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mand of Colonel Ferdinand de Villalva, who foon came up with King John's little Army, engaged, and totally defeated them, and took Gene

Peter Navarro ral Peter Navarro Prisoner, who was sent taken Prisoner, into Spain, where he was closly confined and dies mistfor some Years, and at last, through the rable. great Vexation, and vast Mortification of his aspiring Spirit, as it was faid, murdered himself in Prison and thus ended the Life of this gallant Soldier.

King John and his Queen, upon receiving the News of this Defeat of The deprived King his Army, died, as some thought, of Navarre dies

of Grief, which put an End to the Troubles in those Parts much sooner than was expected.

But this was not all the Fatigue the Cardinal met with, there was not wanting many discontented Perfons in Spain, who proceeded so far as to take Arms against him, yet he found Means to quel those Diforders, and preserve his Command till the Arrival of his Royal Master into Spain, tho' it happened not this Year. As Ximenes and Wolfey were now

A Parallel ben two of the greatest Ministers in Europe, itals Ximenes

tween we shall here endeavour to draw a fort

and Wolsey. of Parallel between them; Ximenes, in respect to his Birth, had the Advantage of the Cardinal of England. In their first Efsays towards making their way into the World, they were under the same Disadvantages, and, after they appeared more openly upon the Stage of it, met with the like ignominious Treatment, though different as to the Duration and other Circumstances of it; but those early Rebuffs produced in the Sequel a Train of Events very favourable to them both, so difficult it is to make a Judgment of what inay happen to us in future Time from any present Appearances.

The Merit of these two great Men could not be obscured, even under Circumstances of Disgrace; they ftill found generous Patrons, who did not think, as Persons of little Merit in high Stations sometimes do, That the Misfortunes of Men afford a reasonable Pretence why they should not be encouraged or preferred : But yet their Manner, as to their Conduct of Life, was fomewhat different. Ximenes, after running through a Scene of Actions on the Stage of publick Affairs, which gave him a Distaste of the World, made him chuse to retire to a Cloister,

The Temper of Cardinal Wolfey seems to be very different, for his Fatigues and Disappointments rather inclined him to the civil Life and Conversation, though, as to the exterior and devotional Part of Religion, he always shewed great Regard; he also was zealous in reforming scandalous Abufes among the Monaftick Orders, and the regular Clergy of all Distinctions, as will be hereafter more fully feen.

The great Revenues of Ximenes were employed in Works of Piety and Charity, and in answering the End for which the Donation of them was originally made to the Church. The Poor, whom he called his Lords and Proprietors, received one Moiety, the other was appropriated, necessary Deductions being made for the Expences of his Family, towards founding Monasteries and Colleges, and endowing them after a proper and liberal Manner. Among the rest he had one excellent Design, which he lived to execute, and whereof the Learned World at this Day every where reaps the Benefit; in order to adjust and correct as exact an Edition as might be made of the Holy Scriptures, in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee, he bought up, at a vast Charge, all the Ma, nuscript Bibles he could any where hear of ; a Copy of which, when finished, being presented to him, with Eyes and Hands lift up to Heaven, he said, My God, I return thee immorial Thanks for granting my Desires of good Success to see this work compleated. Then, turning to his Domesticks, be adds, It is true,


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my Friends, God bath been pleased to crown my Labours with Șuccess, in many important Affairs, for the Good of the State ; but there is not any thing you ought to rejoice with me more in, than the happy Accomplishment of this Impresfion, and the Explanation of the Bible in four Languages.

The Cardinal of England did not lefs discover the Greatness of his Mind, in applying his large Revenues for the Advancement of Piety and Learning. It is true, that, instead of erecting, he destroyed feveral Religious Houses, (the Reason for which will løe accounted for hereafter) but this was so far from being inconsistent with the great and magnificent Things he had in View, that it prepared the Way towards the Accomplishment of them : And as to the Republick of Letters, it may be affirmed, without derogating from the Glory of Ximénes, that Cardinal Wolley was no less a Friend to it; his Foundations were larger, and his Endowments, had they been preserved upon his Plan, more noble and opulent ; to which we may subjoin, he had formed a Design, as to the Charge änd Difficulty of executing it, not inferior to that of Ximenes, in his Edition of the Old and New Testament, which was, to cause all the Manuscripts in the Vaticari to be transcribed for the Service of his Country.

