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P. VIRGILII MARONIS

BUCOLICA.

ECLOGA I.

TITYRU S.

a

MELIBOEUS, TITYRUS.

M.TITYRE, tu patulae recubans sub tegmine fagi

Sylvestrem tenui musam meditaris avena:

b

a Meliboeus and Tityrus are two shepherds, but whether under these names any real persons are represented, is not known.

After the battle of Philippi, when Brutus and Cassius were overthrown by Augustus Caesar and Mark Antony, Augustus, on his return to Italy, rewarded his soldiers by dividing certain lands among them belonging to several cities, among which were Cremona and Mantua. This eclogue describes the unhappy state of those who were thus deprived of their possessions, in the person of Melibocus; and Tityrus represents one who was so fortunate as to have his farm restored to him by the favour of Augustus, and employs his pastoral eloquence to praise him as a deity for his munifiThese lands were divided among the soldiers in the year Consequently this eclogue may be supposed to be written in that year, or soon after.

cence.

713, A.V.C.

▸ The musical instruments used by shepherds were at first made

B

Nos patriae fines et dulcia linquimus arva;
Nos patriam fugimus: tu, Tityre, lentus in unbra
Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas.

T. O Meliboee, Deus nobis haec otia fecit.
Namque erit ille mihi semper Deus; illius aram
Saepe tener nostris ab ovilibus imbuet agnus.
Ille meas errare boves, ut cernis, et ipsum

Ludere, quae vellem, calamo permisit agresti.

5.

10

15.

M. Non equidem invideo; miror magis: undique totis Usque adeo turbatur agris. En ipse capellas Protenus aeger ago; hanc etiam vix, Tityre, duco. Hic inter densas corylos modo namque gemellos, Spem gregis, ah! silice in nuda connixa reliquit. Saepe malum hoc nobis, si mens non laeva fuisset, De coelo tactas memini praedicere quercus. Saepe sinistra cava praedixit ab ilice cornix. Sed tamen, iste Deus qui sit, da, Tityre, nobis.

of oat and wheat straw; then of reeds, and hollow pipes of box afterwards of the leg-bones of cranes, horns of animals, metals, &c. Hence they are called, avena, stipula, calamus, arundo, fistula, buxus, tibia, cornu, aes, &c.

c Amaryllis appears to be only a poetical name for a shepherdess d Deus, here means Augustus Cæsar. e Quercus ilex, fig. 1. e This verse is of doubtful authority, not being to be found in the most ancient manuscripts. Among the ancient Romans a superstition prevailed, that a raven on the right hand, and a crow on the left, made an augury certain. Quid augur, cur a dextra cor

ves, a sinistra cornix faciat ratum.

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T. Urbem, quam dicunt Romam, Meliboee, putavi 20 Stultus ego huic nostrae similem, quo saepe solemus Pastores ovium teneros depellere foetus.

Sic canibus catulos similes, sic matribus hoedos
Noram; sic parvis componere magna solebam.

Verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes, 25
Quantum lenta solent inter viburna e cupressi.

е

M. Et quae tanta fuit Romam tibi causa videndi? T. Libertas: quae, sera, tamen respexit inertem ; Candidior postquam tondenti barba cadebat; Respexit tamen, et longo post tempore venit, Postquam nos Amaryllis habet, Galatea reliquit. Namque, fatebor enim, dum me Galatea tenebat, Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi.

f

Quamvis multa meis exiret victima saeptis,
Pinguis et ingratae premeretur caseus urbi:

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Non unquam gravis aere domum mihi dextra redibat.
M. Mirabar, quid moesta Deos, Amarylli, vocares;
Cui pendere sua patereris in arbore poma.

Tityrus hinc aberat. Ipsae te, Tityre, pinus,
Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta, vocabant.

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the word laeva, commentators are divided in their opinions; it being sometimes used in a good sense, and sometimes in a bad one. Virgil however, Martyn observes, has never used Laevius in a good sense, except in two instances, where it relates to thunder. Here it is plainly used in a bad sense. e Viburnum lantana, fig. 8. f Galatea, a name for a shepherdess.

7. Quid facerem? neque servitio me exire licebat, servitio Nec tam praesentes alibi cognoscere Divos. Hic illum vidi juvenem, Meliboee, quotannis Bis senos cui nostra dies altaria fumant. Hic mihi responsum primus dedit ille petenti : Pascite, ut ante, boves, pueri; submittite tauros. M. Fortunate senex, ergo tua rura manebunt! Et tibi magna satis; quamvis lapis omnia nudus Limosoque palus obducat pascua junco. Non insueta graves tentabunt pabula foetas; Nec mala vicini pecoris contagia laedent. Fortunate senex, hic inter flumina nota

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Et fontes sacros frigus captabis opacum.

Hinc, tibi quae semper vicino ab limite saepes,

Hyblaeis apibus florem depasta salicti,

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Saepe levi somnum suadebit inire susurro.

Hinc alta sub rupe canet frondator ad auras; Nec tamen interea raucae, tua cura, palumbes, gemere aërea cessabit turtur ab ulmo.

Nec

T. Ante leves ergo pascentur in aethere cervi, Et freta destituent nudos in littore pisces:

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Ante, pererratis amborum finibus, exul

Aut Ararim Parthus bibet, aut Germania Tigrim:
Quam nostro illius labatur pectore vultus.

g Flumina nota, may be supposed to mean the Po and the Min

cius.

The river Arar of the ancients is now called the Saone.

M. At nos hinc, alii sitientes ibimus Afros;

Pars Scythiam et rapidum Cretae veniemus Oaxen, i
Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.

En unquam patrios longo post tempore fines,
Pauperis et tuguri congestum cespite culmen,
Post aliquot, mea regna videns, mirabor aristas?
Impius haec tam culta novalia miles habebit?
Barbarus has segetes? en, quo
discordia cives
Perduxit miseros! en, queis consevimus agros !
Insere nunc, Meliboee, pyros; pone ordine vites.
Ite meae, felix quondam pecus, ite capellae.
Non ego vos posthac, viridi projectus in antro,
Dumosa pendere procul de rupe videbo ;

Carmina nulla canam; non, me pascente, capellae,
Florentem cytisum et salices carpetis amaras.

k

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T. Hic tamen hanc mecum poteras requiescere noctem Fronde super viridi; sunt nobis mitia poma, Castaneae molles, et pressi copia lactis ;

Et jam summa procul villarum culmina fumant;
Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbrae.

i Oaren. A river of Crete. Among the ancient authors Virgil is the only one who mentions a river in Crete by this name. There was an ancient city Oaxus in this island, as appears by Herodotus, 'El τῆς Κρήτης Οαξος πόλις. The river was probably in its neighbourhood.

* Medicago arborea, fig. 3.

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