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suitors of Penelope laugh when they would rather have cried, like "Quin et Ixion Tityosque vultu Risit invito" (C. iii. 11. 21). The sense is, that this cunning debtor, when his creditor sues him, will put on all kinds of characters, tell all manner of lics, get out of the obligation, and laugh at his creditor, let him do what he will to bind him.

74. Si male rem gerere] See v. 40, n.

75. Putidius] This Forcellini explains, I believe correctly, "insanius et quasi corruptius." As 'scribere' signifies to make an entry, 'rescribere' signifies to cancel the entry, which would be done when the debt was paid, and not before. Quod tu nunquam rescribere possis' therefore means 'what you can never recover." 'Dictare' is to dictate the form of bond for the borrower to write out, or the sum to be entered in his own books, and either way is equivalent to lending money. When the unjust steward in the parable told his master's debtor to sit down quickly and write less than he owed, he was said 'dictare,' and the man was to write an acknowledgment in the form of a bond.

77. togam jubeo componere,] This only means to sit down and composedly attend to what he is going to say. He turns from Damasippus to an imaginary mixed audience, and addresses four classes chiefly: that is to say, the ambitious, the avaricious, the luxurious, and the superstitious.

83. Nescio an Anticyram] On the phrases nescio an,' 'haud scio an,' 'I incline to think it is so,' see Key's L. G. 1421. Anticyra was a town of Phocis on the Sinus Corinthiacus, and was celebrated for the production of hellebore, a medicine used very generally in cases of madness. It would seem probable, from ver. 166 and other places, that patients went to reside at Anticyra sometimes. There were two other places of the name, one in Thessaly, another in Locris, each of which is said to have produced hellebore, but see note on A. P. 300. 'Destinare' is a medical term for prescribing. Stertinius says that he rather thinks reason would prescribe the whole produce of Anticyra for the covetous, whom he reckons the worst of the four.

84. Staberi] This person is unknown. The exhibition of gladiators was originally a funeral ceremony, and so continued after the practice became common as a popular entertainment. After the funeral of a wealthy man a distribution of meat to the people ('visceratio') was not unusual, and a public banquet (epulum') was very common, to which persons of the highest distinction that the friends could get to attend were invited. The distribution of corn (frumentatio') was also a common practice. This Staberius, who considered it a disgrace for any man to die poor, willed that the amount of his property should be recorded on his tomb; and his heredes, if they did not do this, were, by a condition in his testament, 'damnati,' under a penalty, to celebrate his funeral with gladiatorial shows and an epulum on a scale to be determined by Arrius, which would be a costly scale. Damnati' is a legal term, and penalties were common in Roman wills. We must infer from the text that 200 pairs of gladiators were in Horace's day an extravagant number, but in later times it would not have been excessive.

86. arbitrio Arri,] Quintus Arrius (see below, v. 243) was well known in his day. He was a man of low character and origin, and rose by timeserving to honor and wealth. On one occasion he gave an extravagant funeral entertainment.

87. Frumenti quantum metit Africa.] This is a proverbial expression. See C. i. 1. 10.

88. ne sis patruus mihi.] This is as much as to say, 'Don't dictate or lay down the law for me.' As to 'patruus,' see C. iii. 12. 3, and above, S. 2. 97. 89. prudentem] Cicero defines 'prudentia' thus: "Sapientis est providere, a quo sapientia est appellata prudentia." What Staberius provided for is related in what follows.

90. summam patrimoni] It would seem from this as if he had not increased the property his father had left him, since the amount of his patrimony was the amount to be engraved on the tomb.

91. Quoad] This is to be pronounced as a monosyllable.

93. perisset] The pluperfect is properly joined with the imperfect in this construction. Compare S. i. 6. 79, and Terence, Phorm. i. 2. 69, "Non si redisset ei pater veniam daret"; and Adelph. ii. 1. 24, “Si attigisses ferres infortunium." Nequior' has irony in it. But Staberius's doctrine was that goodness was measured by wealth, and that if he should die poorer by the fourth part of an as, he would, in the same proportion, be in his own esteem

a less virtuous man. 97. Sapiensne? Etiam, et rex,] 'Wise? say you. Ay, and a king to boot, and anything he shall please.' But etiam' in replies means 'even so.' 99. Quid simile isti] But what likeness,' says some one, 'is there between that person of yours and Aristippus'? If he is mad (the man means), surely Aristippus is more mad.

