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Cowgate—in appearance a kind of subterranean street—at one time a gay suburb of Edinburgh, but now inhabited chiefly by dealers in old furniture and other articles. Beyond the arcn whence a bird's-eye view of this lower region is obtained, we arrive on the left at a street in which is situated the Royal InFirmary, or principal hospital for the sick and hurt in Edinburgh. It is a large and commodious edifice, built in 1736, and has long maintained a high character for the efficiency of its arrangements.
Passing Infirmary Street, we have on our right a large and massive structure—the University or College of Edinburgh. In the reign of Queen Mary, this district was all open ground, on which was an old religious establishment called the "Kirk of Field;" and it was in one of the ancient edifices here that the unfortunate Darnley was lodged when he was blown up by gunpowder on the 10th of February 1567—his body having been picked up near the old city wall, in a place now known as Drummond Street. On the spot occupied by the Kirk of Field, a University was instituted by James VI. in the year 1582; and by means of subsequent benefactions from the crown and from individuals, the establishment attained a respectable footing. It now consists of sixty-three professors, some of whom are elected by the crown, but the greater number by the Town-Council, in whom resides the power of supervision. The different classes are attended by about twelve hundred students, who wear no peculiar garb, and reside in lodgings in the town. The whole of the buildings primarily used for the College existed till 1789J when the new buildings were begun to be erected. As now finished, they form a huge structure, with a large court in the centre. On the west side of the court, a great part of the edifice is devoted to a museum of natural history; on the south is the library; the other places being devoted to class-rooms and other accommodations. A number ofdistinguished men in science Md literature have been connected with this institution; among others may be mentioned the illustrious Cullen, Black, Gregory, Fergusson, Stewart, Blair, Robertson, Leslie, and the Monros. The College of Edinburgh still maintains a high reputation as a school of medicine and surgery.
ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, &C
This is an institution distinct from the university. To strangers, it is only interesting for its valuable museum, chiefly consisting of preparations; though to some a sight of these will be far from pleasing. The building is situated in Nicolson Street, a short way from the University. Further on, in the same street, is the Asylum For The Blind, an interesting charitable institution.
This old and respected institution is situated in an open ground in Lauriston, and is approached by George the Fourth's Bridge, or by a street near the College. As the name imports, Heriot's Hospital was founded and endowed by George Heriot, jeweller to James VI., in the year 1624. The building, from a design of Inigo Jones, was begun in 1628, and finished in 1650. It is a large handsome structure, in the Elizabethan style, with turrets, and enclosing a quadrangular court. The cost of its erection was £30,000, which nearly swallowed up the funds; but, by careful management, these are now more than adequate for all demands, and the overplus, under powers granted by a late act of parliament, is devoted to the erection and support of schools for poor children in different quarters of the town. The object of Heriot's Hospital resembles that of Christ's Hospital in London—the board, clothing, and education of boys, of whom the present number is one hundred and eighty. They must all be the sons of poor burgesses of Edinburgh. The education, under different masters, is liberal; and in general management, it is acknowledged that the institution is the most munificent of the kind in Scotland. The Town-Council and clergy of Edinburgh are the governors. Orders to see Heriot's Hospital may be obtained from the secretary's office, Royal Exchange buildings. The free schools connected with the institution are likewise not unworthy of a visit from those interested in education.
Opposite Heriot's Hospital, on the south, stands a similar Establishment—George Watson's Hospital; and there are various institutions of this class, including Donaldson's Hospital, a building of great magnificence recently erected at the west end of the New Town, the Orphan Hospital, &c.
East from Heriot's Hospital is situated Greyfriars' churchyard, which derives some interest from having been the plaee in which was signed the Solemn League and Covenant in 1638.
South from Heriot's and George Watson's Hospitals lie certain grounds called the Meadows, and Bruntsfield Links, the whole extending to about two hundred acres: the greater part of these grounds is open for the recreation of the inhabitants, in virtue of ancient royal grants to the city. Bruntsfield Links form fine open downs, and are used for the game of golf, an out-door sport
Eeculiar to Scotland. The environs in this quarter abound in andsome. villas, and the walks are retired and charming. Beyond the Links, to the south-west, is the salubrious and pleasant village of Morningside. Here has lately been erected a Lunatic Asylum, on a large scale, and the management of which is on the most enlightened principles.
SCENE OF SCOTT S INFANCY.
