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lower orders (see S. ii. 3. 291, n.), curses denounced upon the transgressors of the Sabbath, which the Jews, who were zealous in making proselytes, propagated among them, were objects of terror to many.

72. Huncine solem Tam nigrum surrexe] Huncine' is compounded of the pronoun, the demonstrative enclitic 'ce" (for 'ecce,' 'behold'), and the interrogative enclitic 'ne' (Key's L. G. 293). As to 'surrexe,' see S. i. 5. 79; and Terence (Ad. iv. 2. 22), “Non tu eum rus hinc modo Produxe aiebas?” 76. Licet antestari?] This word signifies the calling a by-stander to witness that there was nothing illegal in the conduct of the plaintiff in such a case as the above, and that the defendant had resisted, and that force was necessary. The process was by touching the ear of the person whose testimony was asked, who could not be compelled to be a witness; but after he had consented, he was bound to appear and give evidence if required. Horace was only too glad to help in the forcible removal of his persecutor, and gave his ear with all readiness. The parties begin to wrangle: a crowd of idlers of course forms round them, and Horace makes his escape. By 'vero' he means 'in good earnest.'

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77. Rapit in jus ;] In jus vocare' is a technical expression having reference to the first step in a civil action when both parties appeared before the prætor or other magistratus having jurisdictio,' with the view of fixing a day for the commencement of the trial. On this occasion the 'vadimonium' above described was entered into. In jus vocare,' therefore, being the first step, could not follow upon the neglect of the 'vadimonium' by Horace's companion; and the adversarius' in this case cannot be the plaintiff in the other (v. 36), unless Horace is speaking loosely.

SATIRE X.

THE line of self-defence Horace took in the fourth Satire (see Introduction, and v. 6, n.) led him into a criticism of Lucilius, which gave a fresh handle to his adversaries, who professed an admiration for that poet, but admired him for his worst faults of taste, and especially for his combination of Greek words with his mother tongue, -a practice the affectation of which no one would more instinctively feel and condemn than Horace. Horace adhères to his criticism, and says, if Lucilius had lived, he would have been the first to find faults in his own style, and to correct it.

1. Nempe incomposito] See Introduction.

3. At idem] "At' denotes rather addition than opposition. It is commonly employed after a concession" (Key's L. G. 1445). The concession here is in nempe.' 'You say, and I admit it, still in the same Satire I praised him.'

4. defricuit] This word is nowhere else used in this sense. It means 'to give a hard rub,' as we say. There are other vulgarisms in our own language akin to this expression.

6. Et Laberi mimos] Laberius was the most distinguished writer of this particular kind of play that we know of. He died the year before the battle of Philippi, A. U. c. 711, and therefore before this Satire was written. The Roman mimes were, in the time of Laberius, represented in the theatres with the regular drama. They were a combination of grotesque dumb-show, of dances by men and women, of farcical representations in verse-dialogue, of incidents in low and profligate life, and of grave sentiments and satirical allusions interspersed with the dialogue. Augustus was a great patron of these licentious representations. See Tac. Ann. i. 54.

9. Est brevitate opus,] The want of this quality in Lucilius he condemns in S. 4. 9, sqq.

11. modo tristi]

Tristi' signifies 'serious.'

12. Defendente vicem] Supporting the part,' like "fungar vice cotis" (A. P. 304), and " Actoris partes chorus officiumque virile Defendat" (v. 193). On 'modo,' see S. 3. 12. The combination Horace commends is that of the orator sternly or gravely rebuking vice, of the humorous satirist ('poëtae') broadly ridiculing it, and of the polished wit, who, instead of throwing himself with all his strength upon his victim, substitutes sarcasm for invective, and lets his power be rather felt than seen. Of these three, the gravity of stern reproof Horace estimates lowest, saying that ridicule generally settles questions, of however grave importance, better and more decisively than severity.

15. secat res.] 'Secare' is used in the sense of 'decidere' in Epp. i. 16. 42. Cicero (De Or. ii. 58) says, "Est plane oratoris movere risum, maxime quod tristitiam ac severum mitigat et relaxat odiosasque res saepe quas argumentis dilui non facile est joco risuque dissolvit."

