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this early stage, have been so rudimentary, ex hypothesi, as to permit of His coming to be conceived, by a process of vain reasoning, as manifesting Himself in animal form. And this is in accordance with all that science teaches as to early man's undeveloped condition, material and mental, social and moral. Once more, we must remember that the facts of consciousness were the same for early as for civilised man; but they were not as yet discriminated They swam before man's untrained eye, and ran into one another. Even the fundamental division of objects into animate and inanimate had not been fixed. But even so, all was not irrational chaos for man. In the outer world of his experience, the laws of nature, which are God's laws, worked with the same regularity then as now. In the world of his inner experience, God was not far from him at any time. If he could not formulate the laws of nature, at least he had the key to their comprehension in the conviction, not expressed but acted on, that nature was uniform. If his spiritual vision was dim, his consciousness of God was at least so strong, to start with, that he has never since ceased seeking after Him. The law of continuity holds of religion as of other things.

Finally, sacrifice and the sacramental meal which followed on it are institutions which are or have been universal. The sacramental meal, wherever it exists, testifies to man's desire for the closest union with his god, and to his consciousness of the fact that it is upon such union alone that right social relations with his fellow-man can be set. But before there can be a sacramental meal there must be a sacrifice. That is to say, the whole human race for thousands of years has been educated to the conception that it was only through a divine sacrifice that perfect union with God was possible for man. At times the sacramental conception of sacrifice appeared to be about to degenerate entirely into the gift theory; but then, in the sixth century B.C., the sacramental conception woke into new life, this time in the form of a search for a perfect sacrifice—a search which led Clementi and Cyprian ? to try all the mysteries of Greece in vain. / But of all the great religions of the world it is the Christian Church alone which is so far heir of all the ages as to fulfil the dumb, dim expectation of mankind : in it alone the sacramental meal commemorates by ordinance of its founder the divine sacrifice which is a propitiation for the sins of all mankind.

1 Euseb. Prepar. Evangel. ii. 2. ? Foucart, Associations Religieuses, 76, note 2.

INDEX

362

Ainos, name of dead taboo, 61 ; altar-

pole, 134 ; offerings to the sun, 230
AALU, 309-12, 313, 316

Alaskans, grave-posts, 196
A bapansi, 299, 303

Aleuts, suspension burial, 204
Abchases, sacrifice, 156, 157

Alfoers, after child-birth mother puri-
Abipones, name of dead taboo, 61;mourn. fied, father beaten, 75; child washed

ing, 79, 80 ; sickness due to sin, 111 in blood, 76
Abstract ideas, familiar to the savage, Algonkuins, grave-posts, 196
31

Aliens, eaten, 201-2
Accadia, 276 ; underworld, 306

Allegory, as the interpretation of
Achilles, 300, 301

mythology, 268
Acropolis, 332

Alliance between clan and god, 169,
Actors, sacred, 351

170 ; between totem and clan, 214
Adoration as primitive as fear in Ally, supernatural, sought by man, 154
religion, 21

Altar, a pole or pile to mark the place
Æschines, 338-40

on which the blood of the totem is
Æschylus, 16; and the mysteries, 360, shed, 131 ; survival of the pile in

Greece, 132, in New World, Samoa,
Affection, parental, 152, 153

and the Samoyeds, 133 ; pile becomes
Affection, natural, of savages, 2002 a dresser or altar, ib. ; the pillar, a
Africa, sacrifices to the dead, 195 ; beth-el, ib. ; pile and pillar combined,
sacred trees, 208

134 ; wooden pillar becomes wooden
Africa, Central, property taboo, 72; image, stone pillar the marble image

wives do not wash in husband's of the god, 135, 139; idol, like altar,
absence, 78

smeared with blood, ib.; materials
Africa, Equatorial, tree-burial, 204 not to be taken from any chance
'Ayabodaluoves, 187

place, 135, but from å taboo.
'AyaOds dalywv, 187

spot, 136, 137 ; primitive altars to
Agave, 257

be distinguished from stones wor.
'Ayeipelv, 3331

shipped, 137 ; primitive altar not at
'Agopa, 3351

first a god, 138; a common, used by
Agreement, Method of, used by savages, two or more tribes, 235; generally

near sacred tree and stream, 237
Agricultural times, sacrificial rite first Altar-stone, anointed with oil, or clad
becomes a cheerful feast, 194 ; an. in skin, 291

cestor-worship dates from, 194, 195| Amatongo, 53
Agriculture, later than pastoral life, Amazon peoples, dead buried in house,

