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" innocent, and government avail themselves of it, " whenever it could be made available to their “ views. This ought to have contained the catho“ lies against all such attempts: but who can con

tain, within the bounds of duty, minds both “ untamed and exasperated by long persecution?

“ The first parliament had petitioned, that none “ of the laws enacted by Elizabeth against the “ catholics should be repealed ; to this, James “ assented. In the chamber, called the star-cham“ber, after a long discussion before the king, in the

year 1604, on the subject of the catholics, it had “ been determined that the pecuniary fines, to “ which they were subjected by law, should be “continued, and letters were issued for putting 6 this determination into execution. It added to " the terror of the catholics, that, after the acts

against them, which have been mentioned, and " the banishment of many of the priests, the pro“testant archbishop, who had recently been trans« lated from the see of London to that of Canter

bury, was entreated to be lenient to the catholics, " and to show what indulgence he could. To this, “ he made answer, that, in Elizabeth's days it was “ more necessary to dissemble, on account of the “ uncertainty of what would be the state of things " at her death, as some catholic might then possibly

succeed to the throne, who would be troublesome “ to the protestants ; but that, as matters then “stood, there was no ground, on which the catho“ lics could hope for indulgence or kindness, the “ crown having been placed on the head of a lawful

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"successor; and one too, who did not want lawful “ heirs. Moreover, the new bishop of London

openly declared before the king in council, that “the royal family would, without doubt, be anni“ hilated, unless the catholics were utterly extir“pated. Though it will appear that they prophesied

erroneously, yet some catholics of noble family " and high rank, inflamed, as it were, by these “ firebrands, lost all patience, bent their minds to

vengeance, under a pretence of piety, and projected a monstrous and diabolical plot, at the “ mention of which language shudders.

“ There are in the palace of Westminster, two large halls, which adjoin each other, and are able “ to hold more than six hundred persons; here, “ the king, the nobles, and a great number of the “commonalty are used to assemble at the opening í of parliament. In a hired vault, under this

building, the persons whom we have mentioned, “ stored an immense quantity of gunpowder, and “ covered it with faggots of wood, lest it should be “ noticed. They also engaged a man to be ready, “ with tinder and matches, by whom, at the time, “ when all ranks should have assembled in parlia

ment, at the opening of the second session, they

might overwhelm, crush into pieces, and suffocate “ the king, the principal men of the nation, and “ numbers of the general body of the people, by “the great mass of buildings, which would have “ been thrown down, with a mighty crash; and “then, during the general consternation and afflic“ tion for the loss of friends, and the extermination

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“ of the king and the parliament, by this rash and

savage act of atrocity, re-model the kingdom after “ their own fashion. For the accomplishment of “ this object, in its full extent, their courage failed them, when they reflected that

many

innocent persons would perish with the guilty; and that “ the safety and lives of their friends, together with

those, whom they held in the light of enemies, “ would not only be endangered but destroyed : it “ was this, which was the cause of the discovery “ of the conspiracy. For one of the conspirators “ warned his friend, by letter, not to be present in “the house, if he had a regard for his life. When “ this letter had been brought to the king, the “ meeting of parliament having been postponed to “ another day, the plot, which they had considered

as a perfect mystery, was discovered. When the conspiracy was detected, the conspirators dis

persed themselves in different directions ; some “strove to conceal themselves; others determined “ to hazard a battle. It was fought, and, after “ some had been killed,, the rest were taken, and, “after a regular trial, suffered the punishment of “ this ill-advised scheme; but there was no small

suspicion, that one of the nobility had been apprised of the conspiracy long before the day

appointed for its breaking forth, and artfully pre“tended ignorance of it, in order that many more

might be implicated. By this artifice, he endea“ voured to fix, on the fathers of the society of “ Jesus, the imputation of having been the authors “ of the conspiracy, or of having at least been privy

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“ to it. The jesuits, upon whom this imputation was “ attempted to be thrown, were Henry Garnett, “ Edward Oldcorn, Oswald Tesimond, and John “ Gerard; of each of whom we shall have to speak “ in the following narrative.

“ Henry Garnett of Nottingham, or, as others « write, of Hennary, in the county of Derby, was ““ born of honourable parentage, in the year 1550. “ When a youth, he went to Italy with Ægidius

Gallopi, and having been admitted into the

society of Jesus at Rome, on the 11th of Sep“tember in the year 1575, he passed through the “ elementary studies of a religious life, under “ Fabius de Fabiis, a man not less remarkable for “ the nobility of his ancestry, than his religious " austerity. Afterwards, turning his mind to the “ studies of sacred and profane learning, and hav

ing had Christopher Clavius, Francis Suarez, Benedict Pereira, Robert Bellarmine, and other “ eminent men for his instructors, he, in a short " time, arrived at that degree of knowledge, that “ he gave public lectures, first, upon Hebrew lite“rature, and afterwards upon metaphysics, in our “ college at Rome. He was also chosen presi

dent of the mathematical schools, on the sudden “ illness of Clavius; and this occupied him longer, " than was compatible with his zeal for the welfare “ of his native country, He had been marked out “ for the English vineyard, at his own most earnest “ entreaties, in the year 1584. But, while he was “ doing honour to his calling, Clavius being seized " with a most inveterate distemper, and his life

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being despaired of, entreated the general of our "society to appoint Garnett his successor in the

professorship. The request of this excellent man, so who deserved so well of the church, was neces“ sarily complied with : but, two years after, when

Clavius recovered of his disorder, and had been " restored to himself and his schools, Garnett hav“ing obtained the permission of his superiors, bent " his course to England, in company with Robert “ Southwell, in the month of July in the year 1586.

There, when he had spent about two years in administering to the welfare of his neighbours by private exercise of his duty, he was appointed, in

consequence of the death of father Weston, who " then filled that office, to the office of superior of "the jesuits on the English mission. From this "time, he performed the part both of an active "missioner and an excellent superior, in so perfect f a manner, as made him honoured by his acquaint"ance, loved by strangers, and admired by all. * There were indeed in him a penetrating genius, “ a keen and solid judgment, a knowledge of many

subjects, a ready counsel, and singular ability; to " these were added, experience, that mistress of * prudence, and, what are rarely united to these,

simplicity of manners, and an open unsuspicious "mind. He, moreover, possessed incredible moderation, and a gentleness almost preternatural ; would

say

he was incapable of irregular pas“sions ; he had a surprising ease of manners, and " an equal mixture of severity and mildness. In “ his countenance, there was a modest pleasant

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