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vellously for those whom they have chosen for their masters. This latter sort, for the most part, are men of young years, and superficial understanding, carried away with partial respects of persons, or with the enticing appearance of godly names and pretences: "Pauci res ipsas sequuntur, plures nomina rerum, plurimi nomina magistrorum;" few follow the things themselves, more the names of the things, and most the names of their masters.

The third occasion of controversies I observe to be, an extreme and unlimited detestation of some former heresy or corruption of the Church already acknowledged and convicted. This was the cause that produced the heresy of Arius, grounded especially upon detestation of Gentilism, lest the Christian should seem, by the assertion of the equal divinity of our Saviour Christ, to approach unto the acknowledgment of more gods than one. The detestation of the heresy of Arius produced that of Sabellius; who holding for execrable the dissimilitude which Arius pretended in the Trinity, fled so far from him, as he fell upon that other extremity, to deny the distinction of persons; and to say, they were but only names of several offices and dispensations. Yea, most of the heresies and schisms of the Church have sprung up of this root; while men have made it as it were their scale, by which to measure the bounds of the most perfect religion; taking it by the farthest distance from the error last condemned. These be "posthumi heresium filii ;" heresies that arise out of the ashes of other heresies that are extinct and amortised.

This manner of apprehension doth in some degree possess many in our times. They think it the true touchstone to try what is good and evil, by measuring what is more or less opposite to the institutions of the church of Rome, be it ceremony, be it policy, or government; yea, be it other institutions of greater weight, that is ever most perfect which is removed most degrees from that church; and that is ever polluted and blemished, which participateth in any appearance with it. This is a subtle and dangerous conceit for men to entertain; apt to delude themselves, more apt to delude the people, and most apt of all to calumniate their adversaries. This surely, but that a notorious condemnation of that position was before our eyes, had long since brought us to the re-baptisation of children baptised according to the pretended catholic religion: for I see that which is a matter of much like reason, which is the reordaining of priests, is a matter already resolutely maintained. It is very meet that men beware how they be abused by this opinion; and that they know, that it is a consideration of much

greater wisdom and sobriety to be well advised, whether in general demolition of the institution of the church of Rome, there were not, as men's actions are imperfect, some good purged with the bad, rather than to purge the Church, as they pretend, every day anew; which is the way to make a wound in the bowels as is already begun.

The fourth and last occasion of controversies he declares to be the partial affectation and imitation of foreign churches; and then he proceeds to trace the growth and progress of the controversy actually disturbing the Church :-

It may be remembered that, on that part which calls for reformation, was first propounded some dislike of certain ceremonies supposed to be superstitious; some complaint of dumb ministers who possess rich benefices; and some invectives against the idle and monastical continuance within the universities, by those who had livings to be resident upon; and such like abuses. Thence they went on to condemn the government of bishops as an hierarchy remaining to us of the corruptions of the Roman church, and to except to sundry institutions in the Church, as not sufficiently delivered from the pollutions of former times. And lastly, they are advanced to define of an only and perpetual form of policy in the Church; which without consideration of possibility, and foresight of peril, and perturbation of the Church and State, must be erected and planted by the magistrate. Here they stay. Others, not able to keep footing on so steep ground, descend farther; that the same must be entered into and accepted of the people, at their peril, without the attending of the establishment of authority. And so in the mean time they refuse to communicate with us, reputing us to have no Church. This has been the progression of that side: I mean of the generality. For I know, some persons, being of the nature, not only to love extremities, but also to fall to them without degrees, were at the highest strain at the first.

But the defenders of the Church, he shows, had not kept one tenor neither. Besides they had taken far too high a ground in regard to the matters in dispute.

It is very hard to affirm that the discipline which they say we want is one of the essential parts of the worship of God,

and not to affirm withal that the people themselves, upon peril of salvation, without staying for the magistrate, are to gather themselves into it. I demand, if a civil state should receive the preaching of the word and baptism, and interdict and exclude the sacrament of the Lord's supper, were not men bound, upon danger of their souls, to draw themselves to congregations wherein they might celebrate this mystery, and not to content themselves with that part of God's worship which the magistrate had authorised? This I speak, not to draw them into the mislike of others, but into a more deep consideration of themselves: "Fortasse non redeunt, quia suum progressum non intelligunt."

Again, to my lords the bishops I say that it is hard for them to avoid blame, in the opinion of an indifferent person, in standing so precisely upon altering nothing. "Leges, novis legibus non recreatæ, acescunt;" laws, not refreshed with new laws, wax sour, "Qui mala non permutat, in bonis non perseverat;" without change of ill a man cannot continue the good. To take away many abuses supplanteth not good orders, but establisheth them. "Morosa moris retentio res turbulenta est, æque ac novitas;" a contentious retaining of custom is a turbulent thing, as well as innovation. A good husband is ever pruning in his vineyard or his field; not unseasonably indeed, not unskilfully, but lightly; he findeth ever somewhat to do. We have heard of no offers of the bishops of bills in parliament; which, no doubt, proceeding from them to whom it properly belongeth, would have everywhere received acceptation..

