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others running up in the same way, exclaimed, “ Fear not, Finow; no sooner shall we land at · Tonga than here is the club with which I “ will kill any one who dares to fight against 66 us.”

Finow and the chiefs thanked them for their sentiments of love and loyalty, and then he addressed them in a speech to the following purpose: “ Be brave in battle ; fear “ not death: it is far better to die in war than os to live to be assassinated at home, or to die “ of a lingering disease.”

After remaining a day and a night at this island, they again put to sea with the additional force of six canoes, and made sail for Namooca, where they arrived in a few hours. Here they had another review like the former; and after remaining two days, sailed with all the rest of the forces of the confederate islands, amounting in all to about one hundred and seventy canoes, direct for Tonga. Owing to the calmness of the weather, they did not reach Tonga the same evening in sufficient time to land, but went on shore at a small island close by, called Pángaimótoo, where they passed the night.

Before morning, several presents were brought to Finow and his chiefs, by the people living at a consecrated place on the island of

Tonga, called Mafanga. Mafanga is a piece of ground about half a mile square, situated on the western part of the island of Tonga. In this spot are the graves where the greatest chiefs from time immemorial have been buried, and the place is therefore considered sacred ; it would be a sacrilege to fight here, and nobody can be prevented from landing: if the most inveterate enemies meet upon this ground, they must look upon each other as friends, under penalty of the displeasure of the Gods, and consequently an untimely death, or some great misfortune. There are several of these consecrated places on different islands.

The following morning, Finow and part of his forces landed at Mafanga: he immediately proceeded to his father's grave with several chiefs and matabooles, (Mr. Mariner being also with them) to perform the ceremony of Toogi. All who went for this purpose put on mats instead of their usual dress, and wreatha made of the leaves of the iti tree* round their necks (significant of respect and humility). They sat down cross-legged (the usual way of sitting) before the grave ; Finow, as well as the rest, beating their cheeks with their fists for about half a minute, without speaking a word.

* Inocarpus edulis.

One of the principal matabooles then addressed the spirit of Finow's father to the following purpose : “ Behold the man (meaning

Finow) who has come to Tonga to fight his “ enemies ; be pleased with him, and grant “ him thy protection; he comes to battle, “ hoping he is not doing wrong; he has al

ways beld Tooitonga* in the highest respect, " and has attended to all religious ceremonies “ with exactness.” One of the attendants then went to Finow, and received from him a piece of cava root, which he laid down on the raised mount before the Fytoka (burying-place). Several others, who had pieces of cava root in their bosoms, went up to the grave in like manner and deposited them. The ceremony being thus finished, Finow and his friends returned to the beach, where a large root of cava was brought to them as a present, by the chief of the consecrated place, on which they regaled.

During this time, the greater part of the men who were not yet disembarked employed themselves in preparing for battle, again painting their bodies and faces after various fanciful forms. The enemy on shore were also in a state of preparation : they shouted the war

• Tooitonga is a great chief, supposed to be descended from a God.

whoop, and ran up and down the beach with furious gestures ; splashing up the water with their clubs, brandishing them in the air, flourishing their spears, and bidding bold defiance to their invaders.

Finow and his attendants having returned on board, the whole fleet proceeded to a neighbouring fortress called Nioocalofa, the strongest, though not the largest, in the whole island. As it will be proper to understand the usual form and construction of these Tonga fortresses, we shall give a general description of them, taking that of Nioocalofa as a model for the rest.

The fortress of Nioocalofa is situated on the west coast of the island, about one hundred yards distant from the water's edge, and occupies about four or five acres of ground. It consists, in the first place, of a strong wall or fencing of reeds, something like wicker-work, supported on the inside by upright posts, from six to nine inches in diameter, and situated a foot and a half distant from each other; to which the reed-work is firmly lashed by tough sinnet, made of the husk of the cocoa-nut. This fencing is about nine feet in height, the posts rising about a foot higher: it has four large entrances, as well as several small ones,



secured on the inside by horizontal sliding pieces, made of the wood of the cocoa-nut tree. Over each door, as well as at other places, are erected platforms even with the top of the fencing, supported chiefly on the inside, but projecting forward to the extent of two or three feet: these platforms are about nine feet square, and situated fifteen yards distant from each other; and as they are intended for the men to stand on, to shoot arrows, or throw down large stones, they are also defended in front, and half way on each side, by a reed-work six feet high, with an opening in front, and others on either hand, for the greater convenience of throwing

The lower fencing has also openings for a similar purpose. On the outside is a ditch of nearly twelve feet deep, and as much broad; which, at a little distance, is encompassed by another fencing similar to the first, with platforms, &c. on the outside of which there is a second ditch. The earth dug out of these ditches forms a bank on each side, serving to deepen them. Opposite each large doorway, there is no ditch dug. The inner and outer fencings are ornamented profusely with white shells. Some of these fortifications are square, others round. That of Nioocalofa was round.

spears, &c.

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