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The Wesleyans preach in it every Sunday night, and it is open to all parties who love the truth as it is in Jesus. A Sunday School and Band of Hope have likewise been formed, and are doing well. Great praise is due to Mr. John Harrison, of Pound-dale, who has had the chief management of it, and we hope he, and all the friends at Washton, may long have to say, “To the people who sat in darkness, light has sprung up."
WINE AND WATER
By the EDITOR. Water sparkled in the Garden of Eden, and refreshed the Father and Mother of all Living. The river of water which made the flowers of Eden to bloom, and its trees to bear fruit, “went out” to bless the earth, Divided into four rivers, it watered many lands. Pison compassed “the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.” Gihon spread itself in Ethiopia. Hiddekel flowed towards the east of Assyria." " And the fourth river is Euphrates.” Scholars and divines designated
. those ancient streams the Euphrates, the Tigris, the Phasis, and the Araxes. Better was the water of Adam than the wine of Noah. “He drank of the wine, and was drunken."
The God of Israel gave His chosen people water to drink. When he was their Guide in the wilderness, and in the fullness of His love led them “in the daytime with a cloud, and all the night with a light of fire, He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and gave them drink as out of the great depths. He brought streams also out of the rock, and caused water to run down like rivers." When He resolved to deliver this people from “ the hand of the Philistines," he raised up Samson, the son of Manoah. Neither the mother nor the son drank “ wine nor strong drink.” This colossal and mighty Samson, who rent a young lion “as he would have rent a kid,” who caught “three hundred foxes," who smote the Philistines “bip and thigh with great slaughter," who brake seven new cords " as a thread of tow is broken when it toucheth the fire," who took the gates of Gaza “and carried them to the top of an hill that is before Hebron," and who threw down the pillars of his prison-house, was a water-drinker.
“O madness! to think use of strongest wines,
Whose drink was only from the liquid brook.”
nor with the wine which he drank,” because it had been presented as an offering to Bel, the god of the Babylonians, and was unclean by Moses's law. He asked for fruit and vegetables, and "water to drink,” and he became “fairer and fatter in filesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the King's meat.”
Was not John the Baptist a mighty teacher—a man of power, of great wisdom, abundant in labours, and of blameless life?
“Verily I say unto you, among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist.” He was a drinker of water. Neither wine nor strong drink ever defiled his lips. “ From his mother's womb” to his death in prison, the river Jordan, and the pool of Siloam, and the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate,” and the fountains of Palestine, gave him the waters of God.
But Jesus, who was greater than John, and the Manifestation of Deity, was also a water-drinker. There is no evidence that He ever drank wine-especially is there no evidence that He ever accepted the intoxicating cup. The wine consumed at the Last Supper was clearly the fruit of the vine," and that was harmless. See Jesus at the Well of Jacob. When he saw the woman of Samaria come to draw water, He said, “Give me to drink.' See Jesus on the Cross. “They gave him wine mingled with myrrh : but He received it not.”
Did Paul ever drink wine ? Did he ever “drink healths ?” When he was sent forth to preach the Gospel, did Barnabas, Simeon, Lucius, Manaen, and he get up an “ordination dinner" at seven-and-sixpence per head, "wine included ?" No!“they fasted and prayed” together, and then Barnabas and Paul went on their mission--not filled with wine, but filled with the Holy Spirit. Paul's religion, we fancy, did not savour much of wine. It did bear indications of the Cross. “I keep under my body," wrote he, “and bring it into subjection.” Did meat make his brother offend ? “I will eat,” said he, “no flesh while the world standeth.” What more? “It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak.” Great-souled Paul! But the Divine Book speaks of Living Waters. They flow through the Celestial City, and made glad the Paradise of God. In that "pleasant land,” we read, “there shall be no more curse," and when the Good Shepherd shall guide His people into the “green pastures,” He will fulfil the saying that is written, “I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.”
TEMPERANCE EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS IN THE
By JOHN NEWBY. It is an old and time-honoured maxim, bearing to the sanction of inspiration, that we must train up a child in the way he should go, in order that when he is old he may not depart from it. And it is a fact, illustrated by tens of thousands of lamentable cases,
that when children are trained up in the way they should not go—as they grow in years, they mostly grow in evil, and never depart from it. There are exceptions, but they are tens against tens of thousands. These considerations, wbile they bear on many forms, perhaps on every form, of moral evil in society, have especial force in reference to the Temperance question. If prevention is better than cure, where cure is possible, but difficult-how essential is it where, cure, alas ! is often hopeless, if not impossible! We have reason, indeed, to rejoice with overflowing gratitude to the Father of mercies, for the miracles of grace, which have crowned the otherwise insufficient labours of Christian philanthropists to reclaim the drunkard. But from the hopeless efforts so often made to recover the adult victims of intemperance arose the happy and natural conception of educating the young in temperance principles. The sapling may be bent, shielded, reared, when the oak will never yield, unless to the thunderbolt that rends, or to the hurricane that lays it low. Hence arose our Bands of Hope, juvenile associations, in which moral force is brought to give direction to the future life. How hopeful we may be in reference to the success and happy results of these associations, facts already bear abundant witness; and it is by facts and results we must test our agencies. tree is known by its fruits."
Ackworth School, in Yorkshire, is a national boarding school, belonging to the Religious Society of Friends in Great Britain. It was founded about eighty years ago, under a serious conviction that a sound Christian education is one of the most imperative obligations due from a Christian church towards all its members. The principle was broadly avowed, that any member of the church, if unable by his circumstances to give a good education to his children, should be assisted so to do by his fellow professors. It was not a mere advancement in life that was contemplated, hut that all the children in the society should be brought up, as the Apostle expresses il, " in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.”
