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of Scripture Revelation as Compared with
other forms of Truth, 633; Waifs of
Conversation, 639; The Races of Man
and their Geographical Distribution, 780
Imperial Federation of Great Britain and
her Colonies, 785; A Glossary of Litur-
gical and Ecclesiastical terms, 786; The
Owl's Nest in the City, 789; Bessie Lang,
791; The Life after Death, and the Things
to Come, 795; The Prairie Province :
Sketches of Travel from Lake Ontario to
Lake Winnipeg. 795; Silver Vindicated,
796.

Literary Cliques and Critics, 620.
Love's Messengers, by Ida, 437.

MacIlwaine, Rev. Dr., 272.

MacMorland, Rev. Dr., Cremation, 13; The
Launching of the Lifeboat, 172.
Medieval Church, 570.
Medical Men, Roman, 474.
Milton's Satan, 707.

Munster Circuit, Chaps. IX., X., XI., 26;

Chaps. XII., XIII., 183; Chaps. XIV.,
XV., 307; Chaps. XVI., XVII., 422;
Chap. XVIII. (conclusion), 564.
Murphy, Rev. H. D., 402.
Myrtille, a Story, 416.

Note Book of an Ex-Officer of the Royal
Irish Constabulary, Leaves from, 439.

"Our Portrait Gallery" :-

No. XX X., Sir Bernard Burke, 16.
No. XXXI., Sir William Gregory, 146.
No. XXXII., The Rev. Dr. John Eadie,
276.

No. XXXIII., The Baroness Burdett
Coutts, 404.

No. XXXIV., Sir Francis Hincks, 534.
No. XXXV., Right Hon. W. E. Bax-
ter, M.P.,

Palace of the Cæsars, 666.

Parochial Nomination System in Ireland,
376.

Personality of Goldsmith, 352.
POETRY: - Impromptu Lines, 13; The
Priest of Ageray, 24; Lays of the Saintly,
102, 216, 332, 466, 576, 677; In the
Porch, 155; The Launching of the Life-
boat, 172; A Song of Life, 182; A
Golden Wedding, 272; Αἴλινον, ἄιλινον
ειπέ,—Τὸ δ' ἐυ νικάτω, 291; A Dream

within a Dream, 402; Love's Messengers,
437; Death, 465; A Madrigal, 541;
Βή δ' ακέων παρὰ θίνα, 569 ; The Achill
Isles, 589; Part of a New Translation of
Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, 615; Au-
tonomy, 624; Ode of Horace. Lib. IV.
7., 664; Student's Drinking Song, 723;
Thekla the Waif. A Christmas Legend,
733; Maureen Cosha Dhas, 758.
Poets, Buried, 601.

Prester, John, 376, 397, 570.

Roman Circus and Roman Games, 342.
Roman Medical Men, 474.

Rome, Among the Dead in, 590.
Roscommon, Earl of, 601.

Rose, The, 206.

Sand, Georges, On France, 224.

Sand, Georges, Some Characteristics of, 368.
Satan, Milton's, 707.

Science, The Warfare of, 382.

Scott, Miss Rebecca, A Christmas Legend,
733.

Servia and the Slavs, Part I., 385; Part II.,
513; Part III., 773.

South Australia, The Aborigines, 111.
STORIES -The MSS. of Professor Wittem-

bach, 54; Elis Fröbom, 156; The Major's
Oak, 231; The Violin of the Man that
was Hanged, 327; Myrtille, 416; Leaves
from my Note Book, by an Ex-Officer of
the Royal Irish Constabulary, 439; Fast
Friends, by Miss Currey, 542; The Sha-
dow on the Wall, Part I., 687; The Char-
coal Burner of the Creux du Vau, 741.
Studies in Scottish Literature :--

No. I., Sir David Lindsay, 76.
No. II., Ferguson, Tannahill, and

Pollock, 173.

No. III., Michael Bruce, Robert Nicholl,
David Gray, 297.

No. IV., Norman Macleod, 456.
No. V., The Songstresses, 554.
No VI., The Ettrick Shepherd, 724.

Taste, the Development of, by Education,
The Major's Oak, 231.

Wandering Jew, 584.

Weddings and Wakes, 292.
Wedding, a Golden, 291.

Wittembach, Professor, Story by, 54.
Words, Choice of, 523.

[754.

DUBLIN

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

No. DXXIII.]

JULY, 1876.

THE EXPLORATION OF NEW GUINEA.

BY LIEUT. R. H. ARMIT, R.N.

AUTHOR OF "LIGHT AS A MOTIVE POWER."

Ar a time when the exploration of New Guinea is attracting so much attention all over the world, and when expeditions are fitting out in France, Holland, Spain, and Italy, with a view to obtain a footing for their respective countrymen in that great island, a few remarks as to its past, present, and probable future may not be uninteresting.

