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201. Quorsum? — Insanus] 'Quorsum?' expresses a sudden and angry interruption of the king, astonished at the man's boldness, while he, being warm, goes on without heeding Agamemnon's anger, 'for mad as he was, what did Ajax do?'

203. Uxore et gnato ;]

Tecmessa and Eurysaces.

204. Non ille] Non' must not be separated from 'ille.' The meaning is 'not even he,' ovd'ékeivos. So in C. iii. 21. 9:

"Non ille quanquam Socraticis madet

Sermonibus te negliget horridus."

205. adverso litore] The shore is called adverse because they wanted to get away from it, and could not. Properly the winds were adverse, not the coast. But the transfer of the epithet from the wind to the shore is in accordance with a common usage.

207. Meo, sed non furiosus.] This is a very polite reply, considering the provocation. The colloquy ends here. Horace, we may presume, had something before him to suggest what must appear to us a rather unnatural and far-fetched scene.

208. Qui species alias veris] He who shall entertain fancies foreign to the truth, and mixed up together by the confusion of his own wickedness, will be accounted mad.'

211. cum occidit desipit agnos:] This is an irregular collocation of words; but it is not mended by the commas by which desipit' is usually preceded and followed.

214. Si quis lectica] The 'lectica' of the Romans and popelov of the Greeks were introduced from Asia, and differed very slightly from the palanquins in which, from time immemorial, the Asiatics have been carried.

217. interdicto huic omne adimat jus] The law of the XII. Tables assigned the charge of persons who were furiosi' to their relations in the male line, 'agnati,' and the prætor in later times chose the person who should act as 'curator' to the insane person. The same law applied to 'prodigi,' notorious spendthrifts. (See below, Epp. i. 1. 102, sq.) The story of Sophocles brought before an Athenian jury by his sons, and reading the celebrated chorus in his Edipus Coloneus to prove his sanity, is told by Cicero in his treatise on Old Age, c. 7. 'Omne jus' means every legal right.

221. hic summa est insania;] Insania' signifies unsoundness of mind generally; furor,' the same, accompanied with violence. Horace's climax of madmen is the fool, the man of crime, and the ambitious the worst of all.

222. vitrea] This probably means the glitter of fame.

223. Hunc circumtonuit] This verse, which has a grand Epic tone, Orelli thinks may be taken from Ennius. But Horace may have written it himself. He resorts occasionally to travesty to heighten the force of his satire. The worst stage of insanity is represented by one whom Bellona (the goddess of war) hovers round, with a trumpet of thunder and her bloody scourge, and urges on to madness. The Bellonarii, her priests, cut their own flesh to offer the blood in sacrifice.

224. Nunc age] He now passes on to the third kind of madness, profligate extravagance.

225. Vincet enim stultos ratio] See S. i. 3. 115, n. As to 'talenta,' see S. 7.89.

228. Tusci turba impia vici,] The Vicus Tuscus was a street south of the Forum, and is said to have received its name from a body of fugitives from Porsena's army, who were hospitably entertained by the Romans, and allowed to occupy this street. It appears to have been filled with shops, some apparently of the better sort.

229. Cum scurris fartor,] 'Fartores' were persons whose business was to

fatten fowls. The 'scurrae,' 'parasites, were sent for to help to consume all this quantity of provisions, and to entertain the new heir.

cum Velabro] The Velabrum is said to have derived its name from the verb 'vehere,' because the ground was originally a swamp traversed by boats. It was the name of that part of the city which lay between Mons Capitolinus and Mons Aventinus, from the Tiber to the Circus Maximus. Here, too, there appears to have been a collection of shops of the better sort.

omne macellum,] There were in earlier times different markets for the sale of different provisions, as the 'forum boarium' for oxen, olitorium' for vegetables, piscarium' and 'piscatorium' for fish, 'cupedinis' for delicacies,


These were afterwards (the time is uncertain) all transferred to one large market, on the site of the forum cupedinis,' on the north side of the Sacra Via, not far from the Forum Romanum. This market was called Macellum, the diminutive form of 'maceria,' the wall with which it was surrounded.

232. vel nunc pete vel cras] This seems to mean 'whenever you please.' 233. aequus:] This is ironical. The young man, affecting to be just, shows a wanton extravagance towards the most profligate persons.

