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appears by it, that, at the time of which we are speaking, it was in contemplation to send a person to Rome, for the purpose of making a true representation to the pope of the state of catholicity in England. The document, to which we now refer, contains his proposed instructions, and was prepared by father Leander *
* He observes in it, the necessity of its being fully explained to the pope, that, by the church of England he should understand those protestants only, who adhered to the doctrine of the English bishops, and not the puritans or other sectaries, these being considered both by the state and the prelacy of England " as factious and self-willed spirits, schis“matically affected to their private opinions."--He then describes, in terms substantially the same as those used by him in the former document, the points, in which the catholic and protestant churches disagree; then notices some general observances of the catholic church, from which the pope might dispense,—as communion under both kinds, and the marriage of the priests. He suggests the continuation of the English protestant clergy,—" coming to agree in points of “ faith,—in their actual prelatures and benefices.”
“ The third head,” says Leander, “contains those points, “ which involve respect to the temporalities, and civil obe“ dience and honour depending on the state's provision; all “these," he says, “ are comprised in the oaths of supremacy “ and allegiance : both of them contain scruples in roman“ catholic consciences, yet, if there be a true desire of peace “ in man, it seemeth they may be well enough reconciled.
“ For, as for the oath of supremacy,---it is not not now un: “ derstood, as king Henry the eighth did intend ;—that he “ alone should be supreme judge in all causes ecclesiastical,
even in matters of faith, religion, and holy ceremonies; or “ to dispense in sacramental points, or the ancient canons of “ the church: for his majesty, in his constitution prefatory “ to the articles of religion, doth acknowledge that judgment "to belong to the bishops of God's church; and Mr. Peter
It is impossible not to admire the general spirit of good sense and moderation, which
in “ Alison, with other learned protestants, are of the same sen“ tence ; blaming those writers, which do expound the title “ of the king's supremacy otherwise. So that the supremacy “ challenged by the king's majesty is indeed a temporal
supremacy; by which, not only all lay persons, but even “ ecclesiastical, in his kingdoms and dominions, are verily,
truly, really, his liege subjects, bound to his laws or the
penalties thereof; and that all external coaction or con“ straint, by mulcts, imprisonments, or other ways of temporal
or exterior correction, cannot be exercised, but by his “ authority, who beareth the civil sword; nor any prelature, “ or ecclesiastical benefice or state be conferred, but accord
ing to his ordinance or consent, because of the relation “ which such places have to points of state and temporalities. “ With all which it may be said, that the privilege of eccle“siastical or clergy exemption is more exactly kept in this “ realm, than in some neighbouring catholic states. Out “ of which it seemeth very consequent, that, if his holiness " would condescend to this point, as it is above declared, “ and practised in other catholic kingdoms, his majesty and " the state might be easier induced to admit of the pope's “ spiritual supremacy.
Now, for the oath of allegiance-it may perhaps be a good reconciliation, instead of the scrupulous oath penned “ in the parliament, to permit, that such an oath might be
proposed to his majesty's subjects, as followeth :"
Here father Leander inserts the form of an oath, in which all the offensive expressions contained in the oath proposed by king James are omitted.
“ He,"(that is, the person sent on this negotiation, “ will also be, out of doubt, truly dealt withal about a bishop “and bishoplike authority over the catholics of England; in “ which he is to take directions from his majesty and the
state, the matter being of very great consequence, either “ to hinder or farther his majesty's pious intentions.
Lastly, - It seemeth very convenient that the pope and
this and in many other parts of Leander's correspondence; but some parts of it offended the ultramontane ears. From the apologetical letters addressed by him to cardinal Barberini *, we find that he was accused of over-rating the supposed favourable disposition of the king and his ministers, towards the catholics; of describing the condition of the catholics to be less grievous than it really was; of placing the subjects in discussion rather in a political than a religious point of view; of advising too liberal concessions; of circumscribing too much the pope's spiritual power, and rejecting altogether his deposing power. His advocation, though very guarded, of James's oath, was also objected to him : he admits, that, in the sense in which it was explained by its adversaries, and by some even of his majesty's ministers, it was indefensible; but he contends, that the explanations given of it both by the royal propounder and the reigning sovereign, made it harmless. “ court be dealt withal not to vex moderate catholics, by cenHis apologies did not satisfy.-" The see of “ Rome," -- (father Wilford, a Benedictine monk, writes thus to Leander in a letter, which we have already cited *),—“ having stood for her rights, so
sures or disgraces, since their end is to please God and the king, and promote the union of catholic religion; and the
means employed by them are in their conscience lawful, and " allowed of in other catholic states. The contrary proceed
ing cannot but exasperate the king and state, to see none “ favoured or magnified in that court, but over-timorous “ zealots, and none laid at by emulation more than peace“ able and well-minded patriots : especially, this proceeding “ hindereth
many learned and able men from declaring them“selves for the king's lawful and laudable intentions; who, “ otherwise, would reverently speak what they think to be “ true, to the greater good of the church, and of their country, " and without any offence of true religion."
* Cla. State Papers, vol. i. p. 185,211.
many ages, in the cause of deposing princes, “ will be very unwilling to permit the oath, as the “ words lie, although glossed with another inten“ tion. Look over the oath, which usually is ex“hibited to catholics in Ireland ; examine other “ forms of oaths in catholic countries ; add to “ them, augment them, and endeavour to form “ them in that kind and in those words, which
may secure and content his majesty, as is most just and reasonable to be done ; yet take heed “ of meddling with deponibility of princes, for that “will never pass here.” How greatly is it to be lamented that this chimerical claim of the papal see stood in the way of so many wise and promising exertions to relieve the English catholics from the dreadful persecution under which they groaned! Of so many attempts to restore, if not a communion of religious belief, at least a communion of peace and good-will between protestants and catholics !
The court of Rome being dissatisfied, for the reasons which have been mentioned, with father Leander, but being still desirous of ascertaining the true causes of the contentions between the secular and regular clergy, by which catholics and protestants were equally scandalized, and of terminating them altogether, determined to send into England, for this purpose, signor Gregorio Panzani, an Italian clergyman of the congregation of the Oratorians * He was directed to keep his mission
* Cla., State Papers, vol. i.
* The writer of these pages has been favoured with the perusal of two valuable documents, which give an account of Panzani's mission. The first is,—what we should call,Panzani's Report to Pope Urban the eighth of his Mission ;-in the original it is intituled, Relazione dello Stato della Religione Catholica in Inghilterra; Data alla sanctita di N. S. Urbano VIII da Gregorio Panzani nel suo ritorno da quel Regno, l'anno 1637.-It has not been published; a copy of it is in the possession of the writer; another is said to be in the possession of the rev. Charles Plowden of Stonyhurst. We shall afterwards see that the congregation of the Propaganda ordered a copy of it to be given to Panzani's successor in the negotiation.
The second of these documents, is generally called the Memoirs of Signor Panzani. They were translated from the original Italian by Dr. Witham, who was appointed vicar apostolic of the midland district of English catholics in the year 1703. The title, which it bears in the translation, is, “ The Reasons for which Urban the eighth sent Mr. Gregory “ Panzani to the Queen of England, and his negotiation there,
translated out of the Italian, 1635, 1636.” The translation is evidently made with great care : at the close of it, the translator inserts the following declarațion,-“ In this translation, “I know not whether I have always hit the true sense; " the writing being very hard to read; but I know I have no reason to think I have been mistaken in any
material point; and sometimes, where I doubted of the sense, I put “ the Italian word into the margin; and some few times, could