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express addresses made to him as the Father and the Son in scripture may be this, that the agency and seat of the Father and Son are described as in heaven, where they dwell, to receire our homage and worship, and to send down blessings; but the agency and seat of the Holy Spirit is within us, 'where he dwells to assist us in paying that homage and worship to the Son and the Father. Now there may seem to be some reason, wby our direct adorations and addresses of prager and praise should cliefly be offered to those persons of the sacred 'Trinity, which are represented as sitting upon a throne in heaven, rather than to that person who is represented as dwelling within ourselves; aud exerting his divine powers there.

Yet sivice we have proved before, that the Spirit hath real, true and proper communion in the godhead, and that he is one God with the Father and the Son, it is certain that he knows all our wants, our desires and our petitions, for he is omniscient : He is able to supply tlıęm all, for he is almighty: And he is particularly, ordained in this glorious economy to enlighten; convince, convert, sanctify, comfort, and save us, to bestow gifts, graces and divine blessings upon us; and to fit us for the inheri. iance of heaven; and upon these accounts there is sufficient ground, in my judgment, to address ourselves to bim by way of prayer, for the spiritual mercies we want; and by way of praise, for the blessings we receive ; and especially upon some particular occasions, wherein the agency of the Spirit is most eminently, concerned.

There is this plain reason for it:

If there bę any mere creature, to whom I can certainly communicate the knowledge of any wants, who has also power. to supply them, and bas a particular office or appointment for this end, surely all the light of reason and scripture lead me to address him by petition for a supply, and to give bim thanks for what I have received.; much more then may I pay the same sort of honours in a divine manner, to the blessed Spirit, who is the true God, and knows all my wants, and all my prayers and praises.

Finally, since learned men have found in the primitive ages, some few hints or examples of a doxology, or ascription of praise to the Holy Spirit together with the Father and the Son, though there be no such example in scripture, and since this bas been the frequent custom of the church in all these latter ages, I cannot see any sufficient reason to renounce or forsake it, since it is built on such plain and natural reasonings and consequences drawn from scripture.

It may be expedient to practise it frequently in some churches where it has been long used, lest great offence be given ; it may be proper also sometimes to use it on purpose to hold forth the

doctrine of the Trinity in times of error, and to take away all suspicion of heresy from the public worship.

Yet I cannot but give my opinion, that since the apostles continually vary their doxologies, it is a piece of christian prudence not to confine one's self everlastingly to any one certain form of doxology lest the people think that very form to be of sacred necessity : And I am not willing to be the man who should venture to say, there is an absolute necessity of using any dosology, which has no pattern or precept in scripture.

We must have a care lest we make any thing necessary by mere human custom or constitution, which the holy scripture bath pot made so by a divine appointment. For though I have shewÀ that there is in scripture a sufficient foundation to allow and support the common doxology, yet there is no plain and positive command for it there, nor any account of the practice of it.*

Question III. “ Is it lawful in our doxologies or ascriptions of praise, to pay the same worship to the Holy Spirit, or to the Son, as we do to the Father ?"

Apswer I. It is the divine nature or godhead in each person, that is the only foundation of divine worship ; and since it is one and the same godhead, that subsists in the Spirit and the Son, as in the Father, therefore when we use such acts and forms of devotion in blessing and praising God, as agree to the godhead

