
THE GOSPEL OF PEACE.-The angels' judgments, and no limits to their song, Glory to God in the highest; hatreds." and on earth peace, goodwill toward men," was the subject of a discourse by Dean Church in St. Paul's Cathedral in connection with the Advent celebration. After remarking, "The Gospel is a message of peace, "the preacher said, "I am afraid that in not a few who hear such words they may even raise a smile. They will think of the course of history to this hour, and ask whether it does not furnish a comment of the most supreme irony on the words and claims of the Gospel of peace. These words introduce a lengthened description of the unpeaceful condition of professedly Christian society, from the distracted and disturbed souls of men to the wars and conflicts of nations professing to be guided by the religion of the Saviour. Still "the Gospel was an innovation and revolution in the moral standards of the ancient world. The ancient world had noble, if imperfect, ideas of courage, of justice, of friendship; but it looked upon war and conflict as the natural field for the highest virtues. It was a great reversal of all accepted moral judgments when the teaching of the Gospel put in the forefront of its message God's value of peace and His blessing upon it; when it placed peace as a Divine and magnificent object to be aimed at and sought for with the earnestness with which men aimed at glory. It is a truism that Christianity is a religion of peace. It is also a truism that Christians have often made it a religion of quarrels, persecution, and bloodshed, and that custom makes us strangely insensible to the anomaly of a religion of peace, compatable with strife, tolerant of litigation, patient of war. What is the position of Christ's disciples in this world of bitter enmities and constant conflicts? "We cannot,' "" says the preacher, "stop heresies, schism, divisions; we cannot chain down party spirit and make men fair; but at least in these inevitable differences of thought and conviction we can take care of our own hearts; we need not be unfair because others are; we need not be bitter because others are; we need not forget our own shortsightedness, our preju dices, our own obligation to the great law of charity and justice, because others have no misgivings in their
LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY.-The Monthly Chronicle of this Society speaks in hopeful terms of the progress of most of its mission stations. Africa is an exception. The unsettled state of the natives, the war fever with which large numbers of them have become afflicted, and their threats to exterminate the whites, have placed the lives of the missionaries in great danger, and entirely interrupted their work. Writing from Kuruman at the end of October, Rev. Mr. Wookey says: "Our active mission-work has been almost at a standstill; but Kuruman mission-station is unhurt, and all through these trying times it has been a place of refuge for all, both Europeans and natives, who have sought protection in it. In other districts very many of the people connected with our stations and churches have been mixed up with these disturbances in various ways. Some of them have been ringleaders in cattlestealing, in threatening the lives of Europeans, and in stirring up the warspirit in the villages and towns."
To the missionaries the settlement of the country and the character of the residents to be sent out by the English Government are questions of supreme importance. If we are to extend our empire, and take these tribes under our protection, it is important that the governors be men of moral as well as intellectual culture. On this subject Mr. Wookey writes: "Had we a good paternal government, wholesome laws, and justice equally meted out, we believe there is a bright future in store for the Bechuanas. They would make rapid progress. Our institutions would have ample scope for growth and development; our Churches would be stronger and purer; and our whole work as missionaries would assume a new aspect."
NEW ZEALAND.-We learn from the Auckland Weekly News that Mr. Edgar continues his services in Lorne Street Hall, and that his sermons are published fortnightly in the pages of this paper. A charge is made for this publication, which is met by voluntary subscriptions. Two of these reports have been sent us by a correspondent. Although not avowedly of the New