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not so; only it contracts like the diaphragm, and still more so for the same causes. For veins from all parts of the body run to it, and it has valves, so as to perceive if any pain or pleasurable emotion befall the man. when grieved the body necessarily shudders, and is contracted, and from excessive joy it is affected in like manner. Wherefore the heart and the diaphragm are particularly sensitive, they have nothing to do, however, with the operations of the understanding, but of all these the brain is the cause. Since, then, the brain, as being the primary seat of sense and of the spirits, perceives whatever occurs in the body, if any change more powerful than usual take place in the air, owing to the seasons, the brain becomes changed by the state of the air. For, on this account, the brain first perceives, because, I say, all the most acute, most powerful, and most deadly diseases, and those which are most difficult to be understood by the inexperienced, fall upon the brain. And the disease called the Sacred arises from causes as the others, namely, those things which enter and quit the body, such as cold, the sun, and the winds, which are ever changing and are never at rest. And these thing are divine, so that there is no necessity for making a distinction, and holding this disease to be more divine than the others, but all are divine, and all human. And each has its own peculiar nature and power, and none is of an ambiguous nature, or irremediable. And the most of them are curable by the same means as those by which they were produced. For any other thing is food to one, and injurious to another. Thus, then, the physician should understand and distinguish the season of each, so that at one time he may attend to the nourishment and increase, and at another to abstraction and diminution. And in this disease as in all others, he must strive not to feed the disease, but endeavor to wear it out by administering whatever is most opposed to each disease, and not that which favors and is allied to it. For by that which is allied to it, it gains vigor and increase, but it wears out and disappears under the use of that which is opposed to it. But whoever is acquainted with such a change in men, and can render a man humid and dry, hot and cold by regimen, could also cure this disease, if he recognizes the proper season for administering his remedies, without minding purifications, spells, and all other illiberal practices of a like kind.

tion of Homer, Euripides, Tyrtæus, and others of the Greek poets, held that the heart is the organ or seat of the passions; but the brain, of the understanding. See On the Republic, pluries. This philosophical question is discussed at great length by Galen, in the Second and Third Books of his work, On the Tenets of Hippocrates and Plato.



FIG. 1. The Scamnum Hippocratis, or Bench of Hippocrates, as represented by Andreas a Cruce. (Officina Chirurgica. Venetiis, 1596).

2. The same, as represented by M. Littré.

A. A board, 6 cubits long, 2 broad, and 12 inches thick; not 13, as incorrectly stated by M. Littré.

B. The feet of the Axles, which are short.

CC. Axle-trees.

DD. Grooves three inches deep, three broad, separated from one another by four inches.

E. A small post, or pillar, fastened in the middle of the machine in a quadrangular hole.

F. Pillars a foot long.

G. A cross-beam laid on the pillars FF, which can be placed at different heights by means of holes in the pillars.


FIG. 1. Representation of the mode of reducing dislocation of the thigh

outwards, as given by M. Littré.

p. 305.)

(Euv. d'Hipp., tom. iv.,

A mistake in the figure given by M. Littré is here corrected. It applies to Articulations, § 74.

A. A lever applied to the nates of the luxated side, and acting from without inwards, in order to bring the head of the bone into its cavity.

B. Another lever, held by an assistant, put into one of the grooves of the machine, and intended to act against lever A.


c. Groove in which the end of the lever A takes its point of support. D. The luxated member.

EE. Extension and counter-extension.

2. Representation of the ancient mode of performing succusion, as given by Vidus Vidius in the Venetian edition of Galen's works. (Cl. vi., p. 271.)

It applies to Articulations, § 43.


FIG. 1. The Circular Band, named Rotunda sincera æqualis. From the Venetian edition of Galen. (vi., p. 205.)

2 and 3. The form of bandage named Ascia sincera inæqualis (Ibid. p. 206.)

4 and 5. The form of bandage named Sima sincera inæqualis. (Ibid.)

These bandages relate to the work, On the Surgery.


FIG. 1. The bandage named Monoculus.

2. The bandage named Rhombus.

3. The bandage named Semirhombus.

These figures apply to the work, On the Surgery.


FIG. 1. Elastic rods used as splints in fracture of the leg. Figure as given by Littré. (Euv. d'Hippocrat., iii., p. 519.)

2. The same, as given by Vidus Vidius in the Venetian edition of Galen.

These two figures apply to the description given in § 30 of Fractures.

3 and 4. Apparatus for the cure of Club-foot, as given by Aracæus. (See p. 560 of this work.) The Boot, probably, was used in lieu of the Chian sandals of Hippocrates, p. 634.

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