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Privy Counseller in England, and had a Seat in the English Parliament above the Barons. He was the richeft Subject the King had, and left above 40,000 l. in Money, befides Jewels, and as much Land in Eng land to his two Daughters, as at this Day would bring 30,000l. per Annum: But had no Iffue Male to enjoy his Irish Eftate, which therefore defcended to his Kinfman, Sir Peirce Butler, with the Title of Earl of Ormond.

Charles of Auftria takes upon himself the Government of Flanders.


Charles, Archduke of Auftria, was now fifteen Years of Age; upon which his Grandfather, Maximilian, and his Aunt, Margaret, furrendered up the Government of the Low Countries into his Hands, which were presently notified to all Christian Princes. The Lady Margaret at firft had the Charge of educating the young Duke; but at feven Years of Age the Care of his further Education was partly committed to Adrian Florentius, a Man of low Extraction, yet had raised himself by his Virtue. His Preceptor could not get him to apply to Learning, because his Inclination was altogether bent upon Arms, which he early imbibed from William de Croy, one of his first Governors, who indulged his Humour by caufing him frequently to read the Feats thereof in the old Hiftories of France, Spain, &c. in their respective Languages. Some apprehended, on the Death of Lewis the XIIth, the new King

would have defifted from his Pretenfions in Italy, and have been contented Nn 2

being brought against him in Parliament, when he retired into France; and foon after he was at tainted by Act of Parliament: Though we are credibly inform ed, that his Majefty's perfonal Regard for him was fuch, that he was determined to pardon him, if he had ftaid and fubmitted to the Trial: Whereas

Affairs of France, Spain, and Italy. 1515.


now his Title and Eftate is forfeited to the Crown. The Right Honourable Charles, Earl of Arran, Brother to the faid Duke; the Right Honourable Somerset Hamilton Butler, Viscount Ikerine; and the Right Honourable Thomas Butler, Lord of Cahir, are all defcended from this illuf tricus Family.

with his Kingdom in the Condition he found it; but they foon found themselves mistaken, for Francis having added the Title of Duke of Milan to that of King of France, he also inftantly made great Preparations, in order to enable himself to carry on his intended War, so that the Eyes of Europe were again turned towards Italy: But before Francis put his Design in Execution, as the Offices of Chancellor and Conftable were vacant, he difpofed of the First to Anthony du Prat, and of the other to Charles, Duke of Bourbon; and la Paliffe was honoured with the Staff of Marshal of France.

Ferdinand of Spain was greatly alarmed at these Tranfactions, tho' Francis offered to renew the Truce that had been made between France and Spain; yet Ferdinand, in his Conference with the Swiss Ambaffador, declared, that the only Way to make France defift from her Attempts in Italy, was to attack the French in their own Country; and therefore was ready to join all his Forces with the Svifs for that Purpose. The Swiss liftened to thefe Propofals, and readily agreed: The Emperor alfo promised to carry on the War against the Venetians with greater Vigour than he had hitherto done.

Whilft thefe Schemes were upon the Carpet, Francis ordered his Troops to file off towards the Alps, and the Swifs, refolved to oppofe this Expedition, feized the only two Paffes thro' which it was judged the French could enter the Milanefe: But Ferdinand, inftead of keeping his Word with the Swifs, after he was affured Francis was fet out on his Expedition, immediately difbanded his Forces, and left the whole Burthen of defending Milan to the Swifs. Francis made ufe of this lucky Opportunity, and marched his Army by a Route little thought of and unguarded, and foon came within Sight of Milan, which he found poffeffed by the Swifs; to whom he offered a Sum of Money, if they would deliver up the


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The French beat

Place and return home, which they at firft feemed to
agree to; but, having received a Supply of 15000
Men, and being inftigated by the Car-
dinal of Sion, (the conftant Enemy of the Swiss.
France) they actually attacked Francis's
Army, who lay encamped at Marignano, little expect-
ing fuch a Visit. However, the French engaged the
Swifs, and defeated them, who loft above 10,000
Men. Here Francis commanded his Army in Perfon,
having under him Lautrec, now become a very expe-
rienced General, and at this Battle gained great Re-
putation; the King too acted in this Engagement
like an experienced Captain, whofe Refolution was
far greater than the Danger he was exposed to. The
new Constable of France and the famous Peter Navarro
were also in this Engagement and behaved bravely;
the latter had entered into the French Service, having
left the Spaniards, because, after he was taken at the
Battle of Ravenna, they let him lie a long time in
Prifon for want of paying his Ranfom.