234. In nive Lucana] It appears from this passage and S. 8. 6, that Lucanian boars were particularly prized. Martial mentions an Etrurian boar as a great present he had received. Horace, in the next Satire (ver. 40), recommends the Umbrian boar above the Laurentian, or those found in the marshy land on the coast of Latium, in the neighborhood of Laurentum, about sixteen miles from the mouth of the Tiber. The same cause that gave the Umbrian boar its superiority would give value to the Lucanian: both were fed upon the acorns and chestnuts of the Apennines, which are still considered in Italy the best food for hogs, wild and tame. The boar was usually served up whole, at large tables, and formed the principal dish. The 'ocrea' was a leather gaiter that came up to the knee and round the calf like the soldier's greaves, and was called from them.

235. verris.] Verrere' is a word used for fishing: 'to sweep the waters.' See note on S. 4.37.

237. tibi decies;] Decies centena millia sestertium': ten hundred thousand sestertii, not much under nine thousand pounds. (See S. i. 3. 15.)

239. Filius Aesopi] Esopus, the actor, amassed great wealth. The name of his son who inherited it was Clodius, which was the father's name, given him perhaps as a freedman of some one belonging to the Clodia gens. Cæcilia Metella was the wife of P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, and was divorced by him B. C. 45, in consequence of her intrigues, chiefly with Dolabella, Cicero's son-in-law, of whose profligacy Asop's son appears to have been a partner. The mad freak of Clodius is also (as is better known) related of Cleopatra. Esopus, the actor, was not less extravagant than his son, see below, v. 245, n.

243. Quinti progenies Arri,] Of the father enough has been said above (ver. 86, n.). Of the sons nothing is known.

245. Luscinias] The second syllable is long; the third coalesces with the last (see i. 7. 30, n.). A dish of nightingales would cost a large sum and afford little meat. Pliny mentions that sopus, the actor (see above, v. 239, n.), on one occasion had a dish of singing and talking birds, each of which cost 6,000 sestertii, and the whole dish 100,000, on which Pliny remarks, the man was worthy of his son, who melted the pearl and drank it. — 'Impenso' is nowhere else used absolutely for 'impenso pretio,' which is a common expression for a high price.

246. Sanin creta, an carbone notandi?] The distinction of days by white and black marks has been mentioned, C. i. 36. 10, n. Horace here applies them to the distinction of character. The meaning of the sentence is, Are

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they as men of sound mind to be marked with a white mark, or (as unsound) with a black?' 'Sanin' is a contraction of 'sanine.' Quorsum abeant?" 'what is to become of them? are they to be marked, &c. ?'

248. Ludere par impar,] A game fit only for children, in which one person guessed whether the number of things another person held in his hand was odd or even. The Greeks had the same game, and called it ápriáČeiv. Stertinius goes on to speak of the man of pleasure, whose madness is no less than that of the covetous, the ambitious, or the spendthrift. With the last he is closely allied.

250. ratio esse evincet] See above, v. 225. He says, "If reason convinces you that all these symptoms of madness are no worse than whining after women, is it not better to repent and lay aside such things?

251. trimus Quale prius] Such a game as you used to play at formerly, when you were but three years old.

254. Mutatus Polemon?] Polemon was a youth given to pleasures and bad company. Passing the Academy with a garland on his head, and with a band of riotous companions, while Xenocrates was lecturing, he burst into the school, but was so struck with what he heard, that, having gone in a thoughtless profligate, he came out serious and quite converted. He succeeded Xenocrates at the head of the Academy (B. c. 315). Xenocrates himself, whose purity of life and sobriety of character are referred to in the word 'impransi,' became the head of the Platonic school on the resignation of Speusippus (B. C. 339). He was the disciple of Plato, and accompanied him on his travels.

255. Fasciolas, cubital, focalia,] These are all articles of dress, worn only by women, or by men who took great care of their person. Fasciola' was a bandage for the legs, 'cubital' a sleeve for the arm, 'focale' a bandage for the throat. 'Impransus' stands for 'sobrius,' because it was not usual for abstemious men to take the midday meal (prandium'). Furtim' is a happy touch of Horace's. It expresses the shame of the young man, and his instinctive reverence for the philosopher and the place he was in, better than many sentences could have done. Correptus' means 'arrested, consciencesmitten.'

