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of Scripture Revelation as Compared with
other forms of Truth, 633; Waifs of
Conversation, 639; The Races of Man
and their Geographical Distribution, 780
Imperial Federation of Great Britain and
her Colonies, 785; A Glossary of Litur.
gical and Ecclesiastical terms, 786 ; The
Owl's Nest in the City, 789; Bessie Lang,
791; The Life after Death, and the Things
to Come, 795; The Prairie Province :
Sketches of Travel from Lake Ontario to
Lake Winnipeg. 795 ; Silver Vindicated,

Literary Cliques and Critics, 620.
Love's Messengers, by Ida, 437.

MacIlwaine, Rev. Dr., 272.
MacMorland, Rev. Dr., Cremation, 13 ; The

Launching of the Lifeboat, 172.
Mediæval Church, 570.
Medical Men, Roman, 474.
Milton's Satan, 707.
Munster Circuit, Chaps. IX., X., XI., 26;

Chaps. XII., XIII., 183 ; Chaps. XIV.,
XV., 307 ; Chaps. XVI., XVII., 422 ;

Chap. XVIII. (conclusion), 564.
Murphy, Rev. H. D., 402.
Myrtille, a Story, 416.
Note Book of an Ex-Officer of the Royal

Irish Constabulary, Leaves from, 439.
“Our Portrait Gallery

No. XXX., Sir Bernard Burke, 16.
No. XXXI., Sir William Gregory, 146.
No. XXXII., The Rev. Dr. John Eadie,

No. XXXIII., The Baroness Burdett

Coutts, 404.
No. XXXIV., Sir Francis Hincks, 534.
No. XXXV., Right Hon. W. E. Bax-

ter, M.P.,
Palace of the Cæsars, 666.
Parochial Nomination System in Ireland,

Personality of Goldsmith, 352.
POETRY : – Impromptu Lines, 13; The

Priest of Ageray, 24; Lays of the Saintly,
102, 216, 332, 466, 576, 677 ; In the
Porch, 155 ; The Launching of the Life-
boat, 172; A Song of Life, 182; A
Golden Wedding, 272 ; Αϊλινον, άιλινον
ειπέ, -Το δέυ νικάτω, 291 ; A Dream

within a Dream, 402 ; Love's Messengers,
437 ; Death, 465; A Madrigal, 541 ;
Βή δ' ακέωυ παρά θίνα, 569; The Achill
Isles, 589 ; Part of a New Translation of
Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata, 615 ; Au-
tonomy, 624 ; Ode of Horace. Lib. IV.
7., 664 ; Student's Drinking Song, 723;
Thekla the Waif. A Christmas Legend,

733 ; Maureen Cosha Dhas, 758.
Poets, Buried, 601.
Prester, John, 376, 397, 570.

Roman Circus and Roman Games, 342.
Roman Medical Men, 474.
Rome, Among the Dead in, 590.
Roscommon, Earl of, 601.
Rose, The, 206.
Sand, Georges, On France, 224.
Sand, Georges, Some Characteristics of, 368.
Satan, Milton's, 707.
Science, The Warfare of, 382.
Scott, Miss Rebecca, A Christmas Legend,

Servia and the Slavs, Part I., 385; Part II.,

513 ; Part III., 773.
South Australia, The Aborigines, 111.
STORIES :-The MSS. of Professor Wittem-

bach, 54 ; Elis Fröbom, 156 ; The Major's
Oak, 231 ; The Violin of the Man that
was Hanged, 327 ; Myrtille, 416 ; Leaves
from my Note Book, by an Ex-Officer of
the Royal Irish Constabulary, 439; Fast
Friends, by Miss Currey, 542 ; The Sha-
dow on the Wall, Part I., 687 ; The Char-

coal Burner of the Creux du Vau, 741.
Studies in Scottish Literature :--

No. I., Sir David Lindsay, 76.
No. II., Ferguson, Tannahill, and

Pollock, 173.
No. III., Michael Bruce, Robert Nicholl,

David Gray, 297.
No. IV., Norman Macleod, 456.
No. V., The Songstresses, 554.

No VI., The Ettrick Shepherd, 724.
Taste, the Development of, by Education,
The Major's Oak, 231.

Wandering Jew, 584.
Weddings and Wakes, 292.
Wedding, a Golden, 291.
Wittem bach, Professor, Story by, 54.
Words, Choice of, 523.