100. Graecus Aristippus?] Aristippus of Cyrene professed to be the slave of no passion, while he gratified all. He cared nothing for money, while he used it for the purpose of sensual indulgence. The story Horace mentions is derived with little variation from Diog. Laert. (ii. 77). See Epp. i. 1. 18, n.

103. litem quod lite resolvit.] Which settles one doubtful point by raising another. It supposes that the conduct of Aristippus may by some be considered noble.

104. Si quis emat citharas,] Sir Henry Halford relates an instance of lunacy which illustrates this: "In another well-known case which justified the Lord Chancellor's issuing a writ de lunatico inquirendo,' the insanity of the gentleman manifested itself in appropriating everything to himself and parting with nothing. When strongly urged to put on a clean shirt, he would do it, but it must be over the dirty one; nor would he put off his shoes when he went to bed. He would agree to purchase anything that was to be sold, but he would not pay for it. He was, in fact, brought up from the King's Bench prison, where he had been committed for not paying for a picture valued at £1,500 which he had agreed to buy ; and in giving my opinion to the jury I recommended them to go over to his house in Portland Place, where they would find £15,000 worth of property of every description; this picture, musical instruments, clocks, baby-houses, and bawbles, all huddled in confusion together on the floor of his dining-room. I need not add, that the jury found the gentleman insane." (Halford's Essays, p. 63.)

106. formas] Here this signifies a shoemaker's last. It is used for moulds in which castings are made, and would express any shape or block on which anything is made.

107. Aversus mercaturis:] The poets use the dative after verbs, participles, and adjectives, which signify removal or difference. See Key's L. G. 987. Compare C. ii. 4. 19: "Tam lucro aversam." Istis' (v. 108) is the dative under the same rule. This Latin use accounts for our own 6 averse to.'

115. Chii veterisque Falerni] Pliny says, respecting the age of Falernian, "Falernum nec in novitate nec in nimia vetustate corpori salubre est. Media ejus actas a quinto decimo anno incipit." (N. H. xxiii. 20.)


116. nihil est,] A thousand, -nay, that is nothing.' He might have said 'immo.' See S. i. 3. 20, n.

117. unde-Octoginta annos natus,] After he has completed seventy-nine years, that is, in his eightieth year.

118. stragula vestis,] The ancients had very expensive coverings for their beds, which were called 'stragula' or 'stragulae vestes.' They were usually purple, wide, and sometimes richly embroidered.

121. morbo jactatur eodem.] That is, madness. The word 'jactari' is applied medically to the tossing of the sick and writhing of those in pain.

123. Dis inimice senex,] This is an adaptation of eois èxepós, a common Greek expression.

127. perjuras,] 'Pejerare' is the common form of this word.

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129. servosque tuos quos aere pararis,] 'Quos aere pararis' shows the folly of the man who, having laid out his money in the purchase of slaves, employs himself in breaking their heads with stones. Such a man, says Stertinius, would be counted mad by acclamation. 'Well, then,' he adds to the miser, are you not mad, who poison your mother or strangle your wife, to get rid of the expense of keeping them? Of course not; for you do it, not at Argos, but at Rome; not in the character of Orestes, but of a respectable citizen. But do you not believe Orestes was mad before he killed his mother, and when no one suspected it?' As to 'quid enim,' see note on S. i. 1. 7.

130. pueri clamentque puellae:] "Que' in the poets is sometimes placed, not after the second of the two words compared, but after a word which is the common predicate of both clauses." (Key's L. G. 1441.) In a note, Professor Key adds, "A construction that probably began with a repetition of the predicate, 'pueri clament clamentque puellae.' See below (v. 157), "furtis pereamque rapinis," and many other instances.

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137. male tutae mentis] Tutus' was in medical language equivalent to 'sanus.' 'Incolumis' is used in the same sense (v. 132).

141. Hanc Furiam, hunc aliud] What Horace alludes to when he speaks of Orestes calling Pylades names, is uncertain. In the Orestes of Euripides (v. 264) he says to his sister:

μέθες· μί ̓ οὖσα τῶν ἐμῶν ἐρινύων

μέσον μ ̓ ὀχμάζεις, ὡς βάλῃς ἐς Τάρταρον.

splendida bilis.] Splendida' is a redundant epithet. Persius, who imitates Horace frequently, calls it 'vitrea bilis' (iii. 8). Galen says, "The black bile is brighter than the blood itself, like the asphalt from the Dead Sea, which they call Jewish asphalt."

