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agreed on this point, there would have been no final disagreement between them *.-In a future page, the complete rejection of the pope's deposing power, by the present English, Scottish, and Irish catholics, in the oaths prescribed to them in the present reign, will be mentioned.


The Oath of Allegiance framed by James the first. The oath is expressed in the following terms : I, A. B. do truly and sincerely acknowledge,

profess, testify, and declare, in my conscience, “ before God and the world, that our sovereign “ lord king James is lawful and rightful king of “ this realm, and all other his majesty's dominions “ and countries; and that the pope, neither of

* On the denial itself of the pope's deposing power, not on the language in which that denial was expressed, father Juvençi (Historia Soc. Jesu, lib. xiii. $ 4.) grounds his objection to the oath : “Singulos in certa verba jurare jussit, quibus

eam summo pontifici auctoritatem abrogabat, quam in-, “ esse illi confitentur quicunque ipsum Christi vicarium, et

summum ecclesiæ pastorem agnoscunt: quam christianus “ orbis, in concilio Lateranensi congregatus, ipsi concessam


professus est.” A very different construction of this decree, if it be such, of the fourth council of Lateran, has been contended for by Dr. Hay, Dr. Milner, Mr. Lingard, Mr. Potts, and other catholic writers. Bossuet led the way to all that has been said on this subject, by his discussion, in the 4th book of his Défense de la Déclaration du Clergé de Francesur le genre des loix, que l'Eglise impose, du consentement des Princes, et avec le secours de leur loix, &c. &c, On this famous article of the fourth council of Lateran, Mr. Plowden's Church and State, book ii. c. 7, may be usefully consulted.



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“ himself, nor by any authority of the church or “ see of Rome, or by any other means with any

other, hath any power or authority to depose " the king, or to dispose of any of his majesty's

kingdoms or dominions; or to authorize any

foreign prince to invade or annoy him or his “ countries; or to discharge any of his subjects of “ their allegiance and obedience to his majesty ;

or to give license or leave to any of them to bear

arms, raise tumults, or to offer any violence or “ hurt to his majesty's royal person, state, or go

vernment, or to any of his majesty's subjects, “ within his majesty's dominions.

“ Also, I do swear, from my heart, that, notwithstanding any declaration, orsentence of excommunication, or deprivation made or granted, or to be " made or granted, by the pope or his successors, or " by any authority derived, or pretended to be de

rived, from him or his see, against the said king, " his heirs or successors, or any absolution of the

said subjects from their obedience; I will bear faith “ and true allegiance to his majesty, his heirs and

successors, and him and them will defend, to the “uttermost of my power, against all conspiracies “and attempts whatsoever, which shall be made against his or their


their crown and dignity, by reason or colour of any such sentence, or declaration, or otherwise; and will do


best “ endeavours to disclose and make known unto “his majesty, his heirs and successors, all treasons “ and traitorous conspiracies which I shall know

or bear of to be against him, or any of them.

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"And I do further swear, that I do from my "heart abhor, detest, and abjure, as impious "and heretical, this damnable doctrine and posi"tion, that princes, which be excommunicated "or deprived by the pope, may be deposed or "murdered by their subjects, or any other what

66 soever.

"And I do believe, and in my conscience am "resolved, that neither the pope, nor any other 66 person whatsoever, hath power to absolve me of "this oath, or any part thereof, which I acknow"ledge by good and full authority to be lawfully "administered unto me; and do renounce all par"dons and dispensations to the contrary.

"And all these things I do plainly and sincerely acknowledge and swear, according to "these express words, by me spoken; and accord

ing to the plain and common sense and understanding of the same words; without any equi"vocation, or mental evasion, or secret reservation "whatsoever. And I do make this recognition "and acknowledgment, heartily, willingly, and "truly, upon the true faith of a christian. "So help me God."


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The Briefs of Paul the fifth against the Oath of Allegiance.

1. The first brief was translated by James the first, in the following terms:--

"Well beloved sonnes, salutation, and aposto


"licall benediction. The tribulations and calami"ties which ye have continually sustained for the "keeping of the catholike faith, have alwayes afflict"ed vs with great griefe of mind. But, forasmuch as "wee vnderstand, that, at this time, all things are "more grievous, our affliction is hereby wonderfully increased. For, wee have heared how you are compelled, by most grievous punishments set "before you, to go to the churches of heretikes, to frequent their assemblies, to be present at their "sermons. Truely, wee doe vndoubtedly beleeue, "that they, which with so great constancie and "fortitude have hitherto endured most cruell per❝secutions, and almost infinite miseries, that they 66 may walk without spot in the law of the Lord, "will never suffer themselves to bee defiled with "the communion of those that have forsaken the "divine law. Yet notwithstanding, being com❝pelled by the zeale of our pastorall office, and by our fatherly care, which we doe continually take "for the salvation of your soules, we are inforced "to admonish and desire you, that, by no meanes,



you come vnto the churches of the heretikes, or "hear their sermons, or communicate with them in "their rites, lest you incurre the wrath of God. "For these things may yee not doe, without in"damaging the worship of God, and your owne "salvation. As likewise, you cannot, without most ❝ euident and grievous wronging of God's honour, "bind yourselves by the oath, which, in like manner, we have heard, with very great griefe of our


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heart, is administered vnto you, of the tenor under " written, viz.” (I, A. B. &c.)

“Which things, since they are thus, it must “evidently appeare vnto you, by the words them" selves, that such an oath cannot be taken, without “ hurting of the catholike faithe, and the salvation “ of your soules : seeing it conteines many things, « which are flat contrary to fayth and salvation. " Wherefore we doe admonish


that “ ytterly abstaine from taking this and the like “ oathes : which thing we doe the more earnestly

require of you, because we have experience of " the constancy of your faithe, which is tried, like “gold, in the fire of perpetuall tribulation. We doe “ well know, that you will cheerefully vndergo all “ kind of cruel torments whatsoever; yea, and “ constantly endure death itselfe, rather than you'

will, in any thing, orffend the maiestie of God. “And this our confidence is confirmed by those

things, which are daily reported vnto vs, of the

singular virtue, valour, and fortitude, which, in “ these last times, doeth no less shine in your mar“ tyrs, then it did in the first beginning of the “ church. Stand therefore, your loynes being girt “ about with veritie, and hauing on the brest plate

of righteousnesse, taking the shield of faith, bee yee strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might; and let nothing hinder you. Hee, which “will crowne you, and doeth in heauen behold

your conflicts, will finish the good work which " he hath begun in you. You know how hee hath '

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