258. Porrigis irato puero] The caprices of a spoilt child are no worse than those of lovers squabbling and making it up again.

259. Sume, catelle!] Such diminutives were expressions of endearment. There is a collection of such in a scene of Plautus (Asin. iii. 3. 76): "Die igitur me passerculum, gallinam, coturnicem, Agnellum, haedillum me tuum dic esse vel vitellum";

and ver. 103:

"Dic igitur me anaticulam, columbam, vel catellum,
Hirundinem, monedulam, passerculum putillum."

260. agit ubi secum] With such a scene as this the Eunuchus of Terence opens, and a good deal is taken word for word from that scene. The lover's indecision is represented elsewhere, in Epod. xi. 19, sqq.

270. nihilo plus explicet] Explico' signifies to gain a point or serve a purpose. There is a like use of this word in Cæsar (B. G. viii. 4): "Explicandae rei frumentariae causa.' It is also used in a peculiar sense in C. iv. 9.

44, where see note.

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272. Picenis excerpens semina pomis] The orchards of Picenum, the district that lay between the country of the Sabines and the Hadriatic, appear to have been celebrated. In the next Satire (ver. 70) Picenian apples are said to be superior to those of Tibur, and they are mentioned many years later by Juvenal (xi. 74). The sport here alluded to is thus explained. Lovers were wont to take the pips of apples between their finger and thumb and shoot them up to the ceiling, and if they struck it, their wish would be accomplished. Some such games are common in our own nurseries.

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273. si cameram percusti] Camera,' which is from the Greek kaμápa, and is sometimes spelt with an 'a,' was an arched ceiling, as lacunar' was flat The latter was so called from panels with raised sides, and so having each the appearance of a lacus' or shallow reservoir, into which the ceiling was sometimes divided. It was common in rich houses for the ceiling to be richly ornamented. See C. ii. 18. 2. 'Laquear' is another form of 'lacunar.' Horace also uses the expression laqueata teeta' (C. ii. 16. 12), which is found in other writers.

penes te es?

This seems to correspond to the Greek év éavro eivat, for a man in his right mind: or it may mean to ask if the man is 'suo jure,' which one who was furiosus' would not be.

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274. cum balba feris] You strike your lisping words against your old palate,' which means that he talks in a silly, childish way.

275. Adde cruorem Stultitiae] But childish nonsense is not the worst of this madness. Add bloodshed to folly and run into the most violent excesses of passion, and you will not do more than such lusts commonly lead to. Such is the Stoic's meaning. 'Ignem gladio scrutare' is a translation of a Greek saying, up paɣaipa σkaλevew, to stir the fire with the sword,' which is attributed to Pythagoras. To stir the fire of lust with the sword, is to stir up strife and bloodshed in the indulgence of your lusts.

276. Modo, inquam, Hellade percussa] To take a late instance,' seems to be the meaning of 'modo.' The story here referred to was probably well known at the time, but of the actors in it we know nothing.

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278. Cerritus fuit, an commotae] Cerritus' means 'mad,' but its derivation is uncertain. Commotus' is used for different degrees of mental excitement. See v. 209, where the meaning is the same as here. Agrippina, who was of a hasty temper, is called 'commotior' by Tacitus (Ann. i. 33). Cognata vocabula' means words which may differ in sound, but are one in


281. Libertinus erat,] The next folly noticed is superstition. Stertinius tells, by way of illustration, a story of an old 'libertinus,' who went from shrine to shrine erected in the 'compita,' spots where two or more streets met, praying to the Lares Compitales (for whom altars were built in such places, see above, v. 26, n.) that they would grant him immortality. This he did early in the morning, quite sober, and with hands washed, as became a scrious worshipper. Now this man was sound in hearing and sight; but, says Stertinius, if his former master had ever wanted to part with him, in putting him up for sale he would have cautioned purchasers that he was not in his right mind, unless he wanted to get into an action to rescind the bargain on the ground of fraud. It was necessary for a person selling a slave to inform the buyer of any bodily or mental defect in him. To wash the hands and feet before offering prayer or sacrifice was a custom with the Greeks and Romans. Hector says (II. vi. 266):

Χερσὶ δ ̓ ἀνίπτοισιν Διὶ λείβειν αἴθοπα οἶνον

283. surpite] See C. i. 36. 8.

