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tuis te.] Mind your own business.'

326. O major tandem] The scene winds up with a pretended deprecation of the severe truths of Damasippus, to whom the poet submits as the greater madman of the two, and humbles himself before him accordingly.

SATIRE IV.

THIS Satire is an essay on good living, put in the form of precepts delivered to Horace at second hand by one Catius, who professes to have received them from some sage more learned in the art, whom he does not name. Horace meets him accidentally, as he is hurrying away from the Professor's lecture, to think over what he had learnt, and to store it in his mind. Catius recites what he has heard, from memory or from notes, and enters without preface upon the question of the first course. The Professor may be supposed to have carried his hearers through an entire dinner, “ab ovo usque ad mala" (see S. i. 3. 6, n.). Catius only gives the heads of the lecture and one or two of the sage's reflections. The precepts he delivers inflame Horace with a desire to see and hear the great man himself, and he prays Catins to introduce him. It may be that Horace had some third person in his eye, but we have no means of knowing who it was. If it be so, there were those, no doubt, who would understand the allusion at the time. As to the man Catius himself, he appears to have been a well-known follower of the Epicurean school, but he must have been dead many years before this Satire was written. Probably, therefore, Horace only introduces his name as a handle for ridiculing the Epicureans.

1. Unde et quo Catius?] On Catius, see Introduction. see S. i. 9. 62, n.

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2. Ponere signa] The ancients practised methods for helping the memory. The first memoria technica' was said by tradition to have been invented by Simonides of Ceos. 'Signa' were more technically called 'imagines,' objects which the person arranged so that his mind's eye could rest upon them, and thus assist his memory. 'Ponere signa' seems also to have been commonly used in this sense.

3. Anytique reum] Anytus was one of the three (Meletus and Lycon were his associates) who got up and conducted the prosecution of Socrates. 4. tempore laevo] See above, S. ii. 1. 18: "Nisi dextro tempore Flacci Verba," etc.

6. Quod si Horace apologizes for interrupting and detaining him; but, he says, if he should thereby forget any part of his lesson for a moment, he will presently recover it, he has such a wonderful memory, either by nature or art, or both.

11. celabitur auctor.] See Introduction.

Succus

12. Longa quibus facies ovis erit] On 'ova,' see S. i. 3. 6, n. here is equivalent to 'sapor.' Why Horace should make Catius say that long eggs were more white than round ones, or what is gained by the whiteness of an egg, or by its containing a male rather than a female chicken, is not clear. He puts any nonsense, it appears, into the man's mouth. Ponere' is to put upon the table, as 'posito pavone' (S. ii. 2. 23). The notion that from long eggs cocks were hatched, and from round, hens, appears to have been a vulgar error. 'Callosa' signifies 'tough,' and belongs in sense, though not in construction, to the yolk.

15. Caule suburbano] Artificial streams and fish-ponds were commonly introduced into the gardens of rich people. Hence Catius says the vegetables

grown in the suburbs were not so pleasant as those grown in the country on drier soil; meaning that they were insipid, from the quantity of water they imbibed.

17. vespertinus subito te oppresserit] On 'vespertinus,' see Epod. xvi. 51; 'opprimere' is to overtake or come upon one suddenly.

18. malum responset] Responsare' is used by Horace several times in the sense of resistance. See below, S. 7. 85: "Responsare cupidinibus, contemnere honores"; and Epp. i. 1. 68. 'Malum responset' means 'it disagrees with.'

19. vivam mirto mersare Falerno ;] Mixto' means mixed with water. 20. Pratensibus optima fungis] He says the 'fungi' that grew in the open meadows were more to be trusted than others, that is, those which grew in the shade. Truffles and different kinds of mushrooms were much eaten by the Romans, as they are still by the Italians. Of the latter there were and are great varieties. The mushroom most highly esteemed was the boletus, which was cultivated in gardens, and kept for the eating of the rich. But all such fungi had to be chosen with great care. Even the boletus served to carry off an emperor.

