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fine column of foliage. All 347 million acres of German this

that fine park forest, they should yield a scenery is not the product of gross annual revenue of about a single lifetime, reminding £2,000,000, or a net annual one of the Oxford "chestnut profit of £1,000,000, equal to which tells of an American 6s. 8d. an acre. 1 That British visitor inquiring how such land favourable to forest beautiful turf could be grown growth might be made to in the quads. “Well, sir, we yield far more than this may rolls 'un and we mowe ’un for be seen from the following a thousand year, and then it instance, cited by Dr Nisbet. just comes." Good forestry, In 1860, eight acres at Taythen, is not only consistent mount

planted with with the finest park scenery, Douglas fir, four years old, but it is essential to its pro- raised from seed produced on duction. Trees are by nature two trees at Scone, and larch, gregarious : for the develop- in the proportion to the acre ment of their true character of 302 Douglas fir to 908 larch. and utmost beauty they re- By 1880 all the larches had quire in youth and middle age been thinned out, and in 1887 the discipline of close company 620 Douglas fir were felled and to rear stately stems and form sold for £34. This thinning well-balanced heads.

terrible mistake, for However, the amateur may the remaining 1796 threw be allowed to work his dot- out strong side branches to and-go - one in the grounds the detriment of the timber. about the mansion-the “pol- Nevertheless, in 1900 a Perth icies,”

call them in timber-merchant offered 9d. a Scotland. Wood masses will be foot for the lot standing—the required were it only for back- price of Scots pine at the time ground to the landscape or being 6d., of larch 1s. This for shelter; and these, rightly offer, which was not accepted, managed, ought to be a source amounted to about £1600, or of revenue, instead of, as in £200 per acre, representing a almost

all existing cases, one of gross rent of £5 an acre durloss. There are in the United ing the forty years of growth. Kingdom about 3,000,000 acres From this must be deducted under wood, nearly all in priv- expenses of planting and thinate hands. It is pretty safe ning, and compound interest to assume, in the total absence on the capital locked up; but, of statistics, that the expenses on the other hand, the account of this area, including interest must be credited with the price on capital sunk, largely ex- of thinnings sold. Reckoned ceed the revenue.

Were these in another way, the gross pro3,000,000

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out higher. tive in proportion the Nisbet states that the annual

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England” (vol. i. p. 4). So navy, and the practice of profar is this from fact, that in ducing crooked oak has lasted Skene's “Auld Lawes and Con- to our own times, when merstitutions of Scotland, pub- chants will hardly look at it. lished in 1609, a whole section It may be objected that the is devoted to "The Forest general adoption of a severely Lawes, whereof the author is scientific and economic system alleaged to be King William of forestry would destroy some [1165-1214], in ane auld buke of the fairest landscapes in perteining to S'David Lyndesay the United Kingdom, especially of Edzell, Knicht.” These laws that park scenery around counare directed, not only to the try houses which is a peculiar preservation of game and reg- feature of our land.

It is a ulation of pasture, but to the mistake to attribute any such protection of growing wood. purpose to forestry reformers. Thus, “Gif anie cuts We hold, indeed, that the finest greene wood within the forest, park ornamental timber, such he sall pay ane vnlaw of aucht as the beeches in Ashridge kye (eight cattle)," which was Park, the oaks at Belvoir and a pretty heavy fine. Again, Thoresby, the pines and silver penalties are provided against firs at Dunkeld, can only be any man who in the king's obtained the outcome of forests should “heue dune ane forest treatment; that is, by aik trie with the advise or a change from sylviculture to deliberation of the forestar or arboriculture--from the growth Viridier"; and of one so offend- of a timber crop to the presering a third time “his bodie sal- vation of specimens, singly and be taken and deteined.”

It can never be John Evelyn must be held had by dotting trees about in responsible for having, in his the open, nor by following famous Discourse on Forest Brown's instruction that " for Trees' (1664), prescribed ex- park and lawn trees a distance cessive thinning.

