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gether they represent about ful efforts might have called 900,000 souls. Thus the Bul- forth. garian element is only a little The eighth chapter, by Mr more numerous than the Mo- Valentine Chirol, is the ablest hammedan.

in the volume, and, in many Some remarks of Mr Villari respects, the most important. upon the ambitions of the Bul- It is a masterly exposé of the garians in Macedonia deserve attitude of the European special notice. He writes Powers towards the Christian “But of late years another tendency from the time of Catherine II.

races subjugated by Turkey, has begun to manifest itself, especially in Macedonia, in favour not of a

of Russia down to the present union of that country with the Prin- day. During that long period cipality, but of its formation into an of 138 years the policy of autonomous province. • . . In Ma- Russia towards these Christian cedonia the Bulgarian or BulgaroMacedonian element is not the only races has never varied, and is one, and incorporation with the Prin- aptly described by Mr Chirol cipality would arouse bitter jealousies in these terms :on the part of all the other Balkan States. Their [the Bulgarian] “The underlying Russian concepaspirations now may be described as

tion of policy in the Near East was nothing more drastic than the execu- that all intervention in favour of the tion of the provisions concerning Christian subjects of the Porte should Macedonia set forth in Article 23 of be carried out by Russia alone,the Berlin Treaty. All that they ask ostensibly because they were memof Europe is, that they may live in bers of the same faith as the Ruspeace.”

sians, and that it was easier for one

Power to bring energetic pressure to The seventh chapter, by Mr bear on the Sultan; in reality, beFrederick Moore, gives interest- cause Russia wished to have a free ing details of the working of the hand for the extension both of her external and internal revolu- torial boundaries. Though not speci

political ascendancy and of her territionary organisations—in other fically defined, Russia's claim to the words, of the Bulgarian in- right of interference between the surgent bands; of the capture Sultan and his Christian subjects was of Miss Stone, planned by England, however, never admitted it,

tacitly recognised by the Turks. Sarafoff to raise money for the and it was in order more effectually purchase of rifles; of the murder to resist it that she first sought to of Professor Mihaileanu in organise what has come to be known Bucharest; of the Salonika out- basis of the necessity for a collective

as the Concert of Europe, on the rages and of the Krushevo in- intervention of all the Powers.” cident, which last is too mildly described as “a grand plunder, It is interesting and instructnot a massacre. This chapter ive to notice from Mr Chirol's is most instructive, and shows paper that, although Russia the insurgents in their true first laboured in behalf of colours, unscrupulous and Greece, Roumania, Bulgaria, unprincipled, - characteristics and Eastern Roumelia, these which deprive them of the countries ultimately received sympathy which otherwise their deliverance from Turkish their courageous but unsuccess- domination by a collective act

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of the Concert of Europe, thus Mr Chirol gives us the text freeing them from a predom- of a letter from Sir William inating influence on the part White to his friend Sir Robert of Russia. We are told how Morier, in 1885, which clearly Russia alone, early exhibits the views of that dis1767 - 74, induced the Greek tinguished diplomatist and population of the Morea to rise highest authority Near against its oppressors, but that Eastern politics. We make no it was the united squadrons of apology for quoting it, and Russia, England, and France gladly emphasise the opinion which destroyed the Turkish of Mr Chirol that it indicates fleet at Navarino, and that the the present and future policy final protocol which regulated which it will be our wisdom to the status of the new Hellenic follow in relation to the Christkingdom was signed in London. ian races of Turkey. Sir Roumania owed her first steps

William White writestowards independence to Russia,

“ The future of European Turkey but it was the Concert of

—to Adrianople, at any rate-must Europe, by the Convention of

sooner or later belong to Christian Paris in 1858, which ratified

There is no example in her full autonomy, and, twenty history, since the siege of Vienna two years later, by the Treaty of regained an inch of soil that he has

centuries ago, of the Turk’s having Berlin, created her an indepen- once yielded to native races. Is dent kingdom. Alexander III. Eastern Roumelia to constitute an of Russia has justly been called exception to this rule? We have the Liberator of Bulgaria, but always been accused by Russia and it was the Concert of Europe,

her agents in the East of being the

chief obstacles to the emancipation of by the Treaty of Berlin, which Christian races in European Turkey, gave Bulgaria the charter of its The reasons for a particular line of liberty. Russian agents and

policy on our part have fortunately

ceased to exist, and we are free to consuls in Eastern Roumelia strenuously promoted the agi- ally, with the proper restraints, the

act impartially, and to take up gradutation for union with the lines which made Palmerston famous Principality, but it was the in regard to Belgium, Italy, &c. The attitude of England, France, liberate Greece, Servia, and Rou

