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CHAP. I.-Organic and Inorganic Bodies
CHAP. II.-Division of the Animal Kingdom
CHAP. III.-Structure of the Human Body
CHAP. IV.-Structure of the Human Body continued
CHAP. V.-Chemistry of the Human Body
CHAP. VII.- Properties of Animal Bodies
CHAP. VIII.-Relation of Animal Bodies to Heat, Light, and
CHAP. X.-Intellectual and Moral Faculties
CHAP. XI.-The Spinal Marrow and its Functions
CHAP. XII.-The Nerves and their Functions
CHAP. XIII.-The five Senses_Sense of Touch
CHAP. XIX.—The Circulation of the Blood
Chap. XX.-Nutritive Functions-Digestion
Chap. XXVI.—Locomotion, and its Organs,
* Written by Solomon Brown, A. M. Scientific and Practical Dentist of this city.
DEFINITION ;-ORGANIC AND INORGANIC BODIES.
1. PHYSIOLOGY is 6 the science of life," or that branch of knowledge which explains the uses of the various organs of living beings. Vegetable physiology treats of the func. tions of plants; and Comparative physiology, of those of the inferior orders of animals ; while Human physiology treats exclusively of man.
2. The kingdom of nature embraces three great classes, ANIMALS, VEGETABLES, and MINERALS. According to a more scientific arrangement, it is composed of organic and inor. ganic bodies. By organic bodies, we mean those which possess organs or instruments for the performance of certain functions; and by inorganic, those which do not. It is by a knowledge of these works of God, that we derive our ideas of his power, wisdom, and goodness.
3. Organized bodies are divided into two great classes, animals and vegetables ; which differ from inorganic matter in several respects, the most important of which are the following
4. Organized bodies have a certain determinate form, peculiar to the species to which they belong. Every species of plant or animal may be known by its external shape ; as a horse, a cow, a tree, or a rose. They differ so much from all other kinds, that we are seldom in danger of mistaking them. This will not apply to inorganic bodies, except, perhaps, to a few minerals which crystallize in a certain shape.
5. In organized bodies, we find the parts of which they are composed, distinguished by round or oval forms; as the body and leaves of trees; the petals of Aowers ; the bodies and limbs of animals. We scarcely ever see straight lines, or sharp angles among them, as in mineral substances.
Every species of animal or vegetable has its own proper size, from which it varies but little. But minerals may be large or small; the substance called granite, for example, may make a pebble or a mountain.
6. Inorganic bodies contain either a single element, as carbon, sulphur, &c., or several of the elementary or simple substances, which are fifty-two in number, as lime, silex, and magnesia ; while in organized bodies, we find at least three of these elements, as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in vegetables ; and the same, with the addition of azote or nitrogen in animals. In organic bodies, there have been discovered in all eighteen simple substances, though they generally contain but three or four.
7. But these two classes of substances, not ly differ as to the number of the elements which enter into their com. position, they also differ, as to the mode in which these elements are combined. Thus in minerals, two element. ary substances unite and form a compound, and this again, combines either with another simple substance, or with a compound composed of two other simple substances. Thus, for example, carbonate of ammonia is composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, but combined as follows :The carbon and oxygen unite to form carbonic acid ; the
.; hydrogen and nitrogen, to form ammonia ; these two com. pounds thus uniting, form carbonate of ammonia.
In animals, we find the same simple elements uniting, each with all the others, forming the peculiar principles of organic bodies, such as fibrin, gelatine, &c.
8. Organized bodies contain small particles of matter of a round or oval shape, both among their solid and fluid parts. These are supposed, according to their different arrangement, to make up all the elementary forms of organized bodies ; as when arranged in lines, they form nerves, tendons, and muscles ; in sheets, the various membranes and coats of ves. sels ; and in masses, the solid substance of the glands, as the liver, kidneys, and pancreas.
9. There are but few changes in inorganic bodies. The elements of which they are composed remain at rest. Rocks and mountains are the same now, as they were five thousand years ago. But in organized bodies, compounds are continually forming to be again separated ; animals feed on vegetables, and vegetables on animals;
“See dying vegetables life sustain;
See life dissolving, vegetate again ;
10. In organized bodies the parts are mutually dependen on each other for support. If we cut off the limb of a tree, it dies, because it can receive no sap ; if we amputate a finger, it mortifies, because the circulation of the blood has ceased; but if we break off a piece of marble, it will remain unchanged as long as the original mass.
11. Inorganic substances exist either in solid, liquid, or gaseous forms. They are wholly solid, liquid, or gaseous. But organic matter always presents a combination of solid and fluid parts. We find fluids circulating in regular ves. sels, and the solids and fluids mutually dependent on each other for support. In vegetables, we discover various parts,