The island of New Guinea is, as far as we can ascertain, first mentioned in the history of the year 1526. It is said to have been discovered by the Portuguese Governor, Jorge de Meneses, when on a voyage from Malacca to the Moluccas, during which he was driven far to the eastward and out of his course by a north-west gale, and, being badly damaged, was right glad to winter in a harbour on the north coast of the island, supposed to be Port Humboldt. To this island the name of Papua was then given, the word, according to Galvano, meaning "black;" but, according to the interpretation of the people inhabiting the Moluccas, it means "frizzly black head," and is said to

VOL. LXXXVIII.

have been bestowed upon the island on account of its inhabitants wearing their hair "frizzed out" in the shape and form of a huge

While the Portuguese explorers were working their way round the world from the "westward," the Spaniards were pressing "westward," through the Pacific, after having taken possession of South America. The explorers of these two nations now met among the Spice Islands, and formed two hostile factions.

The Mahommedan native princes of these islands joined that side with which circumstances first brought them into contact, and a deadly feud sprang up between Spaniards and Portuguese. The chiefs of Ternate allied themselves to the latter, while those of Gilolo and Tidore ranged themselves on the side of the former; and many sanguinary conflicts, both on sea and land, took place between the fleets or Hongis of prahus of these Sultans, aided from time to time by their respective European allies.

In 1527 Herman Cortes fitted out an expedition which sailed from the west coast of Mexico under Alvaro de Saavedra, and reached the Spice Islands. Returning to Mexico in 1528, this expedition coasted along the north side of New Guinea for the space of a month. In 1542, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos led another expedition from Mexico, and reached Gilolo in 1544. Three years later Villalobos succumbed to Portuguese influence and died at Amboyna, when the command of the expedition fell into the hands of a Captain Yñigo Ortiz de Retes. He sailed along the north coast, anchoring in several ports, and in 1549 is said to have named the island "New Guinea," imagining that he detected a likeness between its inhabitants and the natives of the West Coast of Africa.

The next Spanish explorer was Luis Vaez de Torres, who, after his separation from Quiros at Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides, came to New Guinea and sailed along the southern coast. Passing through the "Torres Straits" this navigator cut off New Guinea from the Australasian continent, and by right of discovery, in 1606, took possession of the island in the name of the King of Spain.

The Dutch now entered the New Guinea waters, from which they expelled both Spaniards and Portuguese; and in 1606 we find William Jansz, in the Duyfke, visiting the west and south-west coasts of the island, the Gulf of Carpentaria, and thence entering the Torres Straits, where he discovered many islands unobserved by Torres.

We then hear of Cornelis Dedal visiting the island in 1616; Le Maire and Schouten in 1617, who discovered and named the Schouten Islands off Mount Toricelli; Jan Vos in 1622; and Jan Cartensz in 1623. In 1642 the enterprising Governor-General Van Diemen

sent Abel Jansz Tasman and Franchoys Jacobsz Visscher on their memorable voyages of discovery, which so well upheld the prestige of the Dutch flag.

The following twenty years saw six expeditions to New Guinea— namely, in 1654, Gommersdorf and Braconier; in 1655 Jacob Borné made three voyages to the island, but was eventually murdered with most of his men; in 1662 Nicolaes Vinck discovered that deep bight which, after having been surveyed by Lieutenant MacCluer, was named after that officer; Johannes Keyts, in 1678, discovered many bays and rivers, and added considerably to our knowledge of the island. Dampier's expedition, despatched in 1699 by William III., had for its sole object geographical discovery. Dampier sighted New Guinea on New Year's Day of 1700. sailed along the north coast, and to him belongs the honour of having discovered the strait which to this day bears his name, dividing New Guinea from New Britain and the Admiralty Islands.

He

Jacob Weyland, in 1705, discovered Geelvink Bay, which he named after his vessel, the Green Fish. He did much useful surveying work, and added a large store of matter to our information regarding the island. In 1722 Jacob Roggeveen coasted along the north shore of the island, but, on his arrival at Batavia, the Dutch East India Company seized his vessel, he being a private trader, and not connected with the Company, whose rights and monopolies were jealously guarded.

Lieutenant MacCluer, in 1791, first surveyed the bay which bears his name, but which was discovered by Vinck in 1662. Lieutenant Kolff, while in command of the brig Dourga, in 1826, surveyed the Dourga Strait," and in 1827 founded the Dutch settlement in

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Triton Bay at the northern extremity of this strait.

The locality was ill-chosen. Surrounded by low swamps on every side, at the bottom of a deep inlet into which no breeze could penetrate, the settlement seemed to be doomed from the outset; and in 1835, much to the chagrin and disappointment of the natives, the Dutch Government removed its garrison to Wahaai, a small port on the north coast of Ceram, which was much frequented at that time by English and American traders.

During the ten years that the Dutch remained in Triton Bay among the Outanata tribe of Papuans, the most friendly relations existed between the two peoples. Theft was never heard of, and no single act of hostility ever committed. The presence of the Dutch was a check on the Malay, Chinese, and Ceramese semi-piratical expeditions, which, under the guise of traders, periodically visited these parts, but who in reality were slavers and pirates of the lowest class. Since the European settlement on this coast was abandoned these expeditions have again made their appearance, but as they do not enter the Torres Straits very little is ever heard of them.