Russians have made sacrifices to and Italy which induced the

mania. Montenegro alone has reSultan to recognise that union mained faithful and grateful. They under the Prince of Bulgaria are now about to lose the Bulgarians. as Governor. Indeed, if their

These newly emancipated races want

to breathe free air, and not through national life is to be preserved, Russian nostrils." it is of vital importance to the Christian races of Turkey that It was the breathing of that their freedom should be ratified free air, not through Russian by the Concert of Europe, and nostrils, which was secured to this is a point which must on the Bulgarians by the subno account be lost sight of in stitution of the Treaty of any scheme for the ameliora- Berlin for the Treaty of San tion of the Christian races in Stefano. It will only be Macedonia.

secured to the Macedonians

an en

by the active, patient, collec- have behind them as tive action of the six great couragement to action. European Powers.

The ninth chapter is by These six Powers do not Monsieur Victor Bérard, and regard the Macedonian Ques- deals with the attitude of tion from quite the same point France towards Macedonia. of view. Russia and Austria, We regret that the limited as contiguous Powers, have space at our disposal does not interests which prevent them permit of our quoting interestalone regarding it from what ing remarks in this chapter may be called the humanitarian upon the past action of France, point of view. Germany, in- when “at the time of the fluenced by the strong friend- Armenian atrocities, to go no ship of its Emperor for the further back, the fear of a Sultan, while not ostensibly general European war made opposing the amelioration of the Government of France, tothe lot of the Christian races gether with the whole Concert in Macedonia, may be expected of Europe, the accomplices of only half-heartedly to support Abdul Hamid's crimes”; nor any measures which would be upon the hopelessness of any distasteful to Abdul Hamid. result being obtained, if Austria England, France, and Italy are and Russia are alone left to the only Powers which are in deal with Macedonian proba position frankly, and without lems. M. Bérard shows "how any arrière - pensée, to espouse circumstances have undergone the cause of the Macedonian a complete change within the Christians. It can therefore last six years," and in the coneasily be conceived how difficult cluding sentences of his article is the task of the diplomatists he saysof the three last - mentioned

“There remains but one policy for Powers, and how much tact France. The various Balkan peoples and patience will be required are not yet sufficiently developed for to carry with them the other any one of them to take charge of three Powers. It was a happy of the peninsula. The maintenance

Macedonia and obtain the hegemony thought of the editor of the of the Ottoman Empire in some shape volume


the Balkan is still a necessity, but its integrity is Question to include a chapter only possible by means of European from a French and another control. Without it the continued from

existence of Turkey is not only an Italian writer of

iniquity, it is a sheer impossibility. ... weight. It is of no use dis- That Macedonia can be pacified by sembling the fact that a public means of European control, the case

The opinion in France and Italy is of Crete should convince us. not quite as strongly formed difficult as the Macedonian Question,

Cretan Question was, at least, as on the Macedonian Question as

. . and yet the Cretan problem it is in England. It is gener- was solved. It was solved through

the three ally sympathetic, but scarcely the joint action of

Liberal Powers-France, Italy, and yet presents that


The Macedonians which the Governments of

themselves, we are told, have no faith these countries would like to in Austria and Russia, but trust only


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in the three Liberal Powers. Let that which might prove a fitting trust be justified. What better proof climax to several interesting of the reality of the high entente cordiale could there be than the

articles which preceded it. We execution of a plain duty towards

were grievously disappointed. humanity, which is also in accordance The suggested scheme is so conwith the highest political interests of fused and impracticable that we all concerned.”

felt inclined to pass it over in These are true and admirable silence; but, on second thoughts, words, and it is of vital im- we think it well to expose the portance that the sentiments crudities which pass muster they express should be univers- with a well-meaning group in ally received in France and England who pose as an Engguide the action of its enlight- lish Macedonian Committee. ened Government.

