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says, "be imputed to the doctrine of the catholic "church, or to the prejudice of any man, who does " not hold it."
4. Diverging somewhat from their strict line of inquiry, the commissioners then cite to the archpriest, passages in the works of several writers, which assert, that the obedience of catholics at different times to excommunicate princes, was owing, not to their not having a right to resist, but to their not having the means for successful resistance.
The truth of the assertions of these authors, the archpriest denies unequivocally. He expresses his wonder, that they were ever made, observing, that they would thus exhibit the apostles and martyrs as mere temporizers; and that, in the early writers of the church, there is not a single syllable of such language.
5. The commissioners then return to the indirect temporal power of the pope."
Here, the archpriest cites the very strong and decisive facts and arguments, by which cardinal Bellarmine combats the doctrine of the pope's direct power in temporals. He contends, that these apply equally to his alleged indirect temporal power; and conclude by wishing, with all his heart, that either cardinal Bellarmine had not intermeddled with the question of the pope's authority, in temporals; or else, that he had been able to handle it, if it had any truth in it, more pithily, and thoroughly. "In sum thereof," concludes the archpriest," the pope's power ought not to "be extended beyond the power of the kingdom "of heaven, and of the censures of the church,
properly so called.
He hath no authority in “ temporals, either directly or indirectly, to depose
kings, &c.—by what name or title soever the " said power is called ;-whether he putteth it in “ practice, in order to spiritual things, or whether “ the end he aimeth at, by such his proceedings, “ with any king or prince, be spiritual or super“ natural ; that is, be pretended to be undertaken “ for the good of the church and promoting of “christianity; the same, in his judgment, being “ neither apostolical, nor agreeing to the practice “ of the most worthy bishops of Rome in the pri“ mitive church, and for a long time after; nor 6 available in truth to the catholic church; but “ rather hurtful, and great hindrance thereto.”
He then, “ truly and sincerely, from the bot“ tom of his heart, declares in his conscience, be“ fore God and the world, that king James his
sovereign lord, is jure divino, and by the posi“ tive laws of this realm, lawful and rightful king 5 of this realm, and of all other his majesty's “ dominions and countries, both de facto and de “ jure; and that it was not lawful, either for his
majesty's subjects to have. withstood him, nor “ even could it be lawful for them, now that he is “ their king, to rise up against him, or seek, by
any ways or means, to hurt him, either in his “ health or in his regal state, although he (the
king), denieth the pope's supremacy in causes “ ecclesiastical, and seeketh to suppress all those that dissent from him in those points of religion “ which he embraceth; and though likewise they, “his said subjects, being either catholics or pro
"testants, had sufficient number, forces, and ability, so to do, without any scandal for the catholic cause, and without any danger to themselves, "either in their goods or lives.
6. It might have been expected, that this full and explicit answer would have closed the inquiry. The commissioners, indeed, said, that the archpriest had very well discharged his duty. Still they involved the interrogatory to a higher power, -to the highest, perhaps, to which the inquiry could be carried. "It is possible," they said, "that "the pope may define the deposing power to be a matter of faith; then," they observed, " it must "be acknowledged by popish catholicks, that his "holiness may depose kings, and deale with their
subjects, as is aforesaid ;-and thus his majesty, "and all other christian princes, as their occasions "fall out, must still rest unassured of the loyalty "of their subjects, and of their own safeties;—it "is therefore," they add, " necessary, that the archpriest should clear this poynt."
To this question, the archpriest replied,―That he was perfectly assured, that the pope would not make such a determination, and that he could not make it: "he cannot," said the archpriest, "deter"mine it to be lawful, under any pretence what"ever, for a man to commit adultery with his neighbour's wife; no more can he determine it “to be lawful, under any pretence whatever, for any "of his majesty's subjects to bear arms against him; "--both of them being against the moral law of
"God, which the gospel doth, in no one point, prejudice.--Nor, as he cannot, by any pretence "whatsoever, make a son to be no son, during the "life of his father;-no more can he make the "born subject of any king, not to be his subject, "so long as the king liveth."
7. Cardinal Allen's admonition to the Nobility of England,-noticed in a former part of this work,-being mentioned; the archpriest declared, "that he could not choose but confess, from all "his heart, that he did dislike, and disavow, all "the arguments published in that book, which "had tendency to persuade the queen's subjects to "take part with the forces of the king of Spain; "because she was deposed by the pope's sentence; "and in some other respects therein mentioned; "and likewise all the persuasions, and resolu"tions, which were sent into Ireland from Salamanca, or from any place else, tending to the same purpose."
8. Several passages from the works of cardinal Allen, and of doctor Stapleton, being then read by the commissioners to the archpriest;-" Alas! "alas!" he cried, "what mean you to increase my sorrow? I have said enough before, to show you how much I do detest these kind of positions, as being infected, if not with a canker, at "least with untruths. How glad should I have "been, if these kinds of positions, now charged "on me, had been left to Buchanan, and such of "his followers, as have run that race." He ex
pressed his humble desire, that “ he might be no “ further troubled with these uncatholic and bloody “ novelties :" and therein he had his desire. He was soon after deposed by the pope
from his situation of archpriest: he persisted, however, to his death, in his approbation of the oath : on the 25th of January 1612, being suddenly taken ill, some priests attended him; he assured them that he thought it a lawful oath, and in taking it he had done nothing contrary to conscience*
ULTERIOR OCCURRENCES RESPECTING THE PRO
TESTATION OF ALLEGIANCE.
AFTER some further observations and replies, the examination closed.--As it appeared to the writer to contain much interesting matter, and the copies of it are extremely rare, he thought an account of its most remarkable passages would be acceptable to the reader; and probably the reader will think with him, that the archpriest's statements and answers were expressed with great precision,—and do credit to him, as a sound divine, a loyal subject, and an honest man.--Soon after his examination, the archpriest addressed a second letter to the English catholics, repeating his approbation of the oath, recommending them to take it; and advising them not to be deterred from doing so, by the briefs of the pope. He received a second letter
• Widdrington, Theolog. Disp. c. 10, $4.