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monarch, were assembled and kept in readiness for embarkation : and such a navy was formed as never before had its equal : the ostentation of the Spaniards, and, it may be added, the general opinion and voice of the continent, denominated it The invincible Armada. We shall lay before our readers, I. The bull of Sixtus Quintus, which it was intended to publish as soon as the Spanish troops should make good their landing; and cardinal Allen's notification of it to the English catholics : II. His admonition to them: III. And their conduct.

XXXV. 1.

Bull of Sixtus Quintus. RELIGION,—too often drawn, by politics, from the path prescribed to her by her Divine Founder, -was, on this occasion, too successfully invited by Philip the second to aid his ambitious projects. The celebrated Sixtus Quintus then filled the

pontifical chair. Born in the lowest situation of life, he had raised himself to that commanding eminence, by his abilities. He filled it with dignity: but no pope either entertained higher notions of the prerogatives of the holy see, or enforced them with greater boldness. While the armada was almost ready to sail, he granted to Philip a bull, with directions for the publication of it as soon as the Spanish army should land in England: but cardinal Allen was ordered to notify, in the mean time, the contents of it to the English catholics. He did it by a small pamphlet intituled,

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6 * The Declaration of the Sentence of Sixtus

Quintus. It begins with calling the queen's government impious and unjust; herself an usurper, obstinate, , “ and impenitent, and so no good to be expected, “ unless she should be deprived.

“ Therefore pope Sixtus the fifth, moved by his own and his predecessors zeal, and the vehement “ desire of some principal Englishmen, hath used

great diligence with divers princes, especially “ with the Spanish king, to use all his force, that “she might be turned out of her dominions, and “ her adherents punished. And all this for good


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“ Because, she is an heretic, schismatic, is excommunicated by former popes; is contumacious, “ disobedient to the Roman bishop, and hath taken

to herself the ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the " souls of men.

“ Because she hath, against all law and right, usurped the kingdom"; seeing none must be “monarchs of England, but by the leave and “ consent of the pope.

“ Because she hath committed many injuries, “ extortions, and other wrongs against her subjects.

, “ Because she hath stirred up seditions and “ rebellions between the inhabitants of neighbour " countries.

Thuanus, Hist. I. 89. Meteren, Hist. du Pays Bas, Haye, 1681, l. 15. Foulis, 2d edit. 350; Purchase's Pilgrims, vol. x.

c. 11.

“ Because she hath entertained fugitives and " rebels of other nations.

“ Because she sent and procured the Turks to “ invade christendom.

“ Because she persecuted the English romanists, “ cut off the queen of Scots, and abolished the “ Roman religion.

“ Because she hath rejected and excluded the "ancient nobility, and promoted to honour obscure “people; and also useth tyranny,

“Wherefore, seeing these offences, some of them “ rendering her incapable of the kingdom, others “ unworthy to live ; his holiness, by the power of “ God and the apostles, reneweth the censures of “ Pius the fifth and Gregory the thirteenth against “her; excommunicates and deprives her of all “royal dignity, titles, rights, and pretences to

England and Ireland ; declares her illegitimate, “ and an usurper of the kingdoms, and absolves " all her subjects from their obedience and oaths " of allegiance due to her.

“ So he expressly commandeth all, under pain “and penalty of God's wrath, to yield her no

obedience, aid, or favour whatsoever ; but to

employ all their power against her, and to join “ themselves with the Spanish forces, who will not “ hurt the nation, nor alter their laws or privileges, “ only punish the wicked heretics.

“ Therefore, by those presents, he declares, that “ it is not only lawful, but commendable, to lay “ hands on the said usurper, and other her ad“ herents; and for so doing, they shall be well " rewarded.

“ And lastly, to all these Roman assistants, is liberaily granted a plenary indulgence and re66 mission of all their sins.”

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XXXV. 2.

Cardinal Allen's Admonition to the Nobility and People

of England.

The declaration of the sentence of Sixtus Quintus was accompanied by an admonition “addressed to “ the nobility and people of England :” this too was the production of cardinal Allen.

The following account of it is given by Fuller*; -it accords with extracts given of it by other authors t.

“1. The authors make their entrance into the “ discourse, with a most odious and shameful de“clamation against her majesty, stirring up her

* Fuller's Church History, cent. xvi. p. 196, s. 24.

+ See “ The important Considerations," and "Quodlibets" of Watson :—these works are highly blameable for their virulence, and misrepresentations ;-but they contain several curious and interesting facts and reflections, particularly on cardinal Allen's unfortunate conduct on this occasion, and several extracts from his " Admonition."-Some extracts from it are also inserted in the late Mr. Andrews's Continuation of Dr. Henry's History.-Mr. Charles Plowden's fair extenuation of Allen's conduct and writings in his Answer to the Memoirs of Panzani, has been copied into these Memoirs. Historical truth is never to be violated,-even by conceal. ment; but it is as much the duty of an historian to admit just extenuation, as it is to avoid unjust aggravation.

subjects hearts to contempt of her highness, as being one odious to God and man.

They threaten the nobility, gentry, &c. with “ loss of all their goods, their lands, their lives, and “ with damnation besides; except that presently,

upon the landing of the Spaniards, they joined “ themselves, and all their forces, men, munition, “ victuals, and whatsoever else they could make with “ their catholic army. 'Forsooth,' (for the words be

these), “if you will avoid' (say they), 'the pope's, “ the king's, and other princes' high indignation, “ let no man, of what degree soever, abet, aid, de“ fend, or acknowledge her, &c. adding that other

wise, they should incur the angels' curse and “malediction, and be as deeply excommunicated “as any, because that in taking her majesty's part,

they should fight against God, against their law“ ful king, against their country, and that notwith“ standing all they should do, they should but “ defend her highness bootless, to their own present “ destruction, and eternal shame.'

2. After all those, and many other such threats, “ in a high and military style, to scare fools with, " then they come to some more mild persuasions, “ and promise the noblemen, that so they join with “the duke of Parma upon the receipt of their ad

monition, they will entreat that their whole houses “shall not perish. For persons did instigate the

English cardinal to swear by his honour, and on “ the word of a cardinal, that in the fury of their “ intended massacre, there should as great care “ be taken of every catholic and penitent person,

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