* The doxologies used in the New Testament are these, viz. Rom. xi. 6. “ of him, and through him, and to him are all things. To whom be glory for ever, Ameo." Rom. xvi. 27. “ To God only wise be glory through Jesus Christ, for ever, Amen." Gal. i. 4, 5, “ According to the will of God and our Falber. To hja be glory for ever and ever, Amen.” Ephes, iii. 21. “ To him be glory in the church, by Christ Jesus, throughout all ages, world without end, Amen." Phil. iv. 20.“ Now to God and our father be glory for ever and ever, -Amen." 1 Tim. i. 17. “ Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the oniy wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever, Amen." 1 Tim. vi. 16. « Whom no man bath seep, or can see. To whom be honour and/puwer ever. Jastjog, Anen.” 2 Timn. iv. 8. “The Lord shall deliver me, &c. to whom he glory for ever and ever, Amen." Heb. xii. 24. “The God of peace, through Jesus Chrisi, to whom be glory for ever, Amen." 1 Pet. iv. 11. “That God id ail things may be glorified, through Jesus Christ, to whom he praise and dominion for ever and ever, Amen." 1 Pet. i. 3.“ Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." 2 Pet. ii. 18. “Our Saviour Jesus Christ, to him be glory both cow, and for over, Ameo.Jude verse 25. “ To the only wise God, our Saviour, be glory, and majesty, dominion, aod power, both now aod ever, Amen." Rev. i. 5, 6. “ To bim that loved us, and washed us from our sias in his own blood, &c.' be glory, and dominion, for ever and ever, Amen." Rev. iv. 11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honour, sod power ; for thou bast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.” Rev, v. 12. “ Worihy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, sod riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, apd glory and blessing." Verse 13. “ Blessing, and bonour, and glory, and power be to him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever, Amen.". Rev, vii. 10, " Salvation into our God, which sitteth npoa the throne, and to the Lamb." Verse 12. “ Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might be unto our God, for ever and ever, Amen." Rev. xix. ). " Hallelujah, salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord

our God."

Vol. VI.


considered absolutely in itself, we may pay the same worship lo Father, Son and Spirit, or to the godhead subsisting in three persons. But secondly,

II. If we consider the three persons of the Trinity in their distinct personal properties and characters, it is utterly inconsistent with the whole current of scripture to pay the same form of address and adoration to each of the sacred three. As for instance,

We adore the Father as the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, as the first person in the sacred order of the Trinity: we bless him for sending Iris own Son into our nature, and for appointing him to be our high-priest, our sacrifice, and our great Reconciler ; we give him thanks for the gift of his Holy Spirit, given first to Jesus Christ our Lord, and by him to us. But we cannot offer the same forms of expression, nor indeed the same acts of inward worship to the persons of the Son or the Holy Spirit.

In like manner we give praise and thanks to the Son; that he condescended to be made" partaker of our flesh and blood;" that he “ bore our sins in his body on the tree;" tiat he was “ slain, and washed us in his blood, and redeemed us to God, and made us kings and priests to God and his Father ;" we bless him, because he intercedes for us at the throne in heaven : and that he, by his Father's appointment and deputation, governs and disposes of all things for the good of his church here on earth. Now these doxologies or thanksgivings cannot be addressed to the person of the Spirit, nor to God the Father.

And I thiuk it is in this sense, we may best understand those words in John v. 22, 23. “ The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, that all men might ho• nour the Son, as they honour the Father.” That is, since the Father, who is represented as the original Governor and Judge of mankind, hath vested the Son as Mediator with this authority of government and judgment, therefore those divine bonours that belong to the Father, cousidered as Governor and Judge, may be properly paid to the Son ; aud this without the least infringement of the rights of godhead, since the Son is also true God, or hath communion in the divine nature. For though I do not think it is the direct design of that place to express the divinity of the Son, yet I think that such a coinmand would not have been given if the Son had not been true God.

Yet let it be noted here, that we cannot address Jesus Christ the Son, considered personally, in all respects with the same honours as we address the Father ; because we cannot say to Christ, “ Lord, thou art the God and Father of Christ; thou art the original Judge of all, and thou hast given all judgment into the hands of thy Son." These sort of addresses belong

peculiarly and only to the Father, and if paid to Christ persone' ally considered are ridiculous and absurd.