24. Aufidius] This may be M. Aufidius, who was remarkable as having been the first at Rome who bred and fattened peacocks for sale, and derived a large profit (as much as 600,000 sesterces a year) from that trade. As to the composition of 'mulsum,' see note on S. ii. 2. 15, n. Falernian wine, which Horace appears to have esteemed next to Cæcuban, is here called 'forte,' and elsewhere 'severum' and 'ardens' (C. i. 27. 9; ii. 11. 19). It was a very strong spirituous wine, and required long keeping to become mellow.

27. morabitur] This may have been a medical word for costiveness. 'Mitulus,' the limpet, was an inferior sort of shell-fish. The Greeks called it τελλίνη οι ξιφύδριον. The “lapathus is mentioned above as a purgative (Epod. ii. 57, n.). 'Brevis' refers to the size of the plant.

30. Lubrica nascentes implent] That shell-fish were best at the time of the new moon, appears to have been generally believed among the ancients. They had many fancies respecting the influence of the moon on various objects, in which, however, modern ignorance and superstition have perhaps surpassed them. But in respect to shell-fish, modern observation is in conformity with that of the ancients.

32. Murice Baiano] This shell-fish, from which a purple dye was obtained, was found, it seems, in great abundance at Baiæ. It would seem not to have been as useful for the table as for its dye. The 'peloris,' which was found in the Lacus Lucrinus, close to Baia, appears to have been an insipid fish, though Catius says it is better than the murex. The rival oyster-beds were in the Lacus Lucrinus and at Circeii, the opposite point of the bay which is terminated by the promontory of that name, in Latium, and the promontory of Misenum, in Campania. Catius gives the preference to the oysters of Circeii, which Pliny also says were unsurpassed (xxxii. 21). See note on Epod. ii. 49. The best oysters, however, were found at Brundisium on the other coast, whence the spawn was carried to stock the beds on the coast of Campania and Latium.

34. Pectinibus patulis] The shell-fish called 'pecten,' it seems, was found in greatest perfection at Tarentum. From the epithet 'patulis' it must have been one of the bivalved sort.

molle Tarentum.] The degenerate character of the Tarentines, which gained their city the epithets 'molle,' 'imbelle' (Epp. i. 7. 45), dates from the death of Archytas, about the middle of the fourth century B. C. Among other symptoms of this degeneracy, it is recorded that their calendar contained more festivals than there were days in the year. For full two hundred years

(some make it much more) before the above period, they had flourished, above all the colonies of Magna Græcia, in arms and commerce.

36. exacta] For this meaning of 'exigere,' 'to investigate,' see Forcell. under 'exigo' and 'exactus.'

37. cara pisces avertere mensa] 'Mensa' means the fishmonger's board, which is called dear, instead of the fish exposed on it. Avertere' is 'to carry off.' Compare Virgil (Aen. x. 78): Arva aliena jugo premere atque avertere praedas." It is commonly used with 'praeda,' as in Cæsar, B. C. iii. 59: "Praedam omnem domum avertebant." It may be applied humorously in this sense here, the man making a booty of the fish he loved. On ‘pisces patinarii' ('quibus jus est aptius') and ‘assi,' see note on S. i. 3. 81. 39. Languidus in cubitum] Catius says it is of no use for a man to buy expensive fish, if he does not know how to dress them; that is, which should be served up with sauce, and which, when fried, will tempt the guest, after he has laid himself down tired of eating, to raise himself on his elbow, and begin eating again.

41. Curvat aper] On ‘aper,' see above, S. 3. 234.

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43. Vinea submittit] He says, without much sense, as it would seem, that the flesh of wild deer fed in vineyards is not always eatable. The caprea' was a mountain goat, chamois, or some one of the deer kind. Submittit' is equivalent to suppeditat,' 'supplies.' See C. iv. 4. 63: "Monstrumve submisere Colchi."

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44. Fecundae leporis] Lepus' is of common gender. A modern epicure would not choose the shoulder of a hare as the most delicate part. It is so distinguished again, S. 8. 89.

51. Massica si caelo suppones] The wine in the amphora required clearing, before it could be drunk. One way of effecting this appears to have been exposing the vessel for some time to the open air, which process also took off some of its strength. Catius mentions the yolk of pigeons' eggs as another means of precipitating the lees of the wine. White of egg was a more usual agent. Pliny mentions sulphur; several insoluble materials, such as pounded shells, gypsum, chalk, milk, etc., were used for the same purpose. But the commonest way was to strain the wine either through a 'saccus,' a bag of fine linen (which was apt to hurt the flavor), or through a metal sieve, 'colum,' these being in the hot weather filled with snow.

