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ting the possibility of their having eastern peninsula of New Guinea, held intercourse in pre-historic and the white blood of the Semites times with the white traders of the mingling with the black blood of Semitic branch of the great Cau- the Negroids would account for the casian family; and this assumption various
found there to seems all the more probable when exist at this day; while the fact that the following evidence in its favour the compass has been known and is carefully weighed and digested. used for centuries by the South Sea
The galleys of the Phænicians Islanders, and the Papuans, Auswould experience all those vicissi- tralians, and Maories being actudes of wind and weather encoun- quainted with the rite of circumtered by vessels on the ccean cision, seems to point to an earlier this day. The same heavy north- intercourse with the Caucasian race west and south-west gales would than is recorded in its history. overtake them when attempting to Thus, the intermingling of the round the Cape of Good Hope as two
in pre-historic times overtake vessels attempting seems to account for the difference do so now. These gales, however, in colour to be found among Necould not be faced in the pre-his- groid tribes, as also for the Hebrew toric age as they are at the present features of those of the Pacific; time. Even now, vessels are often while the difference which exists in driven hundreds of miles out of the physical formation of the countheir course, notwithstanding all tries they inhabit accounts for the their modern scientific appliances; difference found to exist in the phyand how must the galleys of the sical formation of the various famiPhænicians have fared when over- lies of the human race. taken by a gale, accompanied by The geographical knowledge in its monstrous seas, and only the our possession regarding New Guibrawny arms of the rowers to keep nea goes to show that the southern the galley “ to the wind”? Would shores of that island abound in mud they not have had to “soud” flats and mangrove swamps, but before these gales as our modern that the south-eastern peninsula ships do now? Occasionally most and northern coasts are bold and assuredly they would; and if at steep, their high cliffs plunging such times they found themselves vertically into the waters of the scudding before a heavy north-west Pacific Ocean to a depth at times gale across the great Southern measured by hundreds of fathoms. Ocean, this gale, on veering to the Stretching away from these cliffs south-west, as it does to this day, into the interior are plains and would land their galley in New plateaux from which rise mountain Zealand, and the Semite and Ne- ranges with altitudes varying from groid blood, intermingling, would 5,000 to 14,000 feet at some thirty to form the Maori race, whose very fifty miles from the coast. These fortifications, or pahs, remind one mountains form the “Coast Range," most forcibly of the Roman Era, and beyond lie plains of grcat or of the earlicr days of Alexander extent. In the centre of the island and of the Ptolemies.
an elevated mountain chain, runThe heavy "northers or north- ning from south-east to north-west, west monsoon of the equatorial raises its peaks beyond the limit of region, would likewise drive the perpetual snow. galleys of the Phænicians out of In the north-west extremity of the China seas into the South the island, this range has been Pacific Ocean, or to the south- named the “Snewe” or “Charles Lewis" Mountains, and is at times ing turns to the NNW., and trendcalled by the one and at times ing along the west coast of the by the other name in Dutch works. island, but at a great distance from
The highest elevation as yet it at first, draws nearer to the sea as measured by the Dutch is 20,000 it approaches the backbone range of feet, at about 120 miles from the the island, which it rejoins at the coast. In the south-east penin- 137th meridian of east longitude. sula, this range assumes the name This physical formation leaves us of “Owen Stanley,” and its greatest an inland basin to deal with, formed altitude is 13,400 feet.
by the Coast Range we have just By following the tread of the been following, and the main range “Snewe Mountains" through the in the centre of the island. This unexplored centre of New Guinea, basin will receive the drainage of we see that they must unite with both these ranges. It consequently the Owen Stanley Range, and form must be very damp, and it is more the main or backbone range of the than probable that it is here that island, from which many spurs the Fly, and all the rivers on the strike off in a north-easterly direc- west coast, take their rise, and tion towards the sea, dividing the thence flow to the sea through the northern half of the island into breaks which exist in the Coast several basins, within which large Range. We say exist, because we rivers wend their way to the ocean. have observed that these breaks
At a distance of about sixty miles actually do occur. We also noticed, from the head of the Gulf of Papua, on one remarkably clear day, prior a spur detaches itself from the to the north-west monsoon coming southern slopes of the Owen Stanley on, that an inner range rises above, Range. Trending to the westward
and beyond, and apparently follows this spur follows the lay of the the trend of the Coast Range. We south coast of the island. From would place this inner range at its base, low mud flats, covered about 100 miles from the coast; the with mangrove trees, forming the outer range at from forty to sixty, impenetrable mangrove swamp so according to the longitude; and common in these latitudes, run out the greatest distance of the main into the sea for some fifty or sixty range, in the centre of the island, miles.