142. Opimius] This man, who was magnas inter opes inops' (C. iii. 16. 28) is quite unknown except from this description. On the wine of Veii see note on C. i. 9. 7, and Persius (S. v. 147): "Veientanumque rubellum." On Campana trulla,' see S. i. 6. 118. Trulla,' which has the same element as Tρúẞov, was a drinking-cup of some shape. It was not necessarily of earthen-ware, as here. Cicero (in Verr. ii. 4. 27) mentions one made of a single precious stone of enormous size, with a gold handle.

147. multum celer] See S. i. 3. 57.

155. Agedum, sume hoc ptisanarium oryzae.] On ‘agedum,' see S. i. 4. 38. 'Ptisanarium' is a diminutive of 'ptisana,' and means a little broth. Rice was imported from Egypt.

157. furtis pereamque rapinis ?] See note on S. i. 3. 122, and above, v. 130. The wretched man, when he hears the price of his food, conjures up the notion that everybody is conspiring to rob and plunder him.

158. Quisnam igitur sanus?] These questions and answers are all carried on by Stertinius himself. "Stultus et insanus' means 'he is a fool, and therefore mad'; not he is a fool, and moreover he is mad,' since folly and madness have already been declared to be identical.

161. Craterum dixisse putato] Craterus was an eminent physician of that day. Cicero speaks of him with confidence as attending the daughter of Atticus during her illness, B. c. 45. He is mentioned by Persius many years afterwards as representing the profession (S. iii. 65). Cardiacus,' according to Celsus's definition, is "nothing else than excessive weakness of the body, which, from the stomach having lost its tone, is wasted with immoderate sweating."


163. morbo tentantur acuto.] This whole verse is repeated, Epp. i. 6. 28. 'Morbus acutus,' 'an acute disease,' is opposed to 'longus,' a chronic disease.'

165. porcum Laribus:] C. iii. 23. 4. 'Let him offer a thanksgiving to his Lares who have protected him from those vices.'

168. Servius Oppidius] This person is unknown, except from this passage. He lived at Canusium, a town of Apulia (see S. i. 5. 91, n.). Horace says

he was rich even with two farms, according to the standard of incomes in the old times. As to the form 'divisse,' see S. 1. 5. 79. This story serves to connect the subject of avarice with that of ambition, which is the next form of madness and profligacy which follows.

171. talos, nucesque] The 'talus' was the knuckle-bone of some animal, generally a sheep, the Greek name for which was dorpayados. The manner of playing with it was the same among the Greeks and the Romans, and the same bones are still used by boys in England. The ancients used them in games of skill and of chance; for the latter purpose they were marked as dice, and thrown usually from a box called 'fritillus,' 'phimus,' etc. (See S. ii. 7. 17, n.) Boys had also games of various kinds with nuts, as they have now. Suetonius relates that Augustus used to amuse himself by playing with little boys at these games. Oppidius observed that his son Aulus carried about his bones and his nuts in a careless way in a loose fold of his toga, ready to give them away to any of his companions, or to lose them at play; while Tiberius always counted his carefully and hid them away, carrying a serious face wherever he went; and from these early signs of character he foresaw that one would prove a spendthrift, and the other a miser. As to Nomentanus, see S. i. 1. 102, n.; and on Cicuta, see above, v. 69. 178. coërcet.] Keeps within bounds, defines, limits.

179. Gloria Sec S. i. 6. 23.

181. is intestabilis et sacer esto.] A person who was 'intestabilis,' as the word implies, could not appear as a witness before a magistrate, and so lost virtually much of his capacity for private rights. Sacer' was one condemned for some great crime, who might be put to death by anybody, without charge of murder. Thus Oppidius imprecates a curse upon his sons, if they should ever aspire so high as to the office of an ædile or a prætor.

182. In cicere atque fuba] As if his sons were already seeking votes, he says to each of them (for tu' must be so understood), So you would throw away your money in distributing largesses to the people (such as the ædiles were wont to give), in order that you may strut about in the Circus, and have a bronze statue voted you, that is to say, that you may be loaded with the same honors as the great Agrippa, like a fox aping a lion.' It was customary for the ædiles to distribute grain, or vegetables of the sort mentioned, to the common people, at the festival of the Floralia. See Persius (v. 177).

183. Latus-spatiere] This is explained in the note on Epod. iv. 7. As to aeneus,' see C. iii. 3. 65, n. The form of expression aeneus ut stes' is like that in C. iv. 1. 19: 'Albanos prope te lacus Ponet marmoream "; and Virg. (Ecl. vii. 35):

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Nunc te marmoreum pro tempore fecimus; at tu
Si fetura gregem suppleverit aureus esto.'

