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the kingdoms without any stipulation in favour of the catholics; or any secret understanding that they were to be relieved, in the slightest manner, from the severities of the penal code.

The disappointment of the catholics was now very great; they had fallen, from a high degree of hope, into absolute despair: the general body submitted with patience; but some ardent spirits exhibited alarming symptoms of resentment. The catholic clergy strove to moderate the feelings, more natural than excusable, of these angry men; they even went so far as to solicit from the Roman pontiff an authoritative exhortation, to the general body, to bow in patience to the storm, with which they were threatened; and to bear, with religious feelings of resignation and hope, its dreadful visitation.

CHAP. XLIV.

THE GUNPOWDER CONSPIRACY.

1606.

WE now reach an event, which subjected the English roman-catholics to more than a century of persecution and general odium. It is equally our duty and intention to present a full and an impartial account of it to our readers. For this purpose, we shall transcribe, in the present volume, the relation which Hume gives of it in his History, but with the omission of some passages, in which we particularly distrust his accuracy. We shall insert, in the next chapter, a translation of the account given of it, and especially of the part which father Garnett took in it, by father More* a jesuit, in his History of the English Mission of the Society of Jesus : in the following chapter we shall offer some observations on the conduct of father Garnett, and of some other jesuits implicated in the charge of participating in the conspiracy; and some remarks on the accusation brought against secretary Cecil of having contrived it. We shall then inquire, whether the guilt of the conspiracy can be justly imputed to the general body of the English catholics.—In the Appendix t we shall insert, from Winwood's Memorials, the account of it, which the British government appears to have transmitted to its foreign ministers.

“ The roman-catholics,” says Hume,“ had expected great favour and indulgence, on the ac“cession of James. Very soon, they discovered “ their mistake; and were at once surprised and

enraged, to find James, on all occasions, express “his intentions of strictly executing the laws en“ acted against them; and of persevering in all “ the rigorous measures of Elizabeth. Catesby, a

gentleman of good parts, and of an ancient

* The account given by father More of the plot, and of the conduct of father Garnett, is confirmed by a manuscript relation of them by father Gerard, who is afterwards mentioned in the text: it was written in English, and translated into Italian ;-the thirteen first chapters of the translation have been seen by the editor. See also some excellent remarks on the plot in the Catholic Gentleman's Magazine for Aug. 1818, *p. 489.

+ See Appendix, Note I.

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family, first thought of a most extraordinary " method of revenge ; and he opened his intention

to Percy, a descendant of the illustrious house - of Northumberland. In one of these conversa“tions, with regard to the distressed condition of “ the catholics, Percy, having broke into a sally “ of passion, and mentioned assassinating the king, “ Catesby took the opportunity of revealing to him

nobler and more extensive plan of treason, “which not only included a sure execution of ven

geance, but afforded some hopes of restoring " the catholic religion in England. In vain, said

he, would you put an end to the king's life ; he “ has children, who would succeed, both to his “ crown, and to his maxims of government; in vain “ would you extinguish the royal family. The

nobility, the gentry, the parliament, are all in“ fected with the same heresy; and could raise tó " the throne another prince, and another family, “ who, besides their hatred to our religion, would “ be animated to revenge for the tragical death of “ their predecessors. To serve any good purpose,

we must destroy at one blow the king, the royal

family, the lords, the commons; and bury all “ our enemies in one common ruin. Happily they

are all assembled, on the first meeting of parlia

ment; and afford us the opportunity of glorious " and useful vengeance. Great preparations will 66 “ not be necessary or requisite. A few of us, com

bining, may run a mine below the hall, in which

they meet, and, choosing the very moment, when “ the king harangues both houses, consign over

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" to destruction these determined foes to all piety “ and religion. Meanwhile, we ourselves, stand

ing aloof, safe, and unsuspected, shall triumph “ in being the instrument of divine wrath ; and

!; « shall behold, with pleasure, those sacrilegious 6 walls, in which were passed the edicts for pro“ scribing our church, and butchering her children, “ tossed into a thousand fragments; while their

impious inhabitants, meditating, perhaps, still

new persecutions against us, pass from flames « above to flames below; there for ever to endure " the torments due to their offences *.

Percy was charmed with this project of Catesby; and they agreed to communicate the matter “ to a few more, and among the rest to Thomas

Winter, whom they sent over to Flanders, in quest “ of Fawkes, an officer in the Spanish service, with “ whose zeal and courage they were all thoroughly " acquainted.

“ All this passed in the spring and summer of “ the year 1604; when the conspirators also hired

a house, in Percy's name, adjoining to that in “ which the parliament was to assemble. Towards

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* It is needless to inform the intelligent reader, that this is not a speech really made by Catesby to Percy, but a speech put, by Hume, into Catesby's mouth, after the manner of ancient historians. The ascription of set speeches to persons, by whom they were not made, is the subject of some excellent remarks of the late Mr. Whitaker, in his Observations on the third Improvement of Historical Narrative, and his comparison of the discourse actually spoken by the emperor Claudius, with that put into his mouth by Tacitus. • Review of Gibbon's History, p. 3-13."

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“the end of that year, they began their operations. “ That they might be less interrupted, and give “ less suspicion to the neighbourhood, they car“ ried in a store of provisions with them, and never “ desisted from their labour. Obstinate in their

purpose, and confirmed by passion, by principle, “ and by mutual exhortation, they little feared

death, in comparison of a disappointment; and

having provided arms, together with the instru“ments of their labour, they resolved there to

perish, in case of discovery. Their perseverance " advanced the work; and they soon pierced the “ wall, though three yards in thickness; but on

approaching the other side, they were somewhat “ startled at hearing a noise, which they knew not “ how to account for. Upon inquiry, they found, " that it came from the vault below the house of “ lords; that a magazine of coals had been kept “ there; and that, as the coals were selling off, the “ vault would be let to the highest bidder. The op

portunity was immediately seized; the place hired

by Percy; thirty-six barrels of powder lodged “ in it; the whole covered up with faggots and bil“ lets; the doors of the cellar boldly flung open; “ and every body admitted, as if it contained nothing dangerous. “ Confident of success, they now began to look forward; and to plan the remaining part of their “ project. The king, the queen, and prince Henry, “ were all expected to be present at the opening “ of parliament. The duke, by reason of his ten

would be absent; and it was resolved

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