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and all other time together. We have seen that a vow of eternal union may be kept—that death cannot divide those who will to love for ever! Farewell now!

MARGARET." Such are the pictures of European society which this Free Penciller has sketched. Of the truth of his descriptions of his own country and countrymen, it is not for us to speak. We shall only mention, that, in characterising them, he remarks that they are much more French than English in many of their qualities. • They are,' says he, in dressing, dancing, congregating, in chi* valry to women, facility of adaptation to new circumstances, * elasticity of recuperation from trouble,' (a most delicious expression !) in complexion and figure, very French !' Had the • Dashes' been the work of a native genius, we might have hinted, perhaps, some slighit occasional objections, pointed out a very few blunders, questioned, very diffidently, the great modesty of some statements, and the truth and accuracy of others. But, as the case stands, we feel that we are bound to excuse much to a young 'republican visiting a monarchical country for the first time.'

ART. VIII.-1. The Novels and Miscellaneous Works of Daniel

De Foe; with a Biographical Memoir of the Author, Literary Prefaces to the various pieces, and illustrative Notes ; including all contained in the Edition attributed to the late Sir Walter Scott, with considerable additions. 20 vols. 8vo. Oxford: 1842. 2. The Works of Daniel De Foe; with a Memoir of his Life and Writings. By William Hazlitt, jun. 3 vols. Royal 8vo. London : 1843.

T is with De Foe dead, as it was with De Foe living. He

stands apart from the circle of the reigning wits of his time. Along with their names, his name is not called over. What in this respect was the fashion formerly, is the fashion still; and whether sought for in the Histories of Smollett or of Lord Mahon, his niche is vacant. He is to be found, if at all, aloof from his great contemporaries. His life, to be fairly written, should be written as the Life and Strange Surprising Adven

tures of Daniel De Foe, who lived above Seventy Years all alone, in the Island of Great Britain.'

He was born much about the time of that year of grace, 1661, when Mr Pepys and his wife, walking in Whitehall Gardens,

saw :

saw the finest smocks and linen petticoats of my Lady Castlemaine, laced with rich lace at the bottom,' that ever they

• it did me good to look at them,' adds the worthy. man. There was but little in those days to do any body good. The people, drunk with the orgies of the Restoration, rejoiced in the gay dissoluteness of the court. To be a bad Englishman and a worse Christian, was to be a good Protestant and a loyal subject. Sheldon governed the Church, and Clarendon the State; the Bishop having no better charity than to bring a Presbyterian preacher into contempt, and the Chancellor no better wisdom than to reduce him to beggary. While Sheldon entertained his dinner-table with caricatures of a dissenting minister's sermon, 'till,' says one of his guests, . it made us all burst;' Clarendon was drawing up that Act of Uniformity, by which, in one day, he threw out three thousand ministers from the benefices they held.

This was in 1662; and the beginning of that system of religious persecution, under which, with God's blessing, the better part of the English character reawakened, and the hardy virtues of Dissent struck root and flourished. Up to this time, vast numbers of the Presbyterians, strongly attached to Monarchy, desired but a reasonable settlement of Episcopacy; and would have given in their adherence to any moderate system. The hope of such a compromise was now rudely closed. In 1663 the Conventicle Act was passed, punishing with transportation a third offence of attendance on any worship but that of the Church ; and while the plague was raging, two years after, the Oxford Act banished five miles from any corporate town all who should refuse a certain oath, which no Nonconformist could honestly take. Secret, stealthy worship was the resource left; and other things throve in secret with it, which would less have prospered openly. Substantial citizens, wealthy tradesmen, even gossiping Secretaries to the Admiralty, began to find other employment than the criticism of Lady Castlemaine’s lace, or admiration of Mistress Nell Gwynne's linen. It appeared to be dawning on them at last, that they were really living in the midst of infamy and baseness; that buffoons and courtesans were their rulers; that defeat and disgrace were their portion; that a Dutch fleet was riding in their Channel, and a perjured and pensioned Popish despot sitting on their Throne.

The indulgence granted to Dissenters in the year of the Dutch war, (the previous year had been one of fierce persecution) opened, among other meeting-houses, that of Little St Helen's, Bishopsgate ; where the Rev. Dr Annesley, ejected from his living of Cripplegate by the Act of Uniformity, administered his



godly lessons. Under him there sate, in that congregation of carnest listeners, the family of a wealthy butcher of St Giles, Cripplegate; and the worthy minister would stop approvingly, as he passed the seats of Mr Foe, to speak to that bright-eyed lad of eleven, by name Daniel, whose activity and zeal in the good cause were already such, that, in fear their Popish governors might steal away their printed Bibles, he had worked like

horse till he had written out the whole Pentateuch. For the gleam of liberty to Dissenters had been but a veil for the like indulgence to Papists; and it was known at this very time, that the high-minded Richard Baxter had refused a bribe of £50 a year, to give in his public approval of these questionable favours of the crown.