While the Thoughts of these great Men were taken up in promoting the Interest of Learning and Religion, they did not neglect the Services of their respective Masters, or the Affairs of State. They were indefatigable both in fuper-intending the civil Economy, and in taking Care there was no want of military Preparations. It was a standing Maxim with them both, that no Prince could be considerable, ex: cept he was either in Action, or had made visible Preparations for Action.

Ximenes's Humility did not exempt him from the Charge of Ambition; nor his pious Works from that of Avarice. The Wars, which he advised his MaVow: II,



fter to prosecute, and in some of which he personally commanded, as we have before related, gave occasion of Censure to his Enemies, who reproached him as acting unsuitable to his Character, which, they judged, should have inclined him more to pacifick Measures than to War. Nothing, cried they " could be more abominable, than to see a Priest,

an Archbishop, and a Cardinal embrue his Hands « in human Blood."

The Cardinal of England was also censured on all those Accounts, except that of having a military Command ; and though these Calumnies were encouraged by the great Men in both Courts, to whom the Power, of which the Cardinals were possessed, had rendered them invidious; yet the two Kings, their Masters, were so sensible of their Integrity and Zeal for the publick Service, that the whole Design, projected to bring them into Difgrace, was impracticable ; till Wolsey, indeed, at laft was removed ; but not so much by the Weight of all his Enemies in Conjunction, which he had long withstood, as by the Artifice and Insinuation of a single Woman.*

Ximenes punished with Rigour wherever he could discover the Authors of Violence and Injustice, and such especially, who, in Breach of the Trust repofed in them, had embezzled the publick Moneys, and the like Instances of Justice may provoke particular Perfons, who feel, in one Degree or other, the Effect of it; yet in general they recommend Magistrates to Esteem among thinking Men, for such necessarily love Order and Justice.

Cardinal Wolfey appears, upon the Comparison, to have had an equal Regard to his Master's Honour and the Good of the State, it being allowed on all Hands, that, in his judicial Inquiries and Proceedings, he acted with a becoming Severity, of which we shall inmediately give several Instances; and this leads us to attend the Affairs of England.

The * Anna Bullein.

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The différent Business the Cardinal was Affairs of employed in, relating to his Offices as well England.

1516. spiritual as temporal, one would think might have so taken up his Time, that he could not have had Leisure to have attended any other Matters , yet such was his extreme Application to the Affairs of the Government, that this Year was no sooner opened, but he'bestowed Part of his Time in reforming the Abuses which had crept into the different Offices, concerning the Revenue and Administration of Justice, in the Courts where he did not immediately preside. First, he began with inquiring into the State of the Exchequer, and finding it much exhauffed, thro' the King's Liberality, and the Call of publick Affairs, it put him upon bringing to a strict Account the different Persons intrusted with the Receipt of the Publick Revenue. By the Accounts he found several great Persons were indebted to his Majefty in large Sums, the Getting-in of which, thro' the Negligence or Treachery of the Officers, had been neglected. Among those Debtors, the Duke of Suffolk appeared to be one: The Debt being demanded, and he then unable to anfwer it, he thought proper to rețire into the Country, where, by living frugal, he hoped to enable himself, out of the Income of his Éstate, in Time, to pay it off.* Others immediately paid into the Treasury what they refpectively owed ; and, where Satisfaction was not so be had by fair Means, Prosecutions were commenced, in order to compel Payment, which had so good an Effect that Money became more plenty, and enabled his Majesty to answer the Exigencies of the Publick, without burthening his Subjects at that Juncture. After Wolsey had reformed these Neglects, he next Sf 2

proWe wish this prudent Step {aving of many good antient Fawas brought into common Prac. milies, as well as of many fine cice ; because it might be the Gentlemen.

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