16. Illi scripta quibus] See S. 4. 2, n. 'Hoc stabant,' 'stood on this ground,' as 'hine pendet,' S. 4. 6.

18. Hermogenes] See S. 3. 129, n. 'Simius iste' probably means Demetrius, whom we meet with below (v. 79) as an abuser of Horace and (v. 90) as a trainer of 'mimae,' like Hermogenes, with whom he is associated. We know nothing more of him. His only skill was to sing the love-songs of Calvus and Catullus, who were favorite poets of the last generation, and great friends.

20. quod verbis Graeca Latinis] This is a new fault in the style of Lucilius, not before mentioned. See the note on S. 4. 6.

21. Seri studiorum!] This phrase represents the Greek paleis. In 'quine putetis' the interrogative enclitic is somewhat redundant, but not more than in many other instances, as S. ii. 2. 107, and 3. 295, 317.

22. Rhodio quod Pitholeonti] This person is unknown. His name probably was Pitholaus; if so, Horace changed that termination in conformity with the Greek usage, as Τιμόλαος and Τιμόλεων, Μενέλαος and Μενέλεως, &c., are different forms of the same word.

24. ut Chio nota si] On 'nota' see C. ii. 3. 8. Here the Chian, a sweet wine, would represent the Greek, as the rougher wine of Campania would stand for the less polished Latin.

26. causa Petilli?] See S. 4. 94, n.

27. Scilicet oblitus] The sense of the passage from v. 25 to 30 is this: "You say that the language is more elegant if it be set off with Greek. But I ask you yourself, is it only when you are writing poetry, or when you have on hand a difficult cause, such as that of Petillius? Would you then likewise, forgetting your country and your birth, while our great orators Pedius and Messalla are elaborating their speeches in their pure mother tongue ('Latine'), would you, I say, prefer mixing up a foreign jargon with your native language, like a double-tongued man of Canusium?" He puts the composition of verses on such themes as Lucilius chose, on a level with the gravity of forensic speaking, and asks why, if the man would not apply the rule to the latter, he should do so to the former.

28. Cum Pedius cansas] Who Pedius was, is quite uncertain; but he must have been well known as an orator. It is also uncertain whether Poplicola belongs to Pedius or Corvinus, about whom see C. iii. 21. Quintilian describes him (x. 1. 113) as "orator nitidus et candidus et quodammodo prae se ferens in dicendo nobilitatem suam." And Horace speaks again of his eloquence, A. P. 370. His intimacy with Horace began in the army of Brutus, and continued unbroken till Horace's death.

30. Canusini more bilinguis?] As to Canusium, see S. 5. 91. It was one of those Greek towns which remained longest and most purely the language of its founders, as we may suppose from the text.

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36. Turgidus Alpinus] This is supposed to be a bad poet named M. Furius Bibaculus, born at Cremona B. C. 102 'Turgidus ' refers to his person. Horace describes him elsewhere as "pingui tentus omaso (S. ii. 5. 40), where a bombastic verse of his is quoted, which may account for his being called familiarly, by his contemporaries, Alpinus. Horace speaks of his murdering Memnon, and it is generally supposed that this refers to a translation he made of the Aethiopis of Arctinus, one of the Cyclic poets, in which Memnon was one of the principal heroes.

37. Defingit Rheni luteum caput,] Horace says that Furius, like some rude artist, had made a figure of Rhenus (the Rhine) with a head of clay, referring to the statues by which the different river-gods were represented, and to some description this poet had given of the Rhine, perhaps in a poem he is said to have written on the Gallic war. Defingo' is 'to fashion out,' and differs little from 'fingo.'

38. Quae neque in aede sonent] Sp. Mæcius Tarpa was the officer who licensed plays before they were acted. He is mentioned again in the Ars Poëtica (v. 387). His duties had previously formed part of the functions of the ædiles, and it was not till political allusions became common, and the position of affairs too critical to bear them, that this special censorship was created. Aedes' in the singular signifies 'a temple.' Temples of Apollo and the Muses are referred to by Juvenal (S. vii 37) as the resort of poets, and other temples besides (see Ovid. Trist. iii. 1. 69) had buildings attached where men of letters assembled. In one of these, therefore, or some building espe cially consecrated to the Muses, poets who had plays they wished to get represented recited them, probably in the presence of Tarpa.