The institution has, ever since its formation, been conducted under the care and open supervision of the religious body to which it belongs. It is freely subject to inspection, and twice every year its condition is submitted to a general meeting, composed of representatives from all parts of the kingdom. Experience has gradually opened up its deficiences; improvements have been introduced in accordance with the general advance of education at large; and perhaps no point has received more attention than that of moral and religious training. To impart a comprehensive knowledge of Holy Scripture, even more than a direct exposition of the tenets of the Society as a sect, to inculcate a love of philanthropic and
Christian enterprise, and the practice of self-control and self-denial, have been primary objects with the conductors of the school.
Yet, notwithstanding this noble design and these good intentions and notwithstanding, too, the strich oversight and discipline of the Society of Friends (a discipline reaching to every individual),-deplorable instancces have from time to time occured of individuals who had, with all these advantages, fallen into vice and degradation from the sin of intemperance. With the best of dispositions they had been led aside-their generous frankoess, and amiable cordiality, and good fellowship, often being as the outside ripple that drew them into the vortex, and they were lost before they knew their peril. It is a sad and serious truth, that even among the Society of Friends, as among society at large, there are comparatively few families who have not felt in some of their connctions a part of that woe immeasurable which the drinking habits of our country entail upon all ranks of society, from the prince to the beggar. It was therefore thought desirable in the school at Ackworth to bring the moral power of association to the aid of instruction and discipline, in the struggle against this giant evil. A juvenile Total Abstinence Society was formed among the boys in 1854. The measure was rather a late than hasły one. By that time the Temperance cause had made considerable progress in the country. The subject was not new to numbers of the children. Their friends in many instances, and their teachers were teetotallers. By the domestic arrangements of the school they were all water-drinkers within its precincts. But such had not always been the case: and as somewhat illustrative of our subject, we will glance back at previous customs. The writer of this paper remembers in his youth the four grades of beer-tins; the largest holding, perhaps, half a gill for the biggest boys, the next somewhat less, the next still less, till the smallest contained the two tablespoonfuls, for the least of the flock. Moderate drinking, indeed, but by no means harmless. If the little dose was ridiculously small, a notion of growth was connected with its increase, and above the largest ration of all, the boy looked forward to the full cup of manhood. The child was trained in the way he should not go.
It may be worth while also to note the steps by which, about five-andtwenty years ago, the practice was given up. Individual remonstrances were uttered in private and in public. The cbildren's small beer was home-brewed; but the officer, to whom was intrusted both the brewing and baking, himself became a teetotaller; and on the occasion of his marriage set the example of a teetotal wedding. On the other hand, the stale
argument that moderation, not monastic abstinence, should be inculcated, was urged in favour of the small beer and the small beer tankards. The school is under the immediate direction of two large committees, and the decisions of each are submitted for confirmation to the other. But after the Yorkshire committee had concluded to brew no longer, the other, meeting in London, vetoed the proposition, and direcied that wholesome malt liquor should continue to be used in the school. Exactly at this juncture one of the boys got access to the wholesome beverage alluded to, and drank himself into a state of stupidity. Thenceforward
the brewing was stopped, and in due time the vals were disposed of for water-tanks.
At the formation then of the Total Abstinence Association in 1854, the pupils were water-drinkers while they were within the walls of the school. More than this could not be said. They were often taken off the premises on little excursions by visitors, and during the annual vacarions were exposed to other inftuences. The adoption of a pledge was thrown before the assembled boys. It was explained to them as a voluntary movement, in which each must decide for himself: the painful experience of the past, the danger and snares of the future, and the safeguard afforded by total abstinence, were represented to them: and they were cautioned not to make a hasty decision, but come to a deliberate choice in the matter, and in every case to have the approval of their parents. The result was, that many of the boys enrolled their names; and iwo of the first secretaries were sons of brewers, acting under the sanction of their parents. At the present time the family of one of them is now entirely clear of the traffic, and that of the other is preparing to wind up the concern, In all, four hundred and fifteen boys have entered their names in this promising Band of Hope. Some are since deceased; the names of fourteen have been erased or withdrawn by request; and of the bulk of the members we cannot speak with certainty, as they are scattered us in all parts of the country. For this reason the pledge was drawn in the simplest form : “I hereby agree to abstain from all intoxicating liquors, except for medicinal purposes." An ornamental card of membership was engraved, with the motto, “Water is best," and " Lead us not into temptation.” On the left is a miniature view of Ackworth School, and on the right that of a crowded street in a large city. Between them is the sentiment “While total abstainers, we altogether avoid the most prevalente templation to crime in the world;" and underneath runs the legend, * May the resolution formed at school be maintained with perseverance to in after life.”
It is understood that on leaving school the boys remain members of the Ackworth Association, unless notice to the contrary be given 10 the secretaries. They cannot, however, remain under any close oversight after leaving school; and this may be considered a weak point. Nevertheless, their minds have been enlightened ; they do not go out into the world ignorant of the snare : they have been taught, that “wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging, and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise." And instances from time to time come to our knowledge, in which the resolution of youth has been earnestly maintained. One boy was known to adhere to his pledge, though the inmales of his father's family freely indulged in intoxicating liquors. Several, in different parts of England, have thrown their energies, both as workers and speakers, into local societies; and in some instances have been the means of founding them, either simply, or in connection with others. To maintain direct communication with four hundred individuals scattered about the country, would be rather difficult, if not impracticable. The first who signed the Ackworth pledge, for instance, after labouring diligently in the