53. odor nervis inimicus;] This means what we call the bouquet, which helped the wine in its intoxicating effects upon the brain. With the inferior wines various aromatics were frequently introduced, for the purpose of giving them an agreeable perfume.

58. Tostis marcentem squillis] When the guest gets surfeited, or drinks so much he cannot digest any more, his appetite is to be tempted with fried shrimps and snails, of which the best sort came from the coast of Africa, and were called 'Solitanae,' the derivation of which name is uncertain; also with bacon and sausages. The lettuce, Catius says, ought not to be taken for this purpose, because it does not settle on the stomach when it is irritated. 'Lactuca' was commonly eaten at the gustatorium,' as an incentive to the appetite. Catius says the cloyed stomach would rather (malit') have any coarse dish, brought in from the cook-shop, to stimulate it, than lettuce after drinking wine, which was a different thing from taking it before dinner.

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61. Flagitat immorsus refici:] Immorsus' agrees with stomachus,' and signifies stimulated, 'pervulsus,' as 'qualia lassum pervellunt stomachum” (S. 8. 9).

62. immundis fervent allata popinis.] The 'popinae' were the lowest sort of eating-houses, where meat was cooked and usually eaten on the premises, but sometimes sent out. They were the same as the Greek κannλeia. They were a lower sort of 'cauponae' (see S. i. 5. 2, n.). Their keepers, 'popae,'

were, as might be expected, usually persons of no credit. The shops were dirty, and the company very low. Compare Epp. i. 14. 21. There were great numbers of these shops about the city. They were also called 'thermopolia,' because there the Romans drank hot spiced wine and water, calda.'

63. duplicis pernoscere juris] Catius goes on to describe the sauces, of which there are two kinds; one which he calls simple, but which was not entirely so, being made of sweet olive-oil mixed with rich wine and 'muria,' which is but garum,' made from certain shell-fish (S. 8. 53). There was a composite sauce which was made up of the above boiled with chopped herbs, with a sprinkling of saffron, and, when it had stood to cool, the finest oliveoil of Venafrum (C. ii. 6. 16, n.).

66. Byzantia putuit orca.] The thynnus' from which the best garum' was made was found best in the neighborhood of Byzantium (Pliny ix. 20). 'Orca' is a jar used for preserving sauces and pickles. As to the form 'putuit,' see S. 3. 194, n. The crocus' of Mons Corycus in Cilicia appears to have been most celebrated. 'Stetit' means 'has ceased to boil.'

69. Venafranae] See C. ii. 6. 16, n.

70. Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia] The apples of Tibur and Picenum have been referred to before (C. i. 7. 14; S ii 3 272).

71. Venucula convenit ollis;] It is not known whence this grape derives its name. The word is variously spelt. Grapes were dried and preserved in jars for the winter. For drying in this way, Catius says the grape of the Alban hills is best. His opinion is not supported by any extant authority, as it is in the other instance.

73. Hanc ego cum malis,] Catius says he was the first to introduce Albanian raisins at the second course, and likewise ‘faex' and 'allec,' two pickles, or two names for the same, being the lees of the 'muria' (v. 63, n.). Catius also claims the merit of introducing little dishes containing a mixture of salt and white pepper. The object of all this, as well as the pickles, was to promote thirst, and add to the pleasure of drinking after dinner. White pepper is milder than black. It is made by blanching the finer grains of the black, and taking off the rind. The ancients must have got their pepper from the East Indies. The best is grown on the Malabar coast.

75. Incretum] This comes from incerno,' 'to sift,' or 'incernendo spargere' (Forcell.), to scatter with a sieve' or 'incerniculum.' It therefore means that the pepper was sprinkled over the salt. Catillus' is a diminutive form of 'catinus.'

