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go to speak with the king. Cottington showed
a great deal of content; and, though he knew “ the matter to be very considerable and weighty, “ yet he promised he would do his part with the
king to promote it, and with all diligence would şr execute his orders. The whole business being “ told to Windebanck by Panzani, he also received “great content; but, at the same time, began to " complain of the prohibition of the book called
Deus, Natura, Gratia, saying that he resented “it extremely, but laid the fault upon the jesuits, « who would have disturbed all accommodation, “ for that they did not blush to speak ill of the
pope, saying that he was a Frenchman, and that he promoted the war against catholics. But “ Panzani, after having showed the sincerity of all “ the dealings of Urban, and made him sensible " thereof, said that, as to the jesuits of whom it was “ said they spread such calumnies, may be these
were only inventions of their ill-wishers, and that, “ in fine, there was no need to tax an entire body “ of religious.
“ Yet we must not pass over in silence, how as ” well Windebanck as Cottington obliged Panzani « to the greatest secrecy about the declaration of
an agent, promising, both of them, to bring the “ business to a happy issue, and without any noise.
“ In the mean time, Cottington heard the king's "pleasure,--to wit, that he was content, that the queen
should have in Rome a catholic agent, and " that, on the other side, the pope should have one “ in England ; and after he had acquainted the
queen therewith, with her excessive content, “ communicated it also to Panzani, and added
withal, that the king himself would nominate “the person to be sent to Rome; and that, if the
pope, after the departure of Panzani, would send “ his agent to England,' his advice was, that he * would make choice of a lay gentleman, because,
in that manner, he would not give suspicion or jealousy to any. That, if he should send a secular
priest, he would be partial to the said priests, “ if a religious man, to the religious; if a jesuit,
to the jesuits : that he should not be by faction à
Spaniard, but a neutral; and above all, discreet. “ The like counsel was also given him by Winde" banck; and it was a mark that it was the sense “ of the king and state, because, being a laic, it 6 could not be said he was legate, or nunce of the
pope; and so the heretics would not be so much “ irritated, and particularly the puritans. Winde“banck, who had been the first to motion this
reciprocal sending of agents, expressed an ex“ cessive joy, seeing it was determined ; and fore“ told that from such good beginnings of cor" respondence with the see apostolic, great good « would follow to England. Panzani answered that "he hoped no less, having heard the final resolution " taken in this matter, on the vigil of St. Eleuthe"rius pope, who converted Lucius king of Brittany, "and of St. Augustine, sent by St. Gregory to con“ vert England.”
It appears that Panzani was succeeded in his mission to England by a monsignor Agretti. On
the 12th July 1669, the congregation de Propagandå Fide, held a particular assembly on the affairs of England; the cardinals Barberini, Albizi, Chigi, Azzolini, and monsignor Ubaldi, the secretary of the congregation, attended this assembly. Some instructions were delivered to Agretti, and the Relazioni or Report of Panzani was put into his hands *.
Hume † shortly mentions, that for some years, Conn, a Scotchman, and afterwards Rosetti, an Italian, openly resided in London, and frequented the court as vested with a commission from the pope. In 1642, it was deemed advisable to discontinue altogether the intercourse with Rome.
HAVING shown the unsuccessful attempts which were made in the beginning of the reign, to which
* Archivium of the Propagandâ, --Libro delle congregationi particolari, degli anni 1668, 1669. 6 Mittatur eidem “ Relatio Panzani pro majore ipsius informatione."
+ Ch. liv.-In the “ Abstract of the Transactions relating to “ the English secular Clergy, (p: 43)," it is briefly mentioned “ that a design of count Rosetti to abrogate the dean and
chapter, was discovered; but that immediately a letter was
despatched to cardinal Barberini our protector, subscribed, “ Antonius Champneus, capituli' cleri' secularis in Anglia “decanus, with seven archdeacons, the sum whereof was to
protest against the said design ; and so no more was heard " about it.'
our subject has now led us, to renew religious communion and amity between Rome and England, we must proceed to a less pleasing theme,—the persecution, which, in every part of it, though always against the wishes of the monarch, the English catholics suffered :—but some previous account of the Puritans, too frequently the instigators of it, is necessary.
While, during the reigns of Elizabeth and James, the government of England was employed in devising and executing the severities which have been related against the catholics, this new denomination of christians arose in the bosom of the establishment, deriýed strength from opposition, and, at the time, of which we are now speaking, was rapidly advancing to that power, which enabled them, at no very distant period, to triumph over their parent church, and even to overthrow the monarchy. A succinct account of their vicissitudes of fortune will connect, in some measure, the three histories--of the protestants of the established church,-of the protestant dissenters,—and of the roman-catholics of England. We shall therefore present the reader with a succinct aecount, I. Of the origin of the puritans: II. Of the points of discipline, in which there was a difference between them and the established church: III. Of their division into presbyterians,—independents, and baptists : IV. Of the act of uniformity: V. Of the court of high commission : and VI. Of the conference at Hampton Court.
The Origin of the Puritans. It has been mentioned, that, in the reign of Henry the eighth, those, who favoured the reformation, were generally inclined to the Lutheran creed, discipline, and liturgy : that, in the reign of Edward the sixth, they generally inclined to the doctrine of Calvin; and that the change of religion, during the reign of queen Mary, and the consequences of that change, drove some of the mostzealous of the English reformers into exile.' Their number is supposed to have been about eight 'hundred. Some settled in Switzerland; but the greater part at Frankfort, or its neighbourhood. Many preserved the form of worship of the English church ; others preferred the Helvetian rites, on account of their greater simplicity. The former received the appellation of conformists; the latter, that of non-conformists, or puritans. These soon split into parties, and scandalized all the protestants of Germany by their quarrels*. In the end, the conformists obtained the ascendancy.
* See “ Brief Discourse of the Troubles begun at Frankfort, “ in Germany, ann. Dom. 1554, about the book of common “ prayer, and ceremonies, and continued by the Englishmen " to the end of queen Mary's reign. First published in the
year 1575." It was republished in “ The Phenix, or, a Revival of scarce “ and valuable Pieces, no where to be found but in the “ closets of the curious ;” and is the sixth article in that collection. The xxth article, which contains “ Calvin's Com