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enemy, which he had been taught in England to despise, and of confining his operations to the protection of the northern province.

On the 14th of June in the year following, William landed with reinforcements at Carrickfergus. The distracted state of England, and the formidable preparations of France, inclined him to a vigorous prosecution of the war in Ireland. He advanced towards Dublin with an army of 36,000 men.

James collected his forces amounting to 33,000 at Drogheda, and by an unaccountable infatuation resisted the advice of his general officers, to act on the defensive against William ; who would then have had to contend, at the same time, against a threatened foreign invasion of Britain, the insurrection which his own subjects were plotting, and the difficulty of maintaining his Irish army in an unfriendly climate, without provisions or succours.

Though William obtained a decided victory at the Boyne, the Irish army had fought with courage and obstinacy; and, in consequence of having at one time repulsed the centre of the English army, were able to retire in good order, with the loss of only 1500 men.3 The subsequent defeat of General Douglas before Athlone, and of William himself before Limerick, left James, at the end of the campaign, in possession of nearly one half of Ireland, and well supported by an army inured to war, and commanded by able and experienced generals. William experienced still greater embarrassments on the continent and in England. A victory had been gained by Luxemburgh, in Flanders, over Prince Waldeck and the confederate army; Tourville had defeated the united fleets of England and Holland, and great dejection and discontent were visible among his British subjects.

William having returned to England in the autumn of 1690, General Ginckle, with an army inferior to that of St. Ruth, who now commanded the Irish forces, commenced the campaign by the capture of the fort of Baltimore. Having afterwards taken Athlone, and defeated St. Ruth at the battle of Aughrim, he laid siege to Limerick on the 25th of August, 1691. The fortifications had been strengthened since William was repulsed before it in the preceding year, the garrison was healthy, well supplied, and in numbers equal to the assailants, and strong succours were daily expected from France. The besiegers, on the other hand, were too few for the undertaking, the season of the year was far ad. vanced, and they had no expectations of receiving any

reinforcements.

Week passed away after week without Ginckle's obtaining any advantage over the besieged ; at length he made a lodgment on the West side of the Shannon. But, notwithstanding this success, it was debated whether the siege should be carried on, or converted into a blockade e ;

Lelaud, v. 3, b. 6. c. 6.

2 Ib.

3 lb.

4 Ib.

such were the difficulties foreseen in reducing the town. It was dangerous for the besiegers to continue in their present station on the approach of winter, and hazardous to divide an army sufficient only for assailing the town on one side ; and yet the only effectual way of reducing it was to invest it on all sides, by cutting off the garrison from all intercourse with the county of Ciare.'

William, in the mean time, was so sensible of the necessity of obtaining the surrender of the Irish army, in order to secure his newly acquired throne, and the success of the revolution, that he sent instructions to the Lords Justices to issue a proclamation, offering to the Catholics still more liberal terms than those which they afterwards accepted ; and he gave Ginckle urgent directions to terminate the war on any conditions. Fortunately, however, for William and the revolution party, but most unfortunately, as events have since proved, for the Catholics, the garrison of Limerick beat a parley on the 29th day of the siege. A cessation of three days was granted ; and, on the last day of it, the Irish generals proposed terms of capitulation. They required an act of indemnity for all past offences, with a full enjoyment of the estates they possessed before the present revolution, freedom for the Catholic worship, with an establishment of one Romish ecclesiastic in each parish. They also required, that Catholics should be declared fully qualified for every office, civil and military ; that they should be admitted into all corporations; and, that the Irish army should be kept up and paid in the same manner with the king's other troops, provided they were willing to serve. Ginckle refused to accede to their proposal ; but being desired to offer such terms as he could grant, he proposed conditions which were accepted by the garrison, and which are contained in the following civil and military articles.

Three days after they were signed, the French fleet arrived in Dingle Bay.*

· Leland, v. 3. b. 6. c. 6.
? Ib. and Harris's Life of William, p. 372.

This was called the secret proclamation, because, though printed, it never was published, in consequence of the Lords Justices being informed of the inclination of the garrison to treat for their surrender.

3 Leland, v. 3. b. 6. c. 6. 4 See Note A.

THE CIVIL AND MILITARY ARTICLES OF LIMERICK,

Exactly printed from the Letters Patent, wherein they are ratified and exemplified by their Majesties, under the Great Seal of England."

GULIELMUS et Maria Dei gratia, Anglæ, Scotiæ, Franciæ et Hiberniæ, rex et regina, fidei defensores, &c. Omnibus ad quos presentes literæ nostræ pervenerint salutem : inspeximus irrotulament. quarund. literarum patentium de confirmatione, geren. dat. apud Westmonasterium vicemo quarto die Februarii, ultimi præteriti in cancellar. nostr. irrotulat. ac ibidem de recordo remanem. in hæc verba. William and Mary, by the grace of God, &c. To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting. Whereas certain articles, bearing date the third day of October last past, made and agreed on between our justices of our kingdom of Ireland, and our general of our forces there on the one part; and several officers there, commanding within the city of Limerick, in our said kingdom, on the other part. Whereby our said justices and general did undertake that we should ratify those articles, within the space

of eight months or sooner ; and use their utmost endeavours that the same should be ratified and confirmed in parliament. The tenor of which said articles is as follows, viz.

