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not have dared to have done had they not been: $o ordered by their chief. Need any more be şaid to shew his policy ?-Once more notice him, when he wishes to make a peace with the Vavaoo people, after he had kept up for some time a fruitless contest (p. 232). To have expressed this wish might have weakened him in the opinion of his enemies ; what does he in this case ?-he takes frequent opportunity to converse with the priests : he does not tell them that he wishes for peace, but he observes that peace

would be much more advantageous for his subjects; lamenting, at the same time, that the disobedience of the Vavaoo people obliges him to have recourse to warlike mea. sures : the minds of the priests, however, becoming strongly impressed with the advantages of peace, when inspired they advise him to make a peace; he, pretending to do as the gods admonish him, yields, to the solicitation, and permits his priests to make overtures, as if this step was originally designed by them, or rather by the gods, and that he consented merely because it was a point of religious duty to do so. Thus we find him an admirable politician, although the picture is occasionally marked with traits which do no honour to his character as a man. Farther instances of this

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kind may be noticed, such as his cruelty towards his conquered enemies, by stárvinig his prisoners to death in the shocking manner related p. 84, for which he could have no excuse, unless to deter others from rebellion. As to his seizing several of the Vavaoo chiefs at a cava ring (p. 288), and ordering them to be killed, it may perhaps be that they were meditating an insurrection, as he was informed; hence such strong measures became almost necessary in a state of society like that. But it would be rather severe to consider cruelty so great a crime among these people as it would be among us: the evil to society may be perhaps quite as great, but the demerit certainly falls not so heavý upon the perpetrator, nor does the victim, in all probability, feel the evil so much. To return to the subject, Finow was by no méans destitute of the spark of humanity: it was remarkable in him that, although he was rather arbitrary, he hated to see oppression in others, and would frequently take the part of the oppressed, against those who were punishing them harshly; and this Mr. Mariner is confident did not arise from caprice, nor from pride, as willing to make himself the only person to be feared, but from far better motives, As a proof of his sentiments in this respect, the

following anecdote is worthy of notice: When Mr. Mariner was first able to explain himself in their language, young chiefs and warriors would frequently flock about him, (particularly those who were active in taking the Port au Prince,) and question him as to the use of various things they had seen on board that vessel, and then they would describe the difficulty they had in killing some of the men, mentioning, at the same time, who killed such a one and who killed another, and expressed, by their actions, how much such a man was convulsed when he died, and how deeply he groaned. Whilst talking upon such subjects, Finow passing that way, and overhearing the discourse, would com: mand them not to talk upon a matter which must be so disagreeable to Mr. Mariner's feelings; that the fate of his companions was too serious à subject to be thus slightly spoken of: to which some of the chiefs replied, “but he “ does not make that a subject of considera“ tion, for none of them were his relations.": « Though none perhaps were his relations," rejoined Finow, they were nevertheless his

countrymen.” Remarks like these, if not made out of pride, or from a spirit of contradiction, (and Mr. Mariner firmly believes they were not,) may.very well serve to convince us

that Finow's mind was by no means destitute of humanity ; and though he was at times cruelly severe with his prisoners, in putting them to death by ways not the least painful, still this was perhaps on all occasions, to a certain degree, justifiable, as examples to keep others in terror: a method undoubtedly not the best, but such as may be easily overlooked in a state of society like that in which he lived. It should here also be observed, that Finow's temper was uncommonly irritable; when once excited into anger, his rage was terrible: this he acknowledged himself, and would frequently say that his quick temper was the infliction sent him from Bolotoo*: and in some measure to obviate its ill effects, he frequently charged his matabooles to hold him whenever they saw him getting violently angry! This they always did, and in about ten minutes or a quarter of an hour he would become quite calm, and thank them for their interference. This admirable conduct is, no doubt, a beautiful trait in the character of a savage: and there is perhaps at this time many a man living at the Tonga islands


* They believe that every man has some deep seated evil, either in his mental or bodily constitution, sent him by the gods; but for which they assign no other reason than the delight they take in punishing mankind. si on

who owes his present existence to this circumstance ; whose brains would undoubtedly have been knocked out long ago, but for this laudable artifice on the part of their chief. Nor was he on all occasions unable to master his temper without these secondary means; for if we observe him when he approached the shores of Vavaoo, to address the people with a view of persuading them to amicable measures, we shall see that all the scoffs and insults of his enemies did not in the least ruffle his temper, contrary to the expectation of his friends. But, however, his temper was no doubt very irritable, and with such a temper, and in such a state of society, it is not to be wondered at that he should occasionally be very harsh in his measures towards those who rebelled against him.

As to his moral character in general, not much can be said in his favour; he was sus. pected of harbouring revengeful designs against individuals for years, and would wreak his vengeance at a fit opportunity and kill them, as if from a momentary impulse of passion, when nobody was near to restrain him. His revenge in this way was sometimes wreaked upon chiefs, who, as he imagined, did not pay him so much tribute as their plantations could have afforded ;

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