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The same way of speaking is common in Greek. Such statues as are here supposed were usually erected in the Forum, and one had probably been lately placed there in honor of Agrippa. It may be observed that Oppidius plainly means the first part of his address, from In cicere,' etc., to apply to the careless, extravagant Aulus, while the simile of the fox and lion is only applicable to Tiberius, who, if he spends his money, will look for a substantial return for it, in such honors and rewards as he saw Agrippa had won. 185. quos fert Agrippa] Agrippa, after he had been prætor and consul, undertook the ædileship, which was the lowest of the curule offices, in B. C. 33, to gratify Augustus. His munificence was very great in the erection of

public buildings and the celebration of games on a splendid scale, and in large donations to the people.

186. Astuta ingenuum] This appears to be nothing but a suitable illustration invented by Horace. It is obvious enough, and we need not suppose it a proverb or a current fable of Æsop or any one else.

187. Ne quis humasse velit] This scene is taken from the remonstrance of Ulysses with Agamemnon, in the Ajax of Sophocles (v. 1328, sqq.), after Ajax has destroyed himself. 'Veto' usually governs the infinitive mood. Once more, as here, Horace uses it with 'ne' and the subjunctive (Epp. ii. 1. 239), and once with the subjunctive, but without 'ne' (C. iii. 2. 26). Tibullus has 'veto' with 'ut': "Illius ut verbis sis mihi lenta veto (ii. 6. 36). Atrida' is the later form of the vocative. The Greek Atride' is used in Epp. i. 7. 43. 'Cur' is awkwardly placed, as it is in S. 7. 104. The connection with what precedes lies in the extravagant and imperious conduct of the king, as illustrating the excesses of pride, and proving that madness is found in high places and in the heart of kings. Stertinius, it must be remembered, is exposing the folly of ambition. The dialogue is supposed to be between Agamemnon and one of his soldiers, in view of the unburied corpse of Ajax. I am a king,' ('I am one of the common sort, and dare ask no more!' interposes the soldier humbly,) and morcover the thing is just that I command.' There is a good deal of irony here. The justice of the command is secondary to the will of the despot, and his subject is ready, with instinctive awe, to admit that it is so; but the tyrant condescends to justify his act; and the man of low degree, not without trembling and doubt and astonishment at such condescension, ventures to ask that his reason may be enlightened a little, in order that he may learn to acquiesce willingly. Stephens quotes a Greek proverb, μωρῷ καὶ βασιλεῖ νόμος ἄγραφος, Fools and kings are governed by an unwritten law.' Compare Juvenal, “Sie volo sic jubeo; stat pro ratione voluntas" (vi. 223).

191. Di tibi dent capta classem deducere Troja!] This is a version of the words of Chryses to the king (II. i. 18):

ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ολύμπια δώματ' ἔχοντες

ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ ̓ οἴκαδ ̓ ἱκέσθαι. 'Consulere' is used humorously, as if the person addressed was a jurisconsultus. On 'respondere,' see C. S. 55, n.

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194. Putescit] The two forms putrescere' and 'putescere' are in use, but there is no difference of meaning in them. 'Putrescat' is used above (v. 119).

195. Gaudeat ut populus Priami Priamusque] γηθήσαι Πρίαμος Πριάμοιό τε παῖδες.

Comp. Il. i. 255: Kev

197. Mille ovium] "Mille' in the singular is commonly an adjective; in the plural, perhaps always a substantive." An exception to the latter part of this rule occurs above (S. i. 6. 111). 'Morti dedit' is exactly equivalent to our 'put to death.' 'Do' means 'to put'; so its compounds 'abdo,' 'to put away'; 'addo,' 'to put to'; 'condo,' 'to put together'; 'dedo,' 'to put down' (one's arms); 'dido,' to put asunder or distribute'; 'edo,' 'to put forth; indo,' 'to put on '; 'trado,' 'to put across, to hand over,' etc. 198. mecum se occidere clamans.] See Soph. Aj. 42:

τί δῆτα ποίμναις τήνδ ̓ ἐπεμπίπτει βάσιν ;

δοκῶν ἐν ὑμῖν χεῖρα χραίνεσθαι φόνῳ.

199. dulcem Aulide natam] Iphigenia, the daughter of Agamemnon, was brought to the altar to be sacrificed to Artemis, when the Greek fleet was detained in the port of Aulis, in Euboea, on its way to Troy. But the goddess carried her off to be her priestess in Tauri.

200. spargisque mola caput,] This is the mola salsa,' the meal and salt with which the head of the victim was sprinkled. (See C. iii. 23. 20, n.)

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