ARTICLES AGREED UPON THE THIRD DAY OF OCTOBER, ONE

THOUSAND SIX HUNDRED AND NINETY-ONE.

ther part:

Between the Right Honorable Sir Charles Porter, Knight, and

Thomas Coningsby, Esq. Lords Justices of Ireland ; and his Excellency the Baron De Ginckle, Lieutenant General and

Commander in Chief of the English army; on the one part. And the Right Honorable Patrick Earl of Lucan, Piercy, Viscount

Gallmoy, Colonel Nicholas Purcel, Colonel Nicholas Dusack, Sir Toby Butler, Colonel Garret Dillon, and Colonel John

Brown ; on the other In the behalf of the Irish Inhabitants in the City and County of

Limerick, the Counties of Clare, Kerry, Cork, Sligo, and Mayo. In consideration of the Surrender of the City of Limerick, and

other agreements made between the said Lieutenant General Ginckle, the Governor of the City of Limerick, and the Generals of the Irish army, bearing date with these Presents, for the

The date of the ratification of these articles, is 5th of April, 1692, that is four years after their Majesties had taken the coronation oath.

Surrender of the City, and Submission of the said Army: it is agreed, That,

I. The Roman Catholics of this kingdom shall enjoy such privileges in the exercise of their religion, as are consistent with the laws of Ireland; or as they did enjoy in the reign of King Charles the Second; and their Majesties, as soon as their affairs will permit them to summon a Parliament in this kingdom, will endeavour to procure the said Roman Catholics such further security in that particular, as may preserve them from any disturbance upon the account of their said religion.

II. All the inhabitants or residents of Limerick, or any other garrison now in the possession of the Irish, and all officers and soldiers, now in arms, under any commission of King James, or those authorised by him, to grant the same in the several counties of Limerick, Clare, Kerry, Cork, and Mayo, or any of them; and all the commissioned officers in their Majesties' quarters, that belong to the Irish regiments now in being, that are treated with, and who are not prisoners of war, or have taken protection, and who shall return and submit to their Majesties' obedience; and their and every of their heirs, shall hold, possess, and enjoy, all and every their estates of freehold and inheritance; and all the rights, titles and interest, privileges and immunities, which they, and every or any of them held, enjoyed, or were rightfully and lawfully entitled to in the reign of King Charles II. or at any time since, by the laws and statutes that were in force in the said reign of King Charles II. and shall be put in possession, by order of the government, of such of them as are in the King's hands, or the hands of his tenants, without being put to any suit or trouble therein; and all such estates shall be freed and discharged from all arrears of crown rents, quit rents, and other public charges, incurred and become due since Michaelmas 1688, to the day of the date hereof: and all persons comprehended in this article, shall have, hold, and enjoy all their goods and chattels, real and personal, to them, or any of them belonging, and remaining either in their own hands, or in the hands of any persons whatsoever, in trust for, or for the use of them, or any of them : and all, and every the said persons, of what profession, trade, or calling soever they be, shall and may use, exercise, and practise their several and respective professions, trades and callings, as freely as they did use, exercise, and enjoy the same in the reign of King Charles II. provided that nothing in this article contained, be construed to extend to, or restore any forfeiting person now out of the kingdom, except what are hereafter comprised; provided also, that no person whatsoever shall have or enjoy the benefit of this article, that shall neglect or refuse to take the oath of allegiance,' made by act of Parliament in England, in the first year of the reign of their present Majesties, when thereunto required.

III. All merchants, or reputed merchants of the city of Limerick, or of any other garrison now possessed by the Irish, or of any town or place in the counties of Clare or Kerry, who are absent beyond the seas, that have not bore arms since their Majesties' declaration in February, 1688, shall have the benefit of the second article, in the same manner as if they were present; provided such merchants, and reputed merchants, do repair into this kingdom within the space of eight months from the date hereof.

IV. The following officers, viz. Colonel Simon Lutterel, Captain Rowland White, Maurice Eustace of Yermanstown, Chieveas of Maystown, commonly called Mount-Leinster, now belonging to the regiments in the aforesaid garrisons and quarters of the Irish army, who were beyond the seas, and sent thither upon affairs of their respective regiments, or the army in general, shall have the benefit and advantage of the second article, provided they return hither within the space of eight months from the date of these presents, and submit to their Majesties' government, and take the above-mentioned oath.

V. That all and singular the said persons comprised in the second and third articles, shall have a general pardon of all attainders, outlawries, treasons, misprisions of treason, premunires, felonies, trespasses, and other crimes and misdemeanors, whatsoever, by them, or any of them, committed since the beginning of the reign of King James II. and if any of them are attainted by Parliament, the Lords Justices, and General, will use their best endeavours to get the same repealed by Parliament, and the outlawries to be reversed gratis, all but writing-clerks' fees.

VI. And whereas these present wars have drawn on great violences on both parts; and that if leave were given to the bringing all sorts of private actions, the animosities would probably continue that have been too long on foot, and the public disturbances last: for the quieting and settling therefore of this kingdom, and avoiding those inconveniences which would be the necessary consequence of the contrary, no person or persons whatsoever, comprised in the foregoing articles, shall be sued, molested, or impleaded at the suit of any party or parties whatsoever, for any trespasses by them committed, or for any arms, horses, money, goods, chattels, merchandizes, or provisions whatsoever, by them seized or taken during the time of the war. And no person or

' I A. B. do sincerely promise and swear, that I will be faithful, and bear true Allegiance to their Majesties King William and Queen Mary. So help me God.

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