42. Unus vivorum, Fundani;] Of this Fundanius, who Horace says was the only man of the day who could write a comedy in the style of Menander and that school, nothing whatever is known. He is the narrator of the scene in S. ii. 8, the supper of Nasidienus. Probably Horace exaggerated his merits, as well as Pollio's, out of affection for the men. As to Pollio, see C. ii. 1, Int., and v. 10, n. 'Regum,' such as the "sacra Pelopis domus" (C. i. 6. 8, n.). 'Pede ter percusso' refers to the trimeter iambic, the common measure of tragedy.

44. Ut nemo Varius ducit ;] As to Varius, see the Ode last mentioned, vv. 8, 11, and S. 5. 40. The derived significations of 'ducere' are various. As applied to a poem, it is probably taken from the process of spinning. See Epp. ii. 1. 225: "tenui deducta poëmata filo." See also S. ii. 1. 4.

45. Virgilio] Whether Virgil had at this time published his Georgics or not is quite uncertain, from the doubt that hangs over both the date of this Satire and the publication of those poems. But, at any rate, Virgil had them in hand, and his friends had probably heard a great part of them recited in private. The Bucolics had been published some time, and they seem to have been thought well of, though until the Aeneid had made some progress we have no reason to suppose that Virgil was classed by his contemporaries with poets of the first rank. 'Facetum' signifies 'elegant,' as in a coxcomb it would be called 'fine,' S. 2. 26.

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46. Hoc erat,] Horace says, Fundanius may write comedy better than any man living, Pollio tragedy, Varius epics, Virgil pastorals: this (satire) was what, after Varro and some others had tried it in vain, I was able to write better than they, though not equal to its inventor' (Lucilius). Who he means by some others,' it is impossible to say.

Varrone Atacino] P. Terentius Varro was a poet of the day some years older than Horace. He was called Atacinus from the Atax, a river of Gallia

Narbonensis, to distinguish him from M. Terentius Varro, who is sometimes called Reatinus. Different works are attributed to him. His attempts at satire — in which Horace says, most probably with justice, that he had failed -are nowhere noticed but here.

53. Nil comis tragici mutat Lucilius Acci?] See below, v. 65. Accius was born B. c. 170, and was a writer of tragedies, chiefly from the Greek. Cicero and Quintilian speak very highly of him, and the popular judgment was in his favor. See Epp ii 1 56, and A. P. 259.

55. non ut majore reprensis? 'Not as if he were superior to those he finds fault with.'

59. Quid vetat et nosmet] Horace says he is at liberty to inquire whether it is not a natural consequence of Lucilius's temperament, and the character of his subjects, that he wrote verses not more polished and smooth than might be expected of a man who was content with giving his lines the proper number of feet, and took delight in stringing together a vast number of them in the shortest possible time. 'Pedibus quid claudere senis' explains 'hoc,' 'contented merely with this,' that is to say, comprising something (that he calls a verse, for there is contempt in 'quid') in six feet.

61. Etrusci Quale fuit Cassi] Of this Cassius we know nothing, and what Horace says of him is no more than a jocular invention that his writings were so numerous and worthless that his funeral pile was made of them and the boxes that contained them.

63. capsis] See S. 4. 22, n.

64. Fuerit] See S. i. 1. 45.

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65. Comis et urbanus] Agreeable and refined.'

66. Quam rudis et Graecis] Allow that he is more polished than the inventor of a rude style of poetry unknown to the Greeks might be expected to be, and than the mass of the older poets certainly were; still, if he had lived to this our time, he would have corrected much that he had written.'

71. vivos et roderet ungues.]

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And would bite his nails to the quick,' as

men sometimes do when they are thinking very nervously.

72. Saepe stilum vertas] Stilum vertere means to erase what had been written, one end of the iron pen ('stilus') being broad like the end of a chisel, for the purpose of obliterating the letters made upon the wax tablet by the sharp end, which they called 'acumen.'