As far as we can understand The tenth chapter is a short a rather confused exposition of exposé of the policy of Italy, Mr Young's scheme, it suggests in which it is not concealed that Macedonia should be handthat Italy is fearful of being ed over to shut out from the Albanian

“the full executive control (sic) of coast of the Adriatic Sea, and foreign administrators nominated by therefore she desires the separ- the Powers. All relations with the ation of Albania from Mace- Central Government would pass by donia; and that “in the the channel of these foreign adminisreorganisation of Albania,

trators, who would have the power of which should remain at all departments. They would also meet

appointment and dismissal in their events for the present under as a board of control, which should the suzerainty of the Porte, no be commissioned to report within a other Power should be allowed fixed period as to the alterations re

quired in the law." to have exclusive influence.” This latter condition is in Does the writer realise that unison with the views of Mr that means the handing over of Villari, who also insists upon the administration of Mace“the separation of the purely donia to foreigners? It ignores Albanian districts from Mace- the two leading factors of the donia proper.” But the point situation—the opposition of the is at present of no importance, Sultan, and the divergence of for the action of the Powers is views and interests amongst only now directed to improving the Powers. Is the Sultan the condition of the Macedonian likely to agree amicably to such subjects of the Sultan.

a scheme, and, if not, is it probThe eleventh chapter, by Mr able that the six Powers would E. Hilton Young, is headed decide to impose it upon his “A suggested Scheme of Re- Imperial Majesty by force ? forms."

We confess that we Entirely oblivious of the imreached this second-last chapter practicability of his scheme, Mr of the volume with interesting Young goes on to sayexpectations.

We hoped to find in it suggestions of value, of course, be provisional. . . . Under

“A settlement of this sort would, a scheme of practical merit it the peasants would settle down to their occupations, and the politicians He would have Bulgaria to buy would await the report of the Board them from Turkey, but the of Administrators, who would per

would be haps recommend ... the institution purchase - money of some general representative body affected to the new Macedonian with advisory powers.

This body administration, and thus "perwould succeed to the powers of the haps obviate the necessity of should seem safe to withdraw the raising an international loan, as direct foreign control.”

in the case of Crete.” In other

words, Turkey is expected to How charmingly naïve! A sell a property and magnanimgeneral representative body” ously to hand over the purchaseis imagined to succeed to the money to set agoing the Euro“full executive control of the pean machinery in Macedonia. foreign administrators.

This savours a good deal of the But when Mr Young wrote ingenuity of Sarafoff, who he had visions of golden oppor- captured an American lady and tunities. He thought that employed her ransom to buy "at the present time the existing rifles for the Bulgarian insurconfiguration of political interests and gents. We regret that the influences seems on the point of a editor of The Balkan Quessudden rearrangement.

The event tion' should have admitted of war between Turkey and Bulgaria, such confused and impracticsome conspicuous success on the part of the insurgents, or atrocity on the able ideas into a volume in part of the Turks, or the indirect which there are several able action of political upheavals in an- and instructive articles. other part of the world, may throw

Our object in the preceding the whole Macedonian Question open to reconsideration from the very be- pages has been to show the ginning, and by sweeping away the complex nature of the Macestatus quo beyond hope of recall, en- donian Question, and to explain able those whose only object is to the difficulties which beset its benefit the Macedonians to effect a

solution. It has emerged from final and complete solution of the whole question."

its first stage, which was the

courageous but unsuccessful On the occurrence of any effort of the Bulgarian bands, such events Mr Young suggests and it is now in its second and that a conference of the Powers more hopeful stage, that of the to deal with the situation action of the International might be summoned, the de- Powers—the steam-roller which mands of the insurgents might moves slowly but crushes surely. be conceded, and a European Of the ultimate success of that Commission to act as temporary international action we need rulers of the province might be have no doubt. The examples created. The task of the Com- of Greece, Roumania, Servia, mission would be to “institute Bulgaria, and Crete are there a system of Home Rule under to prepare for a long, a Christian Governor.”

arduous, persevering struggle Mr Young has a fanciful for the improvement of the lot suggestion in regard to the of the Christian races in MaceBulgar districts of Adrianople. donia, but they are there also


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