I pray God to inspire the bishops with a fervent love and care of the people, and that they may not so much urge things in controversy as things out of controversy, which all men confess to be gracious and good: and thus much for the second point.

The next point which he takes up is the unbrotherly proceedings of both parties. This charge, he observes, chiefly touches that side having most power to do injury.

The wrongs of them which are possessed of the government of the Church towards the other may hardly be dissembled or excused: they have charged them as though they denied tribute to Cæsar, and withdrew from the civil magistrate the obedience which they have ever performed and taught. They have sorted and coupled them with the "family of love," whose

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heresies they have laboured to destroy and confute. They have been swift of credit to receive accusations against them from those that have quarrelled with them but for speaking against sin and vice. Their accusations and inquisitions have been strict, swearing men to blanks and generalities, not included within compass of matter certain, which the party which is to take the oath may comprehend, which is a thing captious and strainable. Their urging of subscription to their own articles is but "lacessere et irritare morbos ecclesiæ,"* which otherwise would spend and exercise themselves. "Non consensum quærit sed dissidium, qui, quod factis præstatur, in verbis exigit:" He seeketh not unity, but division, which exacteth that in words which men are content to yield in action. And it is true there are some which, as I am persuaded, will not easily offend by inconformity who notwithstanding make some conscience to subscribe; for they know this note of inconstancy and defection from that which they have long held shall disable them to do that good which otherwise they might do; for such is the weakness of many, that their ministry should be thereby discredited. As for their easy silencing of them, in such great scarcity of preachers, it is to punish the people, and not them. Ought they not, I mean the bishops, to keep one eye open to look upon the good that those men do, not to fix them both upon the hurt that they suppose cometh by them? Indeed such as are intemperate and incorrigible, God forbid they should be permitted to preach: but shall every inconsiderate word, sometimes captiously watched, and for the most part hardly enforced, be as a forfeiture of their voice and gift in preaching?

As for the libels and invectives of the other party, he conceives them to be mere headless arrows, which can do little or no real harm. Only, with regard to the practice adopted by the worst set of them, of calling to their aid" certain mercenary bands, which impugn bishops and other ecclesiastical dignities, to have the spoil of their endowments and livings; of these,” he says, "I cannot speak too hardly. It is an intelligence between incendiaries and robbers, the one to fire the house, the other to rifle it." He censures also their affectation of "certain cognizances and differences, wherein they seek to correspond amongst themselves, To excite and irritate the diseases of the church. VOL. I.

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and to be separate from others." And he objects to their systematic depreciation of men as pious and preachers as scriptural as themselves.

Now for their own manner of preaching, what is it? Surely they exhort well and work compunction of mind, and bring men well to the question, "Viri fratres, quid faciemus?"* But that is not enough, except they resolve the question. They handle matters of controversy weakly, and "obiter," and as before a people that will accept of anything. In doctrine of manners there is little but generality and repetition. The word, the bread of life, they toss up and down, they break it not: they draw not their directions down "ad casus conscientiæ," that a man may be warranted in his particular actions whether they be lawful or not; neither indeed are many of them able to do it, what through want of grounded knowledge, what through want of study and time. It is a compendious and easy thing to call for the observation of the Sabbath day, or to speak against unlawful gain; but what actions and works may be done upon the Sabbath, and what not; and what courses of gain are lawful, and in what cases: to set this down, and to clear the whole matter with good distinctions and decisions, is a matter of great knowledge and labour, and asketh much meditation and conversing in the Scriptures, and other helps which God has provided and preserved for instruction.

Again, they carry not an equal hand in teaching the people their lawful liberty, as well as their restraints and prohibitions; but they think a man cannot go too far in that that hath a show of a commandment.

They forget that there are sins on the right hand as well as on the left; and that the word is double-edged, and cutteth on both sides, as well the profane transgressions as the superstitious observances. Who doubteth but that it is as unlawful to shut where God hath opened, as to open where God hath shut; to bind where God hath loosed, as to loose where God hath bound? Amongst men it is commonly as ill taken to turn back favours as to disobey commandments. In this kind of zeal, for example, they have pronounced generally, aud without difference, all untruths unlawful; notwithstanding that the midwives are directly reported to have been blessed for their excuse; and Rahab is said by faith to have concealed

* Men and brethren, what shall we do? † By the way.

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