Mr James Foe seems to have been proud of his son Daniel. He gave him the best education which a Dissenter had it in his power to give. He sent him to the then famous Academy at Newington Green, kept by Mr Charles Morton, an excellent Oxford scholar, and a man of various and large ability ; whom Harvard College in New England afterwards chose for vicepresident, when driven by ecclesiastical persecution to find a home beyond the Atlantic. Here the lad was put through a course of theology; and was set to study the rudiments of political science. These things Mr Morton reckoned to be a part of education. He also acquired a competent knowledge of mathematics and natural philosophy; of logic, geography, and history; and when he left the school, was reasonably accomplished in Latin and Greek, and in French and Italian. He had made himself known, too, as a 'boxing English boy ;' who never struck his enemy when he was down. All this he recounted with no immodest or unmanly pride, when assailed in after life for his mean Dissenter's education; and he added that there was a fifth language, beside those recounted, in which it had been Mr Morton's endeavour to practise and improve his schoJars. • He read all his lectures ; gave all his systems, whether • of philosophy or divinity; and had all his declaimings and • dissertations; in English. We were not critics in the Greek • and Hebrew, perfect in languages, and perfectly ignorant, if • that term may be allowed, of our mother tongue. We were not destitute of languages, but we were made masters of English ; and more of us excelled in that particular, than of any school at that time.'

So passed the youth of Daniel Foe, in what may be well accounted a vigorous and healthy English training. With sharp and strong faculties, with early and active zeal, he looked out from his honest father's home and his liberal teacher's study,


upon a course of public events well fitted to enforce, by dint of bitter contrast, the value of high courage, of stern integrity, and of unbending faithfulness. He would be told, by all whom he esteemed, of the age of great deeds and thoughts which had lately passed away, and thus early would learn the difference, on which he dwelt in one of his first writings, between the grand old blind schoolmaster of Bunhill-fields, just buried in his father's parish of Cripplegate, and the ribald crowd of profligate poets lounging and sauntering in St James's. There is no better school for the love of virtue, than that of hatred and contempt for vice. He would hear discussed, with fervid and honest ildignation, the recall of the indulgence in 1674, after the measures for relief of Dissent had been defeated; the persecution of Baxter and Manton in the following year; the subsequent gross interference of the Bishops against a final effort for accommodation; and the fierce cruelty of the penal laws against Nonconformists, between 1676 and 1678. Then, in the latter memorable year, he would find himself involved in that sudden and fierce reaction of the Anti-Papist feeling of the time, which, while Protestants and Presbyterians were groaning under a Popish prince, sent numberless innocent Roman Catholic gentlemen to Protestant and Presbyterian scaffolds.

When the rage of the so-called Popish Plot burst forth, Mr Morton's favourite pupil was in his seventeenth year. We need not say how freely we condemn that miserable madness; or in what scorn we hold the false-hearted spies and truculent murderers, whose worthless evidence sacrificed so many noble and gentle lives. But we as little doubt that, to honest Presbyterians then existing, the thing was not that cruel folly it now seems to us; and we can understand their welcoming at last, in even that wild frenzy, a popular denunciation of the faith which they knew to be incompatible with both civil and religious liberty, yet knew to be the faith of him who held and of him who was to succeed to the throne. Out of the villany of the Court sprang this counter villany of Titus Oates ; and the meetings in which that miscreant harangued the London citizens, were the first effectual demonstration against the government of Charles II. We will not wonder, then, that there was often to be seen among his crowds of excited listeners, but less excited than they, a middle-sized, spare, active, keen-eyed youth—the son of Mr Foe of Cripplegate.

At these meetings were first heard bandied from side to side, the two not least memorable words in English history. Then broke forth, when the horrible cruelties of Lauderdale were the theme, groans of sympathy for those tortured Cameronians who lived on

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the refuse, the weak' of the milk, and so had got the Scotch name of Whigs; then, when justification was sought for like cruelties and tortures against the opposite faith, shouts of execration were hurled against the Papists who would murder Titus Oates, and who, for their thieving and villanous tendencies, had got the Irish name of Tories. Young Foe remembered this in after life; and described the blustering hero of these scenes, with a squat figure, a vulgar drawling voice, and (right in the centre of his broad flat face) a mouth of fit capacity for the huge lies it uttered, calling every man a Tory that opposed him in dis• course.' For be it noted to the credit of the youth's sagacity, he did not even now, to adopt his own expression, come up to * all the extravagances of some people in their notions of the Popish plot. He believed, indeed, that wherever sincere Popery was, a conspiracy to act in conformity with it would not be far off. • I never blame men who, professing principles destruc

tive of the constitution they live under, and believing it their just right to supplant it, act in conformity to the principles they profess. I believe, if I were a Papist, I should do the

same, But when we ran up that plot to general massacres, "fleets of pilgrims, bits and bridles, knives, handcuffs, and • a thousand such things, I confess, though a boy, I could not then, nor can now, come up to them. And my reasons were, as they still are, because I see no cause to believe the • Papists to be fools, whatever else we had occasion to think • them.'

So saved from the general folly of the Presbyterian party, and intolerant only because a larger toleration was at stake, this manly and sagacious lad needed neither knife nor bandcuff to save himself from a Papist. He walked through the thick of the riots with reliance on a stout oaken cudgel, which he called his · Protestant flail;' and laughed at the monstrous lies that fed the vulgar cravings, and kept taverns agape with terror. See him enter one, and watch the eager group. A fellow bawls forth the last invention against the Papishes.' It concerns the new building honest men took such pride in, and Papists, for a reason, hated so.

It is about the tall bully' of a Monument; and every body pricks up his ears. What has happened ? "

Why, • last night, six French men came up and stole away the Monui ment; and but for the watch, who stopped them as they were • going over the bridge, and made them carry it back again, they : might, for aught we know, have carried it over into France. • These Papishes will never have done.' Is the tale incredible? Not half so much, as that some of those assembled should stare and doubt it. But now steps forward Mr Daniel Foe. He


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