75. Vilibus in ludis] Such schools as Flavius's, perhaps, if poetry was ever taught there, or in those cheap schools in the back streets mentioned in Epp. i. 20. 18. The word 'dictari' refers to the practice of the teacher reading out a passage for the pupil to repeat after him, one of the earliest steps in education being accurate pronunciation. The words 'canere,' 'cantare,' which are frequently applied to the recitation of the pupil, show that the modulation of the voice was a primary consideration in teaching. To help this most probably was one principal purpose of the master's reciting to his scholars, which was done quite at the beginning, and probably before the boys could write; whence Horace says (Epp. ii. 1. 126), "Os tenerum pueri balbumque poëta figurat." It was a good preparation for their subsequent training under the teacher of rhetoric. It is a practice which might be more generally revived, for nothing can be worse than the way in which boys usually read or repeat their lessons in our schools.

77. explosa Arbuscula] This was a celebrated actress in Cicero's time. As she, when she was hissed off the stage, said she cared nothing for the rest of the spectators, and was satisfied if she pleased the front benches (the Equites), so Horace says he only wants to be read in the better sort of schools, where that class of people sent their sons.

78. cimex Pantilius,] This person, if it be a real name, is quite unknown. A more contemptible animal could not have been chosen to liken the man to,

whether for its odor, its skulking, or its sting. So that dnyμara kopéwv, λalpódαkvaι Kópees, seem to have been proverbial expressions for calumny. 79. Demetrius, See above on v. 18; and as to Fannius, see S. 4. 21, n. On Plotius, see S. 5. 40; and on Valgius, C. ii. 9, Int. He was consul in B. C. 13. Who Octavius was, we cannot tell. Horace does not mean Augustus, for, after the death of the dictator, Octavius became C. Julius Cæsar Octavianus, and could not at this time be called Octavius. On Fuscus (to whom the epithet 'optimus' belongs), see C. i. 22, Int., and S. 9. 61, and Epp. i. 10.

83. Viscorum laudet uterque!] If Viscus be the correct reading in S. 9. 22, and S. ii. 8. 20, the persons there mentioned may be one or other or both of these brothers.

84. Ambitione relegata] Dismissing flattery.'

85. tuo cum fratre,] This may have been Gellius Poplicola, Messalla's brother by adoption. He was with Brutus and Cassius in Asia Minor; but left them before the battle of Philippi, and joined M. Antonius, and commanded the right wing of his army at Actium. If therefore this be the person Horace alludes to, his acquaintance with him began in Brutus's camp He was consul in the year B. C. 36.

86. Vos, Bibule et Servi,] This Bibulus was probably the youngest son of M. Calpurnius Bibulus, who was consul in B. c. 59, and of his wife Porcia, who afterwards married M. Brutus. He wrote an account of his stepfather's life, which Plutarch made use of. He must have been still quite young. Servius Sulpicius Rufus was a distinguished lawyer and friend of Cicero, and he left a son named Servius. This son is perhaps the person Horace refers to. Cicero was very fond of him, to judge by his letters to his father. He must have been older than Horace, and very much older than Bibulus. Furnius was also the son of a friend and correspondent of Cicero, and was a favorite with Augustus. The epithet 'candidus' applied to him by Horace shows that he deserved esteem. Shortly after the battle of Actium he got Augustus to take his father, who had followed M. Antonius, into favor. 88. Prudens] Designedly,' 'on purpose.'

91. Discipularum inter jubeo plorare cathedras.] Their pupils were chiefly mimae,' actresses, but some ladies of birth at this time learnt singing of professors, and it was not counted much to their praise. Jubeo plorare' corresponds to the Greek oiμáčew keλevw, but 'plorare' represents, not only the above proverbial expression, but the drawling of the singing-master teaching his pupils sentimental or melancholy songs. Cathedra' was an easy-chair used chiefly by women.

92. I, puer, Authors did not write themselves, but had slaves, called 'pueri a studiís,' or generally librarii,' to whom they dictated. See S. 4. 10. Epp. i. 10. 49; ii. 1. 110. We are to suppose that Horace extemporized this anathema against Demetrius and Tigellius, and then told his amanuensis to go before he forgot it and add it to the Satire as his 'subscriptio'; which in letters was the word 'vale,' or something civil of that sort.

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