must be about 250 miles from the These swamps are cut up into in- seaboard. This would give an innumerable islands by a ramification land basin of about 14,000 square of watercourses, which carry off geographical miles, which would the drainage of the high land in the receive the drainage from about background. Here, too, the well- 600 miles of snow-clad mountain known “Fly River" runs into the range, and from over 800 miles of sea, after wending its way through coast range, whose lowest altitude more than one hundred miles of cannot be computed at less than this muddy region. The number 2,000 feet. of mouths appertaining to the Fly Against these mountains, and on River is uncertain. The Baxter their southern slopes, the southRiver, lately visited by Mr. M.Far- east trade-wind blows uninterruptlane, appears, from its position, to edly for six months ; but during be one of them, and many others the remainder of the year, it is dismay yet be found.
placed from time to time by the After passing the 142nd meri. north-west monsoon. The southdian of east longitude, the Coast east trade is a warm, moist wind, Range we have just been follow. carrying with it all the moisture it
bas sucked up in the form of vapour, character, there being no mangrove while passing over the South Pacific swamps along their banks to infect Ocean. This wind strikes against the air with the stench of, decomthe southern slopes of the snow- posing vegetable and animal matter, clad backbone range of the island, arrested by the network formation and, from the fact that the snow of the roots of these trees. remains on its elevated summits, The natives of New Guinea, alit is evident that the warm moist though belonging to the Negroid trade-wind cannot, and does not, race, differ in as great a degree from pass over them; but that, on the the Negro as does the physical contrary, as we have elsewhere formation of New Guinea from that demonstrated, it precipitates its of Africa. They may be divided into moisture, rises, and returns south, four classes, namely, the Papuan, as an upper current, to carry warmth or Frizzly Head proper, inhabiting to New Zealand, thus rendering its the low lands of the south and climate one of the finest of the west coasts; the White Papuans, globe.
visited by the Basilisk; the Al. But, just in the same proportion foeren or Hoorafora, inhabiting the that New Zealand is benefited by the mountains of the interior; and existence of the high land in New lastly, the Papuan-Malays, inhabitGuinea, so is the southern coast ing the north coast, professing Maof that island rendered unhealthy. hommedanism, and subject to the The mountains arrest the trade- authority of the Sultan of Tidore. winds: hence, the climate is sultry All these peoples are continually and oppressive, while, at the same at war the one with the other. time, it is extremely damp. The They are subdivided into tribes, vegetation is also rank, and fætid and these again have constant disodours fill the air. Such regions putes and quarrels to settle among should be avoided by Europeans. themselves. Consequently, each
North of the backbone range all tribe lives an isolated existence. is changed as if by enchantment. Its warriors are divided into secInstead of mangrove swamps, we tions, and each party has to take have bold headlands, against which its turn at scouting or outpost an angry surf never ceases to rage duty, in order to guard their village and roar. The south-east trades
against surprise. At times their are replaced by an exhilarating feuds lead to most disastrous conwesterly breeze, never too warm, sequences, and whole tribes are sometimes very cold, for it is drawn exterminated in a single combat, down the mountain sides from above the conquerors razing the village the snow line, out of the cold of their vanquished foe with the Arctic current, to replace the moist ground, cutting down their cocoawind arrested on the opposite side. nut trees, and leading their women The climate is here salubrious, the air into captivity. They appear to eat being as pure as in Peru ; but while the enemies slain in battle, and it never rains over the latter country, after each fight the victors hold it does do so during the season of the high revel over the remains of their north-west monsoon over north-east foes, whose skulls, after having New Guinea, and it is to this coast been well picked and cleaned, are that Europeans should turn their carefully preserved as trophies, the attention ; for here the rivers, run. lower jaw-bones being used as ornaning into the ocean from between ments, in the shape of bracelets. high cliffs, form natural highways Although it may appear parainto the interior, of a most healthy doxical at first sight to say so, nevertheless this state of things is serener virtues taught by the observmost favourable to future European ance of the Christian faith; and colonization, provided that the task the best means that can be adopted of occupying the island is carried to attain this desirable end is, not out in a systematic and orderly to meddle with the adults any more manner, and that the exploring than is absolutely necessary, but to and colonizing expeditions who may secure, as much as possible, the undertake the duty are well organ- regular attendance of children of ized, well officered, and governed both sexes at schools provided for by comprehensive rules and regu
their use. lations.
