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proclamation: he begins by recounting many signal services, which that monarch had rendered to Elizabeth; he asserts that, on three occasions, when her life was in danger, in consequence of her treasonable practices against queen Mary her sister, Philip had intervened to save her. The monarch's subsequent kindness towards her is then mentioned : particularly his refusal to co-operate with Stukely, when he landed in Ireland with troops, which he had obtained from the pope. To these, , he opposes the countenance and aid, which the Belgic subjects of Philip had received in their rebellions against him, from Elizabeth ; her piracies, her plunderings of his coasts, her procuring his bills to be protested at Genoa, and other aggressions of equal hostility. · Persons then brings forward the disturbances in France, fomented by Elizabeth, her seditious practices in Scotland; and contrasts the conduct of Elizabeth, as he has described it, with the peaceable and dignified moderation, which Philip had shown, towards every European state, till the injuries, which he received from Elizabeth, forced him into war with her; and a necessary defence of religion obliged him to confederate with the catholics of France, against the Navarrese.--He dwells with great force on the conduct of Elizabeth to the unfortunate queen of Scots.
“ The bad success of the armada should not,” he says, “ elevate Elizabeth and her adherents too “ much. The defeat of it was not owing to the “ valour of its assailants; but rather to the acci
dents incidental to warfare, the inclemency of the weather, inexperience of the sea, perhaps to "some ignorance or negligence; perhaps to the "will of a merciful God, who wished to preserve "the tree of England, till a third year, to see if it "would then produce good fruit.-The first expe"dition of Julius Cæsar into England, the first of Henry the seventh, was unsuccessful, the second "of each succeeded. Twice the sons of Benjamin "were defeated, the third time they were victo"rious. Let the English reflect on these examples, "and learn not to be insolent, merely because the "punishment due to their great crimes has been "deferred."
Here Persons enters upon a long, a laboured, and an eloquent defence of the proceeding of the pope, against Henry the fourth of France, or the Navarrese, as he pleases to term that monarch: he founds his defence on the deposing power of the pope. "The universal school of catholic theologians and divines, holds,-(and it is certain and of faith),--that any christian prince, who manifestly swerves from the catholic religion, and "wishes to call others from it, falls instantly from ^ "all power and dignity, both by divine and human right, even before any sentence is passed against him, by the supreme pastor and judge; and his
subjects are then free from the obligation of any "oath of allegiance, which they had taken to him,
as a legitimate prince; they then may, and if
they have strength sufficient, then ought to expel "from his sovereignty over christians, a man of this
description, as an apostate, heretic, and a deserter "of Christ our Lord; as an enemy and foe of the "state, lest he should infect others, and withdraw "them from the faith by his example or command, "This common sentence of all catholic doctors, "respecting the obligation of subjects to repel here"tical princes, if they are injurious to the catholic faith, is most certain and indubitable :-they think, however, that this opinion should be qua"lified by two conditions; one, that the subjects "have strength sufficient for the purpose; other"wise the equity and benignity of the divine law obliges no one to it, as it might turn to the prejudice both of themselves and the catholic reli"gion: the other condition is, that the certainty "of the crime be so manifest, that it cannot be
longer denied or doubted. For, if it be doubtful "and uncertain, or, if the prince thinks ill of reli
"gion only in private, or smells only of heresy, "and does not produce his opinions publicly, or "pervert others,-in these cases, the obligation, "which has been mentioned, does not attach upon "the subject. It then only attaches, whenever "the crime is public, when the danger to the state "is manifest; but then mostly, when the matter "has been decided by the church, and her supreme governor, the Roman pontiff; for to him it belongs, as a part of his duty, to provide for the integrity of religion and the divine worship, and "to remove heresy, that it infect not the clean."
The expressions in the proclamation respecting the protection afforded by the Spanish monarch to
the catholic establishments in his dominions, produce an able, and, we believe, a candid defence of them by Persons. Some pages are assigned to the praise of cardinal Allen, whose honourable parentage he contrasts with the obscure parentage of Cecil, and, rising higher, with the spurious birth, as he describes it, of Elizabeth, with the filthy loves of the Boleyns, and the bastard progeny of Owen Tudor.–A much more pleasing topic, he finds in describing, (which he does with great elegance and taste), the piety and literary ardour of the inmates of the foreign seminaries; and,-after their return to England, -their quiet, unpretending virtues, their inoffensive manners, their zeal tempered with modesty, their patient suffering, their loyal language and demeanor.
We have noticed in a former part of this work, what Persons says respecting the six questions proposed to the priests after their condemnation, and his condemnation of what he terms the prudence and moderation of their answers, and his eloquent retort.
Finally,-(accommodating them to the situation of the English catholics),-he closes, in the words of Victor Vitensis *, with the following animated address.--"All
who bear the name of catholic, “ whatever be your age, your sex, or your condition, “ come all of you to our house of sorrow! I call
no heretic to condole with me, he would rather “ seek to add to my sufferings, and rejoice in my misery; I call on no stranger, on no schismatic,
* Hist. Vand. I. ii. concl.
.“ for I am become a stranger to my brethren, an “ alien to the sons of my mother.
mother. Come all ye angels of my God, and behold my country! All “comeliness is gone from her face; her virgins cease to walk in the narrow path ; the cloisters
; “ are emptied of their youths, her children are be“ come captives, and the holy walls are trodden “ under foot! Ye holy patriarchs deprecate for us, “ the Divine wrath! pray for us ye holy prophets !
ye blessed apostles intercede for us! do thou, in
particular, O Peter, implore the Lord Christ, in “ favour of the sheep and the lambs, whom, with
so much earnestness, he consigned to your pro“ tection and care! and thou, O holy Paul, teacher “ of the nations, who preachedst the gospel in the “ east and west, behold what our enemies are do“ing; and what your children suffer ! all ye holy
apostles, be mourners over us! and though we “ confess that all this has befallen us for our sins,
yet pray for your sinful children, as Christ
prayed for the offending Jews. Our sufferings “ we deserve, but let what we have suffered, suffice:
, say to the angel that strikes, “cease, it is enough! “ Prostrate at your feet, we beseech you not to "spurn your unhappy offenders ;— by him, who “raised you, lowly fishermen, to the high rank of
Such is the best outline, which we have found ourselves able to give our readers of this extraordinary document: they must admire, even in the sketch, which we have given, the vigour and eloquence of the composition ; and every competent