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from stem to stem about equal ceive," said he, "that it were to the height of the trees better to plant trees at such should be maintained at all distances as they may least stages of growth.” Manageincommode one another. For ment of this kind ensures timber trees, I would have defect which mars many a none nearer than forty feet fair demesne: the trees grow where they stand closest, espe

as broad

as they are high, cially of the spreading kind”; with a sharp browsing line, which treatment is plainly in- giving them the contour of compatible with the production an umbrella or a toadstool. . of clean, straight stems. But, The ideal park tree is one in fact, Englishmen did not which, having been restrained want clean, straight timber in from sprawling when young, Evelyn's day, nor for long has attained nearly its full after. What was most in re- height before it was relieved, quest was crooked oak for the as to furnish out into a

in groves.

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fine column of foliage. All · 34 million acres of German this

that fine park forest, they should yield a scenery is not the product of gross annual revenue of about a single lifetime, reminding £2,000,000, or a net annual one of the Oxford "chestnut” profit of £1,000,000, equal to which tells of an American 6s. 8d. an acre.1 That British visitor inquiring how such land favourable

forest beautiful turf could be grown growth might be made to in the quads. “Well, sir, we yield far more than this may rolls ’un and we mows ’un for be seen from the following a thousand year, and then it instance, cited by Dr Nisbet. just comes. Good forestry, In 1860, eight acres at Taythen, is not only consistent mount planted with with the finest park scenery, Douglas fir, four years old, but it is essential to its pro- raised from seed produced on duction. Trees are by nature two trees at Scone, and larch, gregarious : for the develop- in the proportion to the acre ment of their true character of 302 Douglas fir to 908 larch. and utmost beauty they re- By 1880 all the larches had quire in youth and middle age been thinned out, and in 1887 the discipline of close company 620 Douglas fir were felled and to rear stately stems and form sold for £34. This thinning well-balanced heads.

a terrible mistake, for However, the amateur may the remaining 1796 threw be allowed to work his dot out strong side branches to and-go - one in the grounds the detriment of the timber. about the mansion-the “pol- Nevertheless, in 1900 a Perth icies," as we call them in timber-merchant offered 9d. a Scotland. Wood masses will be foot for the lot standing—the required were it only for back- price of Scots pine at the time ground to the landscape or being 6d., of larch 1s. This for shelter; and these, rightly offer, which was not accepted, managed, ought to be a source amounted to about £1600, or of revenue, instead of, as in £200 per acre, representing a almost all existing cases, one of gross rent of £5 an acre durloss. There are in the United ing the forty years of growth. Kingdom about 3,000,000 acres From this must be deducted under wood, nearly all in priv- expenses of planting and thinate hands. It is pretty safe ning, and compound interest to assume, in the total absence on the capital locked up; but, of statistics, that the expenses on the other hand, the account of this area, including interest must be credited with the price on capital sunk, largely ex- of thinnings sold. Reckoned ceed the revenue.

Were these in another way, the gross pro3,000,000 acres produc- fit comes out higher Dr tive in proportion the Nisbet states that the annual

was

as

as

1 Taking the German State forests alone, the average net yield is equal to 11s. an acre.

man

as

England” (vol. i. p. 4). So navy, and the practice of profar is this from fact, that in ducing crooked oak has lasted Skene's “Auld Lawes and Con- to our own times, when merstitutions of Scotland,' pub- chants will hardly look at it. lished in 1609, a whole section It may be objected that the is devoted to “The Forest general adoption of a severely Lawes, whereof the author is scientific and economic system alleaged to be King William of forestry would destroy some [1165-1214], in ane auld buke of the fairest landscapes in perteining to S’David Lyndesay the United Kingdom, especially of Edzell, Knicht." These laws that park scenery around counare directed, not only to the try houses which is a peculiar preservation of game and reg- feature of our land. It is a ulation of pasture, but to the mistake to attribute any such protection of growing wood. purpose to forestry reformers. Thus, “Gif anie cuts We hold, indeed, that the finest greene wood within the forest, park ornamental timber, such he sall pay ane vnlaw of aucht as the beeches in Ashridge kye [eight cattle],” which was Park, the oaks at Belvoir and à pretty heavy fine. Again, Thoresby, the pines and silver penalties are provided against firs at Dunkeld, can only be any man who in the king's obtained the outcome of forests should “heue dune ane forest treatment; that is, by aik trie without the advise or a change from sylviculture to deliberation of the forestar or arboriculture--from the growth Viridier"; and of one so offend- of a timber

crop
to the

presering a third time “his bodie sal- vation of specimens, singly and be taken and deteined.”