When the Dutch first visited To a well-organized expedition these parts, they found the natives of say fifty or sixty men, effecting inclined to be most friendly, and a landing at any point on the north- were received with open arms. The east coast would be easy, and unac- following simple narrative of Lieu. companied by bloodshed, for no tenant Bruijn Kops is most striksingle tribe would dare
such ingly illustrative of the then exist. a force. They would, on the con- ing state of feeling :
, trary, retire before it, hanging about its outskirts it is true, but never “ One evening when we went on venturing within even musket range shore all the children of the village for many days, until accustomed to were collected together, and beads were the sight and actions of the in- thrown among them. Not only the vaders. Then, one by one, the children, but women, men, and even natives would come into the Euro
some of the chiefs, scrambled for the
beads, and ran from every quarter to pean camp with presents, and, when
obtain a share. All were on their satisfied that no harm was meant
knees in the sand, and showed how them, would soon become friendly. much they prized these presents by the This state of feeling should be zeal and attention with which they encouraged; and in the event of sought for them, and by their merry any neighbouring tribe attacking or laughter when they were fortunate. molesting the friendly natives, these Although these beads were of great should be assisted by the Europeans
value in their estimation, the scramto beat back their enemies, and
bling was carried on without the per
sonal contests which in civilized Europe once the colonists show their real
would have been the result of an unbonâ fides by such an act they need
equal distribution of presents. Walknever fear being treacherously at- ing along the beach after this distributacked; for their native allies will tion, I entered into conversation with a scout for them, fight for them, and native who had learned a little Malay, do everything in their power to
and who invited me into his house, show their gratitude. The great
where I was led into the room which difficulty will be for the European
a dwelling-place for the to make his native ally comprehend
family. I thought all the women
would take to flight, and was not a that no aggressive action on his
little surprised that they sat down close part will be tolerated, that is, to to me, and observed me very attenmake him understand that he is not tively, but without troublesome intruto retaliate on his enemies. This sion. Thus I sat in the midst of six will be all the more difficult that
women, three of whom were young,
and whom on account of their beautithe l'apuan law is the old Mosaic law of “an eye for an eye, and a
ful eyes, clear, white, and regular
teeth, happy, laughing faces, round tooth for a tooth," which it will be
shoulders and arms, fine hands, beaunecessary to supersede by incul
tiful bosoms, and well-formed limbs, cating into the Papuan mind the deserved the name of beautiful, Dot
only in the eyes of Papuans, but also are the animals these crops are in those of Europeans. The frankness
thus protected against ? with which I was received struck me;
Captain Moresby only saw the it was entirely unexpected. They brought me a dish of papeda (sago
wallaby in a wild state, and pig and four steeped in water), some roast
dogs in a tame state. He noticed. fish, yams, and fruit, requesting me
however, the spoor of some large to partake of it, which I did to please
animal, which he supposes to be them. Seeing a ring on my finger, a rhinoceros. The Bâsle missionone of the girls tried to draw it off to aries report wild hogs and leopards examine it; but not succeeding I drew on the north coast. The Dutch it off myself, and handed it to her.
mention buffalo bones having been After examination, it was returned to me with care. I mention all this
brought to them at Triton Bay. because the familiarity with which I
Mr. M'Farlane reports having seen was treated astonished me, and gave
the spoor of the buffalo in the mud, a favourable opinion of these people. along the river side, when exploring
the Baxter. His party also saw, The products of the island are without the aid of magnifying both numerous and valuable. Gold, glasses, a bird, said to be capable tin, copper, iron, and sulphur are of carrying away a half-ton dugong among its minerals. Seed and shell in its claws ! The dugong is pearl and tortoiseshell are to be somewhat like a whale, and this found along its coast, together with fabulous bird must, in size, be very the sea-slug or bêche-de-mer and much like a whale also. A Captain the edible birds'-nests so highly Lawson reports having shot a tiger prized in the Japanese and Chinese or leopard, which he says the natives markets. In its forests is found call a moola. He also shot buffalo the Tectona grandis, or Indian teak, and deer, monkeys which chased & wood most valuable in ship- him, boa-constrictors of fabulous building, while sandal-wood and dimensions, spiders and snakes of ebony carved ornaments have been like proportions, and enormous purchased from time to time from scorpii ad lib! Truly New Guinea the natives by Sydney traders. The is a wonderful land if all these cotton-tree grows wild at many accounts are true. spots along the coast, wild nutmegs We are inclined to believe, howand cinnamon have been procured, ever, that in New Guinea will be and the breadfruit-tree, the sago. found the counecting link between palm, and the cocoanut-tree at this the Australasian and Asiatic flora present time supply the Papuans and fauna, the one being separated with their chief and most luxuriant from the other by the dividing food. It is difficult to say what range, which in reality divides New might not be grown in New Guinea Guinea into halves, just in the same under proper cultivation, but, at nianner that a herring is divided by present, the natives appear to con- its backbone; and as in that, fish, so tent themselves with cultivating in New Guinea, will “the back” be only the sugar-cane, the yam, the the most profitable, unless, indeed, taro, and the sweet potato, together its abdomen be found to contain a with a few tomatoes, gourds, or “ golden roe
among its alluvial melons, and beans with very long deposits. pods; all of which they enclose The island of New Guinea in the within stout bamboo fences. These hands of a foreign power would be fences are evidently erected to keep a standing menace to our Australwild animals from destroying the asian colonies. From its numerous crops within the clearing; but what harbours cruisers could at any mo