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"execution of the laws against such traitors,-for,' says the proclamation, "they have been punished"for mere treason; and not for any points of religion. This is said to be shown by their ar raignment, by the circumstance that many men "of wealth, professing contrary religion, were not impeached for the same, either in lives, lands, goods, or liberty, except a small pecuniary mulct "for not going to church.


"The heads of the seminaries," continues the



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proclamation, "have assured the king of Spain, "that, notwithstanding his former ill success, yet, "if he would renew the war, in the next year, "multitudes would assist the invaders: this, a "schoolman named Persons, arrogating to himself "the name of the catholic king's confessor; this, "another scholar, named Allen, now for treason "honoured with a cardinal's cap, assure them; "and this, and other traitorous enterprizes, a mul❝titude of jesuits and missionary priests newly "landed, and lurking in different parts of England, "but chiefly in maritime places, encourage and "strive to promote.

"These impudent assertions," to use the words of the proclamation, "though they know them to "be false, the persons mentioned continually make "to the pope and the king of Spain; and they "have lately sent advice to their confederates in 'England, that the king had, upon their informa"tions and reports, promised to employ all his 'forces, to attempt an invasion of England the "next year.

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“ Wherefore her majesty declares it to be her duty, as being the supreme governor, under the “ Almighty Hand, to use all just and reasonable “means given to her, to concur with heaven in

frustrating these designs, and for that purpose " to increase her forces to the utmost of her power, “ and by the execution of the laws and other public “ ordinances, to impeach the practice of these sedi66 tions and treasons.

She then requires all ecclesiastical persons to “ draw down the blessing of heaven on the king“ dom, by prayer and the diligent discharge of “ their functions, -and calls on all her subjects to “ unite in defence of their natural country, their “ wives, families, children, lands, goods, liberties, “ and posterities, against these ravening strangers, “ wilful destroyers of their native country, and « monstrous traitors.

“ Further, - to provide a remedy against these seminary priests and jesuits, her majesty an“ nounces her resolution to appoint, in every county,

commissioners to search for and discover persons

guilty, or suspected of being guilty, of such trai“ torous practices :-- and, for that purpose, to ex“amine all persons of their household, or lodgers “ or boarders with them, during the year ending " on the preceding March; and particularly, whe“ther they attended the divine service, established " by law, and to commit the result to writing, in " the nature of a register or calendar, to be pro“ ducible, when demanded. Threats are held out “ against persons refusing to obey these injunc

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“tions; and informers against them are invited “ and encouraged.”

Such is the tenor of the proclamations :--commissions were immediately issued, and articles annexed as an instruction to the commissioners how to execute them. They direct the commissioners to inquire after recusants and suspected recusants; to have calendars made of them, and to examine them; but to abstain from other inquiries into matters of conscience.

They were to inquire of all persons upon oath, whether they had been moved by any, and by whom, to join or adhere to the forces of the pope or king of Spain, when they should invade the land; and to inquire, but not upon oath, of all persons suspected of being priests, seminarists, or fugitives, whether, within the last five years, they had been at Rome, Rheims, or in Spain; whether they were priests or jesuits; when they were last sent from any of them, and for what end.


The Reply of father Persons. To this proclamation of queen Elizabeth, father Persons opposed a Latin reply: it is said to have been written by him in the English language, and to have been translated into Latin by father Creswell : it may be considered a recriminating manifesto of Persons and all the English catholic fugitives, who adhered to the Spanish party. We have seen that the proclamation was issued in November 1591, the reply was published early in the ensuing year: it is intituled, « The Proclama“ tion of Elizabeth queen of England, the defender “ of the Calvinian Heresy, against the Catholics “ of her Dominions; and containing most unworthy “ abuse of other princes of the christian republic. “ Published at London on the 29th of November ; “ 1591. With an answer to it, under every head: “ in which not only the barbarity and impiety of “ the wicked edict, but its lies, deceits, and im

postures, are detected and confuted. By Andrew

Philopater, a Roman priest and divine, a native “ of England. Revelations, ch. xvii. 6. And I

saw a woman drunk with the blood of the saints " and the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. Augs“ burg, with the permission of superiors, 1592*.”

* Persons divides his reply into seven heads. He first attacks the title of the proclamation :-It is styled a proclamation of the queen ; but no one,



* Elizabethæ Angliæ reginæ, Hæresim Calvinianam propugnantis, in catholicos sui regni edictum, quod in alios quoque reipublicæ christianæ principes contumelias continet indignissimas. Promulgatum Londini 29 November 1591. Cum responsione ad singula capita : quâ non tantum sævitia, et impietas tam iniqui edicti, sed mendacia quoque et fraudes ac imposturæ, deteguntur et confutantur. Per D. Andream Philopatrum, presbyterum ac theologum Romanum, ex Anglis olim oriundum. Apocal. 17, v. 6. Et vidi mulierem ebriam de sanguine sanctorum, et de sanguine martyrum Jesu. Augustæ, cum permissu superiorum, 1592, 8vo.-Father Persons, in his “Apology," (P.48 b) says he went to Madrid, in the beginning of 1589; that father Creswell also was called from Rome, into Spain, for assisting the college and common cause there:-ard that their joint labours brought forth a tart answer to queen Elizabeth's edict, which was published in the year following.

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says Persons, is so ignorant in English concerns, as not to be aware that it does not so much proceed from the queen's own inclination, which leads her to wish no more than to pass her days peaceably and pleasantly, undisturbed by religion and religious hatred, as extorted from her by the artifices and importunity of those, who surround her;-by five persons in particular;-all of them sprung from the earth, Bacon, Cecil, Dudley, Hatton, and Walsingham;—these he therefore thinks it proper to describe.

He says, that sir Nicholas Bacon, the keeper of the great seal, was of the lowest extraction: his father was a shepherd and cattle driver; he himself was, for some time, under-butler in Gray's-inn. Possessing an acute genius, he acquired a great knowledge of the law. Luxurious and groveling in his habits, a partisan of heresy, averse from the catholic religion, but without knowledge of the subjects in controversy, and without any other object, than the acquisition of wealth and honours, and the means of satisfying his sensual appetites, he joined hands with Cecil, and each assisted the other in the prosecution of his views.

Dudley, he says, was a greater personal favourite with the queen than either Cecil or Hatton: he was a son of a duke, and grandson of an esquire, but great grandson of a carpenter: his beauty recommended him to the queen, his address confirmed him in her favour England never knew a man more flagitious, a tyrant more insolent; never had the catholics a more bitter enemy:

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