115 ; compatible with nomad life, 49; mothers taboo after child birth,75
234 generally left by savages to the Amazulu, priests, 287
women, 240, 258, 379

Ambon, cure for disease, 45
Agyrtæ, 333-4, 352, 371

Amulets. See Charms
Ahts, blood offering, 171 ; next world, Anaxagoras, on myths, 267
308

Ancestor-worship, not the source of
Ahura Mazda, 305

belief in the supernatural, 55 ; causes

29

desire for sons, 56 ; a by-product | Apaturia, 51
ib.; guardian spirits, 187, 188 ; | Apepi, 309
essentially a private worship, 188 ; | Aphrodite, 273
expressions and acts of sorrow do not | Apis, calf marked by twenty-nine signs,
amount to worship, 189; such acts 122 ; in which the god manifested
must first become matter of custom, himself, 130 ; though all other cows
190 ; blood-letting to revivify the were also sacred, 183
deceased comes to be regarded as an Apollo, laurel associated with, 209;
"offering” to him, 190-2; parallel absorbed many other (totem) gods,
of hair - offerings, 193-4; so the 236, 385 ; associated with dolphin,
funeral feast is interpreted as in 252 ; dissociated from dolphin-myth,
honour of the dead, 194; date of 253 ; ciresionê attached to his temple,
this change, ib. ; then when the 255 ; personality individual though
family comes into existence a body ritual complex, 390; possesses the
of worshippers is provided, 195 ; Sibyl, 274, 283 ; communicates
date, ib. ; assimilated to the worship power of prophecy by blood of
of the gods, 195 ; altars and idols, sacrifice, 285 ; by eating of laurel.
196 ; superhuman powers now leaves, 286
ascribed to the deceased, 196, 197; Apollo Parrhasios, sacrifice to be con-
the “deified ancestor” fallacy, 197 ; | sumed in sanctuary, 146; and
gods not originally ghosts, 197-8; 1 entirely, 149
ancestor-worship does not satisfy the 'Aroopádes (ņuépaı), 67
religious instinct, 198; bound up | Apple, eating the first, 293
with the patriarchate and eventually Arabian Nights, 253, 259, 355
an obstacle to progress, 199; not Arabians might not wash the head,
based on fear, nor the source of 63; blood-feuds with animals, 100;
religion, 225 ; its effects on the primitive altar, 132; the noşb, 133;
belief in the next world, 301-2 ; for sacrificial rite, 144; joint-eating,
bidden to the Jews, 302 ; not the 330. See Hebrews, Israel, Jews,
source of religion, ib. ; libations of Semites
water in, 323-4

Arafuas, funeral feasts, 46
Angakuts, 290

Arcadia, primitive form of sacrificial
Angels, 383

meal, 146
Angoy, royal blood may not be shed, 73 ’Apxepavlotńs, 3352
Animal-headed gods, 123

'Apxépavos, 3352
Animals, sacrificed to non-totem deities, | 'Apricaoirns, 335%

230; sacred, change of status in, Aricia, 238
295-6 ; sacred to gods, 384

Arion, 253
Animate and inanimate, a division Aristophanes, parodies Eleusinia, 375-6

unknown to primitive man, 414 Armenia, totem tombstones, 103
Animism, 21 ff. ; no element of the Arnobius, anointed sacred stones, 143

supernatural necessarily present in, Art, in its highest forms, not a survival
22, but usually present, 41; rever of barbarism, though evolved, 10;
sions to, 141ff. ; not per se religious, exhibits gradual growth of anthro-
206, 393, 409; in it man projects Pomorphism, 252; progress in, 396
his own personality on to nature, Artemis, 'image clad in skin, 2521; the
394

Ephesian, 209
AVITTTómodes, 63

Artemis Hymnia, priestess of, taboo,
Annihilation, 319

62, 63, 77
Annual sacrifice and renewal of blood | Aryan. See Indo-European
covenant, 294

Ashantis, defeated by Fantis, 21 ; offer
Antelope, as totem, 155

blood to the dead, 52; their con-
Anthropology, deals with social and federation, 239

religious institutions, 2; and employs | Ashera, 134, 135

the Comparative Method (q.v.), 2 | Asia, functional deities, 247
Anthropomorphism, of tree-totems, | Asparagus, as totem, 125

208-9; consequence of polytheism, Assiniboins, suspension burial, 204
247 ; gradual growth traceable in Association of an animal with a god,
art and mythology, 252

124, 127 ; of a human figure and
Antilles, guardian spirits, 184

tree, 208–9; in art, 252
Ants, as totems, 126

Association of Ideas, accounts for
A palaches, 311

transmissibility of taboo, 67 ; 91

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