in groves.

never be John Evelyn must be held had by dotting trees about in responsible for having, in his the open, nor by following famous Discourse on Forest Brown's instruction that " for Trees' (1664), prescribed ex- park and lawn trees a distance cessive thinning. “I

from stem to stem about equal ceive,” said he, or that it were

to the height of the trees better to plant trees at such should be maintained at all distances as they may least stages of growth.” Manageincommode one another. For ment of this kind ensures timber trees, I would have defect which mars many a

nearer than forty feet fair demesne: the trees grow where they stand closest, espe- as broad as they are high, cially of the spreading kind”; with a sharp browsing line, which treatment is plainly in- giving them the contour of compatible with the production an umbrella or a toadstool. of clean, straight stems. But, The ideal park tree is one in fact, Englishmen did not which, having been restrained want clean, straight timber in from sprawling when young, Evelyn's day, nor for long has attained nearly its full after. What was most in re- height before it was relieved, quest was crooked oak for the so as to furnish out into a

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were

fine column of foliage. All 34 million acres of German this

that fine park forest, they should yield a scenery is not the product of gross annual revenue of about a single lifetime, reminding £2,000,000, or à net annual one of the Oxford "chestnut profit of £1,000,000, equal to which tells of an American 6s. 8d. an acre. That British visitor inquiring how such land

such land favourable forest beautiful turf could be grown growth might be made to in the quads.

“Well, sir, we yield far more than this may rolls ’un and we mows ’un for be seen from the following a thousand year, and then it instance, cited by Dr Nisbet. . just comes. Good forestry, In 1860, eight acres at Taythen, is not only consistent mount

planted with with the finest park scenery, Douglas fir, four years old, but it is essential to its pro- raised from seed produced on duction. Trees are by nature two trees at Scone, and larch, gregarious : for the develop- in the proportion to the acre ment of their true character of 302 Douglas fir to 908 larch. and utmost beauty they re- By 1880 all the larches had quire in youth and middle age been thinned out, and in 1887 the discipline of close company 620 Douglas fir were felled and to rear stately stems and form sold for £34. This thinning well-balanced heads.

a terrible mistake, for However, the amateur may the remaining 1796 threw be allowed to work his dot- out strong side branches to and

- go - one in the grounds the detriment of the timber. about the mansion-the “pol- Nevertheless, in 1900 a Perth icies,” as we call them in timber-merchant offered 9d. a Scotland. Wood masses will be foot for the lot standing—the required were it only for back- price of Scots pine at the time ground to the landscape or being 6d., of larch 1s. This for shelter; and these, rightly offer, which was not accepted, managed, ought to be a source amounted to about £1600, or

£ of revenue, instead of, as in £200 per acre, representing a almost all existing cases, one of gross rent of £5 an acre durloss. There are in the United ing the forty years of growth. Kingdom about 3,000,000 acres From this must be deducted under wood, nearly all in priv- expenses of planting and thinate hands. It is pretty safe ning, and compound interest to assume, in the total absence on the capital locked up; but,

; of statistics, that the expenses on the other hand, the account of this area, including interest must be credited with the price on capital sunk, largely ex- of thinnings sold. Reckoned ceed the revenue.

Were these in another way, the gross pro3,000,000 acres produc- fit

out higher. Dr tive in proportion the Nisbet states that the annual

was

as

comes

as

1 Taking the German State forests alone, the average net yield is equal to 11s. an acre.

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