76. millia terna macello] 3,000 sesterces (upwards of £26) for a dish of fish is a large sum, but not perhaps exaggerated. Larger sums were given for dainties. As to 'macellum,' see S. 3. 229, n. By 'vagos pisces' he means that it is a shame to confine in a narrow compass animals that have had the freedom and range of the seas. The liberty of the bird is expressed by the same epithet in C. iv. 4. 2.

79. calicem] The slave handing a drinking-cup ('calix') to a guest, just after he had been gathering and licking up the remains of the dishes, would leave the marks of his fingers upon it, and this would turn the stomachs of the company, who would also be disgusted if they saw dirt upon the 'cratera ’ in which the wine and the water were mixed. The 'calix' was the same as the Greek Kúλiέ. Its shapes and sizes and materials all varied very much. There were wooden and earthen-ware calices,' and others of common glass, and others of greater value of colored glass; but those that were most valued of all were the crystallina,' of a pure and highly transparent crystal glass. The colored glass cups came principally from Alexandria. The Romans were curious in collecting old vessels for their tablo (veteres craterac'), as observed before (S. 3. 21, n.).

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81. Vilibus in scopis,] Scopae' were besoms for sweeping the floors, wails, and furniture of a room, usually made of the branches of the wild myrtle or tamarisk. The palm seems also to have been used. Mappae' here mean towels or dusters to clean the furniture and walls. Scobe' is sawdust, with which the floors were strewed. It was sometimes highly scented.

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83. Ten lapides varios] Tene?' is it for such as you? Tene decet ?' The floors in the houses of the rich were laid with slabs of marble and mosaicwork, and marble slabs were also introduced in the walls, though paintings were more common. Torus' meant properly a round pillow, as is shown by its root 'ter' (which appears in 'tornus,' 'torqueo,' etc.; see C. i. 1. 28, n.), and 'toralia' probably means coverings for the cushions, which were put over the rich 'stragulae vestes' (see last Satire, v. 118, n.), as we put chintz coverings over our furniture when it is not in use, or on ordinary occasions. Inviting his friend Torquatus to dinner, Horace tells him he will take care ne turpe toral, ne sordida mappa Corruget nares." (Epp. i. 5. 22.)

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85. Oblitum quanto] Catius says that the neglect of those matters which cost little money and attention is more reprehensible than the absence of furniture, which the rich only can afford. The case he supposes is that of a man who combines dirt with finery, slovenliness with ostentation.

88. Docte Cati,] Catius, having brought his discourse to an end with an exhortation upon decency and order, Horace entreats him, wherever it is he goes to get such lessons he will take him with him, that he may drink wisdom at the fountain-head. Catius, he says, no doubt repeats accurately what he has heard, but such precepts would be more highly commended by the aspect, bearing, voice, etc. of the teacher himself.

94. fontes ut adire remotos] Horace here parodics Lucretius (i. 926): "Juvat integros accedere fontes atque haurire.”

SATIRE V.

In this Satire, which has a good deal of humor in it, Horace takes up the practice of will-hunting, of which, as of many other degrading vices that afterwards pervaded Roman society, he saw only the beginning. Describing the rage for making money in Epp. i. 1. 77, he says:

"Pars hominum gestit conducere publica: sunt qui
Crustis et pomis viduas venentur avaras

Excipiantque senes quos in vivaria mittant."

The practice was sufficiently common in Cicero's time, and Pliny connects it with the growth of wealth, and the time when money began to be the instrument of ambition and the measure of respectability; that is, he dates its birth from the decline of the Republic.

Homer (Odyss. xi.) makes Ulysses go down to Hades and there meet Teiresias, the Theban prophet, who tells him of the hardships that awaited him in his journey home, where however in the end he is destined to arrive. Horace supposes a continuation of the interview, and makes Ulysses ask the soothsayer how he is to repair his fortunes when he gets home, and finds his property wasted by his wife's suitors, as the prophet told him it would be (see note on v. 6). Teiresias, though he implies that the cunning Ulysses would be at no loss in such a matter if he once got home, gives him his advice, which is to lay himself out for pleasing old men and women of fortune, and getting named in their wills, for which he lays down a few ordinary rules of these, a persevering and coarse servility is the chief. Ulysses appears in as low a character as he can, an apt disciple, ready to be the shadow of a slave, and to prostitute his chaste Penelope if need be. The

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