287. in gente Meneni.] Of Menenius nothing is known. titiae' or 'ineptiae' is spoken of as a proverb.

'Meneniae stul

289. cubantis,] See note on S. i. 9. 18. Illo die' may mean 'die Jovis.' The Jews fasted on Thursdays and Mondays ("I fast twice in the week," Luke xviii. 12), in commemoration, it is said, of the ascent of Moses into the Mount on the fifth day of the week, and of his return on the second. The practices of the Jews were the best illustrations of superstition in the eyes of Horace and men of the world, and their fast is here perhaps alluded to. See note on S. i. 9. 69. On special occasions fasts were ordered at Rome. The vow made by the mother for her sick child is, that, if he recovers, he shall

stand naked in the Tiber, to wash away his sins. This is intended to represent another foreign superstition, as the Romans held it, that of bathing the body in token of the purifying of the soul.

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295. Quone malo] See S. i. 10. 21 on 'quone.' Timor deorum' is equivalent to devidapovía in its usual sense of superstition. 'Deorum metus expresses a right fear or reverence of the gods. But the distinction was not invariably observed.

296. sapientum octavus,] That is, he might take his place with the seven wise men of Greece.

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and in a bad sense, that is to abuse, as here.

299. Respicere ignoto] This refers to Esop's fable of the two wallets, which is told, with its moral, in five lines by Phædrus (iv. 10):

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Peras imposuit Jupiter nobis duas :

Propriis repletam vitiis post tergum dedit,
Alienis ante pectus suspendit gravem.

Hac re videre nostra mala non possumus;
Alii simul delinquunt, censores sumus."

300. sic vendas omnia pluris,] On ‘sic,' see C. i. 3. 1, n. ‘Pluris' is simply put for magno.' Horace quietly hints to Damasippus that he had better leave off philosophy and return to his trade, in which he wishes him all


303. Agave] How she and the other Mænads tore her son Pentheus to pieces for intruding upon the orgies, is related at length by Ovid. (Met. iii. 701, sqq.)

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308. Aedificas, hoc est,] You are building, which is as much as to say, you, who are a dwarf two feet high, are aping the airs of a giant; and yet you laugh at Turbo (a gladiator of great courage, but small stature), swelling with a spirit too big for his little body.' Horace may have been making some additions to his Sabine house, and about this time Mæcenas built his large house on the Esquiliæ. (See S. i. 8, Introduction.)

312. verum est] díkaιóv éσTi; 'is it right?' Compare Cæsar, B. G. iv. 8: Neque verum esse qui suos fines tueri non potuerint alienos occupare." See also Livy iii. 40.

313. Tantum dissimilem] A similar construction occurs immediately below (ver. 317), 'tantum magna.' 'Multum similis' (S. ii. 5. 92), 'multum dissimilis' (Epp. i. 10. 3), are like phrases. Tanto' is the dative governed by


314. Absentis ranae] This fable is told by Phædrus (i. 24).

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318. Major dimidio. Num tanto?] Greater by half,' is a way of speaking which must not be taken literally. By 'num tanto' the frog means to ask whether the calf was so much bigger than her natural size as, by puffing, she had made herself. Is it so much bigger?' she says, blowing herself out to proportions much greater than her own.

320. abludit] This word occurs nowhere else. It means to be out of harmony with.

322. sanus] See A. P. 296: "Excludit sanos Helicone poëtas Democritus." There is not much consistency in Damasippus urging Horace to write at the beginning of the Satire, and calling him mad for doing so at the end of it.

323. horrendam rabiem.] This charge against himself need not be taken seriously. We have no reason to believe Horace was an ill-tempered man. He laments the facility of his temper on one occasion. (S. i. 9. 11.) But he says he is irritable. (Epp. i. 20. 25.)

Cultum majorem censu.] Your living beyond your income.' Horace tries to stop him, but the man goes on with one instance of his folly after another.

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