This Victory was of exceeding Service to Francis, for the Refidue of the pennylefs Swiss made the best of their way home, the City of Milan capitulated, and the French King foon got Poffeffion of the Dutchy.

Whilft the French were thus bufied, the indolent Emperor got to Infpruck, feated at eafe, without troubling his Head either for or against the Swiss; and old King Ferdinand only looked on, not giving the Swiss any fort of Affiftance, each Party feeming to have forgot, that they had fo much as promised fo to do.

Maximilian Sforza, Duke of Milan, who had fhut himself up in his Caftle, finding his Cafe defperate, furrendered it by Capitulation. The Duke was no fooner in the French King's Hands, than he was fent into France, where he was allowed a Penfion for Life; fuch was the Fate of the Son of Ludovic the Moor.

His Majefty entered Milan in great State, environed by the greatest part of his Cavalry, and attended by four of the chiefeft Senators of Venice, among whom was Andrew Gritti. Succefs did not attend Francis the Ift. at Milan only; for, whilst he was thus employed, Octavian Fregofa brought the Genoefe under his Dominion, and, inftead of Doge, ftiled himfelf Governor for the King.

As foon as Francis had accomplished his Enterprizes, the Venetian Army, under the Command of Alviano, their Captain General propofed to befiege Breffia; but, juft as he was going to put his Project in Execution, he was fiezed with a Fever, and conftrained to leave his Army, and in the Month of October died, before he was 60 Years of Age. His Death was a great Concern to the People of Venice, and much more to the Soldiers, who kept his Body 25 Days, carrying it about as they marched with great Solemnity, and then it was brought to Venice, and, by a publick Decree, was honourably buried in St. Stephen's Church, where his Tomb is at this Day to be feen: And, as he had efteemed the Service of his Country above Riches, he left his Widow and Children very poor; but that was made up to them by Order of the Senate, who provided for them in a generous Manner.

The King of France's publick Entry into Milan.

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Alviano dies much lamented.

the Venetians.

After Alviano's Death, George Eme, Breffia taken by the Proveditor, took upon himself the Command of the Army, which with the Affiftance of the French at last took Breffia, and the Venetians were fo well fatisfied with the Services they had met with from Lautrec, that they made him feveral handfome Prefents, his Master at the fame time prefenting him with the Order of St. Michael.

Pope Leo, being in hopes Francis would never have been able to have entered Italy, joined in the


League against him, but fo privately that Francis knew nothing of it till he came to Verceil. In the mean time the Pope was under great Perplexities, for he had fent an Army into Lombardy, with a Defign to fupport the Duke of Milan: But, when he heard Francis had furmounted all Difficulties, he fent Orders to Lorenzo de Medici, who commanded his Army, not to commit Hoftilities against the French, and to let the King know, that his Army was there only to guard Parma and Placentia; for, as the Fate of Milan was not then decided, he did not dare to make too many Advances, left the Allies might take Umbrage, who would have it in their Power to be revenged of him, if the French had been vanquished.

Tho' Leo's Behaviour to Francis was fuch, that he deferved no Favour from hin, he obtained, among other Advantages, the Abolition of the Pragmatick Sanction, which his Predeceffors had hitherto in vain demanded, and in return, the Pope agreed to an In+ terview with the King of France at Bologna. The Pope entered that City the 8th of December, and the King made his Entry two Days after. He was received, on the Confines of the Country of Reggio, by the Cardinals Fiefque and Medicis, Legates Apoftolick, who introduced him, according to the Manner of Kings, into the Pope's Prefence, in the publick Confiftory, where his Majefty offered his Obedience to the holy See, his great Chancellor, in a Speech, delivering his Mafter's Sentiments, which were extreamly well received by his Holinefs. The Audience being over, they spent three Days together in one Palace, fhewing to each other manifeft Tokens of the strongest Amity, and confirmed, by repeated Promises, the Obligations and Contracts before debated, befides confulting on many Things touching the Kingdom of Naples, the King having now Thoughts of attacking it; which Enterprize the Pope promifed to favour at a seasonable

Interviews beween Leo and Francis.

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