But to proceed. We may pay also divine honours and praise to the Holy Spirit for his miraculous gifts of old, for inspiring the prophets and apostles, for all his distributions of -gifts, graces, and sacred influences to his churches, bis saints, and his ministers in our days. But if we mention expressly his deputation to this sacred office by the Father and the Son, then we give thanks to the Holy Spirit, who has accepted tbis office in our salvation, to enlighten, comfort and sanctify us; and in executing this blessed office by commission from the Father and Son, distributes his gifts and his graces among us. Now this form of words could not properly be used in an address to the Father, nor to the Son. Yet in the third place,

III. I would make this remark here, viz. That when we mention merely the benefits that we receive from the Son or Spirit, we may give thanks to God the Father for them all, because in the order of the gospel, he sent both the Spirit and the Son to provide and bestow those blessings on us. Thus we may bless God the Father for the atonement of Christ, and his glorious righteousness ; for the providential government of Christ over the nations, and his spiritual government over his church, as well as for the enlightening, sanctifying and comforting influences of the Holy Ghost, &c.

We may give thanks also to the Son, for all the benefits that we receive from the Holy Spirit, for it is the Son who by the appointment and gift of the Father sends the Holy Spirit to us.

But we cannot properly give thanks to the Son or the Spirit, considered in their distic.ct personal characters, for all the benefitsaand blessings which are particularly attributed to the Father in scripture ; such as contriving our salvation, sending the Son to purchase it, and by the hands of the Son sending the Spirit to apply it ; for this would bring confusion into that admirable divine order, which God hath established in our salvation.

All these things flow with so clear and natural an evidence from the scriptures, which have been before cited, that it is needless to cite and repeat them here.

Thus it is abundantly evident, that distinct personal honours, must be addressed to the three sacred persons, on the account of their different properties, charactere and offices, though the same absolute and essential honours of the deity or godhead may be addressed to all three together, or to God subsisting in three per..SODS. Now in the fourth place,

IV. To give a short and direct answer to the third question, When the common doxologies are used, wherein glory is given to the Fatber, Son and Spirit, in the same form of words, we

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may either understand the absolute essential honours of godhead, which we give to the divine nature, subsisting in Father, Sov and Spirit; or we may in our thoughts give adoration and thanks to each of the sacred three for the various and distinct offices they sustain, and distinct benefits we receive from them.

If we may dare to make use of the similitude before men, tioned, and conceive of a king, whosc soul doth also animate and actuate an ambassador, extraordinary and a resident in a foreign country, and by their means bestow blessings on his subjects in that foreign country, we may in so me measure ap: prebiend how far each of these persons may have communion in the saine royal honours, and how far their particular personal honours are distinct from each other : But no human simile can perfectly express things divine.

To conclude, I have here shewn what are the general honours of the godhead subsisting in three persons ; and what are the particular divine honours that belong to each person, as sustaiping. particular characters and offices in the econoing of crea, tion, providence and redeinption. And though the Son and the Spirit may be properly addressed with divine honours, as having communion in true.godhead, yet since the scripture is given us to direct our worship, is it not better in our most common and usual adolresses to God to follow the express directions and examples of scripture, and imitate the inspired apostles, those first and most glorious christians ? e. And since we find so great a silence in scripture of any 'express precepts or patterns, of prayer or praise, directed distinctly to the person of the blessed Spirit, let us not bind it upon our own consciences, nor upon others, as a piece of necessary worship, ; but rather practise it occasionally as prudence and espedience may require.

Since we find both precepts and patterns for prayer and praise to be often addressed to our Lord Jesus Christ, let us also often call upon the name of the Lord Jesus, and direct frequent doxologies to the Lamb that was slain.

Bat since the rost frequent patterns and precepts in scripture lead us to direct our addresses to God the Father, who transacts all his affairs with us, in and through his Son by bis Holy Spirit, I think we should also make it the most frequent and usual practice in our devotions, “to have our access through Jesus Christ, by one Spirit unto the Father ;" Eph. ii 18. that is, to address the Father, by the meditation of the Son, through the - assistance of tlie Holy Spirits; that this divine econoiny, which is thé substance and glory of the christiaņ religion, and runs through the whole of it; might be visible also in our common devotions, and appear manifestly to run through the several parts of cliristian worship in which we are engaged. doi:

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