The whole of the " south side" was the scene of Walter Scott's infancy and boyhood. He was born (August 15, 1771) in a house long since gone, which stood at a spot in North College Street near the head of the College Wynd—formerly the chief avenue leading to the seat of learning. His father afterwards removed to the house No. 25 George Square, and here Walter spent the principal part of his boyish days; first attending a school in Hamilton's Entry, Bristo Street (now a farrier's shop), and subsequently the old High School, at the foot of Infirmary Street. In his memoirs, he alludes to various amusing incidents which occurred in the Meadows, the Links, and other parts of the neighbourhood. At the distance of about two miles south is Blackford Hill, a rocky eminence, from which a highly picturesque view of the city is obtained. It was on this, and Braid Hill adjoining on the south, that the unfortunate James IV. encamped with his army before setting out on the expedition which terminated in his defeat at Hodden. Scott must have possessed a vivid recollection of the locality when he wrote the lines in Marmion:—
"Blackford I on whose uncultured breast,
Among the broom, and thorn, and whin,
While rose, on breezes thin,
Saint Giles's mingling din.
And o'er the landscape as I look,
Save the rude cliffs and chiming brook.
Alluding to the view northwards towards Edinburgh from the spot, he continues:—
"Still on the spot Lord Marmion stayed,
With gloomy splendour red;
And tinged them with a lustre proud,
And all the steep slope down,
Mine own romantic town!
And, broad between them rolled,
Like emeralds chased in gold."
OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN THE NEW TOWN.
This eminence, approached from Princes Street by Waterloo Place, attains the height of 350 feet above the level of the sea. Laid out with walks for the recreation of the citizens, it offers a most extensive prospect of the town on the one side, and the sea on the other. On the rocky apex stands a Monument To Lord Nelson, in the form of a tall shaft springing' from an octagonal base—an object in a poor style of art, and only redeemed by the magnificent panoramic view which is obtained from its summit. The lower part is a species of coffee or refreshment-room.
Near Nelson's Monument, on another protuberance, stands the National Monument, an unfortunate attempt to imitate the Parthenon of Athens: only thirteen columns for the west end of the edifice have been erected; we believe at an expense of upwards of £1000 each. The object of the erection was to commemorate those Scotsmen who had fallen in the different engagements by sea and land during the last war with France; but as the policy of this war is now extremely doubtful, if not considered to have been erroneous, the purpose of the monument has lost all public sympathy and support. The columns, which form not a bad ruin, were erected between 1824 and 1830. Near this unfortunate monument, on the east, is situated Short's Observatory, a meritorious establishment, containing some good astronomical and other instruments, and therefore worthy of the stranger's attention. A small fee is paid for admission.
In front of the National Monument, to the west, is the Royal Astronomical Observatory, a neat edifice in the Grecian style, within a walled enclosure. In one of the corners of the wall is a small but neat monumental erection, commemorative of the late Professor Playfair. A little lower down the hill, on the south, is a handsome columnar erection, a copy, with variations, from the Choragic monument of Lysicrates, designed to commemorate the late Dugald Stewart, author of several works on moral philosophy.
Eastward from these erections, and verging on the public road, with a southern exposure, stands the High School Op EdinBurgh—a splendid edifice, with a considerably projecting pediment. This building was erected after a design by Thomas Hamilton, architect, and cost about £30,000, a considerable portion of which sum was raised by subscription. The High School is an old and much-respected institution, and, as a grammar school, has been attended by many men of celebrity. In former times, the institution occupied a building in the Old Town, and was removed to this handsome new structure about 1828. The High School is under the immediate patronage of the TownCouncil.
In a conspicuous situation on the opposite side of the road from the High School, stands an edifice, within a railing, commemorative of Robert Burns. This handsome structure was raised by subscription a few years ago. A marble statue of the poet which it once contained has, for the sake of better preservation, been removed to the College library.
The view from the railing in front of the High School, looking westward towards the North Bridge, and southwards towards the back of the Canongate (the tall chimney of the gas-works in the centre of the wildly-broken scene of house-tops), cannot but have a striking effect on strangers. The North British Railway proceeds by a tunnel beneath the hill in this quarter.
Westward, along the Calton Hill road from this spot, on the left-hand side in entering the town, is an extensive suite of castellated buildings erected within a high wall, constituting the Prison Op Edinburgh. The edifices are all modern, and their internal arrangements, under the general direction of the Prison Board for Scotland, are as perfect as circumstances will admit of. The establishment is supported by general taxation.
In entering the town from the Calton Hill, we proceed along Waterloo Place—a handsome new street, in which are situated, on the southern side, the General Post-office and StampOffice, both elegant stone erections. Adjoining the Post-office is a small burying-ground of old date, containing the tomb of David Hume the historian: it is a round tower-like structure, conspicuous from its situation. Here also has lately been erected an obelisk called the Martyrs' Monument, designed to commemorate the sufferings and struggles for civil liberty of Muir, Palmer, and others about the year 1793.
Issuing from Waterloo Place, we have on our left the Theatre