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Ar a time when the exploration of have been bestowed upon the island New Guinea is attracting so much on account of its inhabitants wearattention all over the world, and ing their hair“ frizzed out" in when expeditions are fitting out in the shape and form of a huge France, Holland, Spain, and Italy, mop. with a view to obtain a footing for While the Portuguese explorers their respective countrymen in that were working iheir way round the great island, a few remarks as to its world from the “ westward," the past, present, and probable future Spaniards were pressing may not be uninteresting.

ward," through the Pacific, after l'he island of New Guinea is, as having taken possession of South far as we can ascertain, first men- America. The explorers of these Lioned in the history of the year two nations now met among the 1526. It is said to have been Spice Islands, and formed two hosdiscovered by the Portuguese Go. tile factions. vernor, Jorge de Meneses, when on The Mahommedan native princes a voyage from Malacca to the Moluc- of these islands joined that side cas,during which he was driven far to with which circumstances first the eastward and out of his course brought them into contact, and a by a north-west gale, and, being deadly feud sprang up between badly damaged, was right glad to Spaniards and Portuguese. The winter in a harbour on the north chiefs of Ternate allied themselves coast of the island, supposed to be to the latter, while those of Gilolo Port Humboldt. To this island and Tidore ranged themselves on the name of Papua was then given,

the side of the former; and many the word, according to Galvano, sanguinary conflicts, both on sea and meaning “ black;" but, according land, took place between the fleets to the interpretation of the people or Hongis of prahus of these Sulinhabiting the Moluccas, it means tans, aided from time to time by "frizzly black head," and is said to their respective European allies.

In 1527 Herman Cortes fitted sent Abel Jansz Tasman and Franout an expedition which sailed from choys Jacobsz Visscher on their the west coast of Mexico under memorable voyages of discovery, Alvaro de Saavedra, and reached which so well upheld the prestige the Spice Islands. Returning to of the Dutch flag. Mexico in 1528, this expedition The following twenty years saw coasted along the north side of six expeditions to New GuineaNew Guinea for the space of a namely, in 1654, Gommersdorf and month. In 1542, Ruy Lopez de Braconier; in 1655 Jacob Borné Villalobos led another expedition - made three voyages to the island, from Mexico, and reached Gilolo but was eventually murdered with in 1544. Three years later Villa- most of his men; in 1662 Nicolaes lobos succumbed to Portuguese in- Vinck discovered that deep bight fluence and died at Amboyna, when which, after having been surveyed the command of the expedition fell by Lieutenant MacCluer, was named into the hands of a Captain Yñigo after that officer; Jobannes Keyts, Ortiz de Retes. He sailed along the in 1678, discovered many bays and north coast, anchoring in several rivers, and added considerably to ports, and in 1549 is said to have our knowledge of the island. Damnamed the island - New Guinea," pier's expedition, despatched in imagining that he detected a like- 1699 by William III., had for its ness between its inhabitants and the sole object geographical discovery. natives of the West Coast of Africa. Dampier sighted New Guinea on

The next Spanish explorer was New Year's Day of 1700. He Luis Vaez de Torres, who, after his sailed along the north coast, and separation from Quiros at Espiritu to him belongs the honour of hav. Santo, one of the New Hebrides, ing discovered the strait which to came to New Guinea and sailed this day bears his name, dividing along the southern coast. Passing New Guinea from New Britain and through the “ Torres Straits " this the Admiralty Islands. navigator cut off New Guinea from Jacob Weyland, in 1705, disthe Australasian continent, and by covered Geelvink Bay, which he right of discovery, in 1806, took named after his vessel, the Green possession of the island in the name Fish. He did much useful surof the King of Spain.

veying work, and added a large The Dutch now entered the New store of matter to our information Guinea waters, from which they regarding the island. In 1722 expelled both Spaniards and Portu- Jacob Roggeveen coasted along the guese ; and in 1606 we find William north shore of the island, but, on Jansz, in the Duyfke, visiting the his arrival at Batavia, the Dutch west and south-west coasts of the East India Company seized his island, the Gulf of Carpentaria, and vessel, he being a private trader, thence entering the Torres Straits, and not connected with the Comwhere he discovered many islands pany, whose rights and monopolies unobserved by Torres.

were jealously guarded. We then hear of Cornelis Dedal Lieutenant MacCluer, in 1791, first visiting the island in 1616; Le surveyed the bay which bears his Maire and Schouten in 1617, who name, but which was discovered by discovered and named the Schouten Vinck in 1662. Lieutenant Kolff, Islands off Mount Toricelli; Jan while in command of the brig Vos in 1622 ; and Jan Cartensz in Dourga, in 1826, surveyed the 1623. In 1642 the enterprising "Dourge Strait," and in 1827 Governor-General Van Diemen founded the Dutch settlement in

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Triton Bay at the northern extre- settlement was effected, and Port mity of this strait.

Humboldt was proclaimed a Dutch The locality was ill-chosen. Sur. colony. The garrison of the new rounded by low swamps on every colony was ill-chosen. It consisted side, at the bottom of a deep inlet of a party of burghers, or native into which no breeze could pene- militia, of Ternate, a people by no trate, the settlement seemed to be means calculated to inspire respect doomed from the outset; and in in the stalwart and energetic Papuans 1835, much to the chagrin and of this coast. disappointment of the natives, the In Triton Bay the Dutch had to Dutch Government removed its gar- contend against obstacles which no rison to Wahaai, a small port on the human force could overcome, but north coast of Ceram, which was which human foresight might have much frequented at that time by avoided.

avoided. In Port Humboldt the English and American traders. Dutch entered upon new ground.