In 1850 the Dutch Government, having purchased the right of "suzerainty" over the northern and part of the north-eastern coast of New Guinea from the Sultan of Tidore, sent Lieutenant Bruijn Kops, in command of the Circe, and an expedition to found a settlement in Humboldt Bay.

This expedition was not successful, and all it did was to erect posts supporting metal shields embossed with the Netherlands coat of arms at various points along the coast. A gale from the south east and the strong lee-current which here prevails, drove it back from the island of Gilolo. In 1852, however, the

settlement was effected, and Port Humboldt was proclaimed a Dutch colony. The garrison of the new colony was ill-chosen. It consisted of a party of burghers, or native militia, of Ternate, a people by no means calculated to inspire respect in the stalwart and energetic Papuans of this coast.

In Triton Bay the Dutch had to contend against obstacles which no human force could overcome, but which human foresight might have avoided.

In Port Humboldt the Dutch entered upon new ground. Here no obstacles barred their way to success, but the cruelty and rapacity of their boors so incensed the natives that a desultory war was the result. The natives of the coast were either butchered or were driven to take refuge among the hill tribes, to whom they became slaves, and the cruelty of the Dutch has thus become proverbial along the whole length of the north-east coast of New Guinea. These natives the English Government claims as its subjects, and yet they know it not, but live in daily fear of their sworn enemy descending upon them, unaware of the fact that an imaginary geographical line of demarcation protects them from the enemy they so much dread.

In the foregoing brief résumé of the history of New Guinea we have purposely avoided making any allusion to the discoveries of either Captains Cook or Owen Stanley on the west and south-west coast, or to the more recent" discoveries" of Captain Moresby in H.M.S. Basilisk, whereby the existence of the China Strait was made known to the world, and a shorter route between Australasia and China rendered available to our mercantile marine.

It will have been observed that the island of New Guinea has often been visited. Books narrating these several voyages have at times been published. The British Museum

In 1527 Herman Cortes fitted out an expedition which sailed from the west coast of Mexico under Alvaro de Saavedra, and reached the Spice Islands. Returning to Mexico in 1528, this expedition coasted along the north side of New Guinea for the space of a month. In 1542, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos led another expedition from Mexico, and reached Gilolo in 1544. Three years later Villalobos succumbed to Portuguese influence and died at Amboyna, when the command of the expedition fell into the hands of a Captain Yñigo Ortiz de Retes. He sailed along the north coast, anchoring in several ports, and in 1549 is said to have named the island "New Guinea," imagining that he detected a likeness between its inhabitants and the natives of the West Coast of Africa.

The next Spanish explorer was Luis Vaez de Torres, who, after his separation from Quiros at Espiritu Santo, one of the New Hebrides, came to New Guinea and sailed along the southern coast. Passing through the "Torres Straits" this navigator cut off New Guinea from the Australasian continent, and by right of discovery, in 1606, took possession of the island in the name of the King of Spain.

The Dutch now entered the New Guinea waters, from which they expelled both Spaniards and Portuguese; and in 1606 we find William Jansz, in the Duyfke, visiting the west and south-west coasts of the island, the Gulf of Carpentaria, and thence entering the Torres Straits, where he discovered many islands unobserved by Torres.

We then hear of Cornelis Dedal visiting the island in 1616; Le Maire and Schouten in 1617, who discovered and named the Schouten Islands off Mount Toricelli; Jan Vos in 1622; and Jan Cartensz in 1623. In 1642 the enterprising Governor-General Van Diemen

sent Abel Jansz Tasman and Franchoys Jacobsz Visscher on their memorable voyages of discovery, which so well upheld the prestige of the Dutch flag.

The following twenty years saw six expeditions to New Guineanamely, in 1654, Gommersdorf and Braconier; in 1655 Jacob Borné made three voyages to the island, but was eventually murdered with most of his men; in 1662 Nicolaes Vinck discovered that deep bight which, after having been surveyed by Lieutenant MacCluer, was named after that officer; Johannes Keyts, in 1678, discovered many bays and rivers, and added considerably to our knowledge of the island. Dampier's expedition, despatched in 1699 by William III., had for its sole object geographical discovery. Dampier sighted New Guinea on New Year's Day of 1700. He sailed along the north coast, and to him belongs the honour of having discovered the strait which to this day bears his name, dividing New Guinea from New Britain and the Admiralty Islands.

Jacob Weyland, in 1705, discovered Geelvink Bay, which he named after his vessel, the Green Fish. He did much useful surveying work, and added a large store of matter to our information regarding the island. In 1722 Jacob Roggeveen coasted along the north shore of the island, but, on his arrival at Batavia, the Dutch East India Company seized his vessel, he being a private trader, and not connected with the Company, whose rights and monopolies were jealously guarded.

Lieutenant MacCluer, in 1791, first surveyed the bay which bears his name, but which was discovered by Vinck in 1662. Lieutenant Kolff, while in command of the brig Dourga, in 1826, surveyed the 'Dourga Strait," and in 1827 founded the Dutch settlement in

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