During the ten years that the Here no obstacles barred their way Dutch remained in Triton Bay to success, but the cruelty and among the Outapata tribe of Pa. rapacity of their boors so incensed puans, the most friendly relations the natives that a desultory war was existed between the two peoples. the result. The natives of the Theft was never heard of, and no coast were either butchered or were single act of hostility ever com- driven to take refuge among the mitted. The presence of the Dutch hill tribes, to whom they became was a check on the Malay, Chinese, slaves, and the cruelty of the Dutch and Ceramese semi-piratical expe- has thus become proverbial along ditions, which, under the guise of the whole length of the north-east traders, periodically visited these coast of New Guinea. These naparts, but who in reality were tives the English Government slavers and pirates of the lowest claims as its subjects, and yet they class. Since the European settle- know it not, but live in daily fear of ment on this coast was abandoned their sworn enemy descending upon these expeditions have again made them, unaware of the fact that an their appearance, but as they do not imaginary geographical line of deenter the Torres Straits very little marcation protects them from the is ever heard of them.

enemy they so much dread. In 1850 the Dutch Government, In the foregoing brief résumé of having purchased the right of the history of New Guinea we have “suzerainty" over the northern purposely avided making any alluand part of the north-eastern coast sion to the discoveries of either Capof New Guinea from the Sultan of tains Cook or Owen Stanley on the Tidore, sent Lieutenant Bruijn west and south-west coast, or to the Kops, in command of the Circe, more recent “discoveries " of Capand an expedition to found a settle- tain Moresby in H.M.S. Basilisk, ment in Humboldt Bay.

whereby the existence of the China This expedition was not success. Strait was made known to the world, ful, and all it did was to erect posts and a shorter route between Austral. supporting metal shields embossed asia and China rendered available with the Netherlands coat of arms to our mercantile marine. at various points along the coast. It will have been observed that A gale from the south east and the the island of New Guinea has often strong lee-current which here pre- been visited. Books narrating these vails, drove it back from the island several voyages have at times been of Gilolo. In 1852, however, the published.

published. The British Museum


has nearly all of them, and yet among physical formation of the country the public a wonderful amount of ig- in which he is born and brought up. norance prevails on the subject; we On the physical formation of the doubt not, therefore, but that some country depends the “climate" of the following information regard. it supports, and on the climate of ing the manners and customs of the the country depends the nature of Papuans, and the products of their its flora and of its fauna. island, together with an account of The Americans, descendants of its physical geography and climate, the Azyan branch of the Caucasian will be acceptable to many of our race, are now quite a distinct race readers.

of men, and yet only one century has Dr. Comrie, R.N., after rather elapsed since the founders of that numerous and exact observations, race gained their independence of collected while serving on board their mother country. The remarkH.M.S. Basilisk, has recently made able similarity which is to be found public some most valuable anthro- in all Americans is entirely due to the pological notes on the aborigines of physical and climatic conditions of that portion of the island which he the country they inhabit; and, since visited that is to say, its south- we find the characteristics of the eastern peninsula. Not the least white race altering with climate and remarkable among the facts thus country, it is not astonishing to find brought to light is the “rite of that the Negroid race is broken up circumcision ” practised by its in- into different peoples, inhabiting habitants. In Australia, and we different countries, and consebe ieve also in New Zealand, this quently differing from one another rite is not unknown; and the fact in physical formation. that this ancient Mosaic custom Neither, in our opinion, is it should be found to exist in New difficult to account for the various Guinea in the nineteenth century, shades of colour, or for the historic seems to point to its inhabitants rites and ceremonies, found among having held intercourse with the the widely scattered branches of the Old World, and with the Semite Negroid or non-historic race. branch of the Caucasian race in The cruising about the globe of particular, during pre-historic ages. the Phænicians must have been at

The Phænicians were an offshoot tended with just as much-indeed of the Semites, as

were also the

we may say with much more-danger Hebrews, and attained to a high to the early navigator of those prestate of civilization before any historic days than is now encounof its other offshoots had emerged tered, and yet, in modern times, from the pre-historic into the ships do get lost, crews are either historic age.

They were the drowned or else they are murdered earliest commercial and colonizing or kindly taken care of. by the people of the Old World. They Negroids among whom they chance long preceded the Greeks, and may to fall, and then, in the latter case, be said to have circumnavigated the offspring of the two races differs Africa, visited the shores of Eng- in colour from either parent. land and the Baltic, founded Car- It therefore seems

more than thage, and traded with India, Cey- probable that the difference in lon, and China about the very time colour now found to exist among when we first read of them in the the various tribes of the Negroid Bible as visiting the Israelites. race inhabiting the island of the

The physical formation of the Pacific Ocean may be accounted man depends entirely upon the for in a logical manner by admit

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