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Zelotypum, instaurant certamina mutua vates, But still the worst with most regret commend, Et sese alterni stultis ludibria præbent.

For each ill author is as bad a friend. Fert ægrè alterius, qui pessimus audit honores, To what base end, and by what abject ways, Improbus improbuli vice fungitur author amici ; Are mortals urg'd through sacred lust of praise ! En fædis quam fæda viis mortalia corda

Ah, ne'er so dire a thirst of glory boast, Cogit persequier famæ malesuada libido! Nor in the critic let the man be lost : Ah! ne gloriolæ usque adeo sitis impia regnet,

Good nature and good sense must ever join ; Nec critica affectans, hominis simul exue nomen: To erris human, to forgive divine. Sed candor cum judicio conjuret amicè, Peccare est hominum, peccanti ignoscere, divům. At vero si cai ingenuo præcordia bilis

But if in poble minds some dregs remain, Non despumatæ satis acri fæce laborant, Not yet purg'd off, of spleen and sour disdain ; In scelera accensas pejora exerceat iras,

Discharge that rage on more provoking crimes, Nil dubitet, segetem præbent hæc tempora lar. Nor fear a dearth in these flagitious times. Obscæno detur nulla indulgentia vati, [gam. No pardon vile obscenity shou'd find, Ars licet ingenio supeaddita cerea flecti

Though wit and art conspire to move your inind: Pectora pelliciat. Verum, hercule, juncta stupori But dulness with obscenity must prove, Scripta impura pari vano molimine prorsus

As shameful sure as impotence in love. lovalidam æquiparant eunuchi turpis amorem. In the fat age of pleasure, wealth and ease, Tunc ubi regnavit dives cum pace voluptas Sprung the rank weed, and thriv'd with large in In nostris flos iste malus caput extulitoris.

crease ; Tunc ubi rex facilis viguit, qui semper amore,

When love was all an easy monarch's care, Consiliis rarò, nunquam se exercuit armis :

Seldom at council, never in a war: Scripserunt mimos proceres, meretricibus aulæ Jilts rul'd the state, and statesmen farces writ; Successit regimen ; nec non magnatibus ipsis Nay wits had pensions, and young lords had wit : Affuit ingenium, stipendiaque ingeniosis.

The fair sate panting at a courtier's play, Patricia in scenis spectavit opuscula musæ

And not a mask went unimprov'd away : Multa nurus, lasciva tuens, atque auribus hausit The modest fan was lifted up no more, Omnia larvato secura modestia vultu.

And virgins smil'd at what they blush'd before Machina, virginibus quæ ventilat ora, pudicum

The following license of a foreign reign Dedidicit clausa officium, ad ludicra cachinnus Did all the dregs of bold Socinus drain ; Increpuit, rubor ingenuus nihil amplius arsit, Then unbelieving priests reform'd the nation, Deinde ex externo traducta licentia regno And taught more pieasant methods of salvation; Audacis fæces Socini absorbuit imas,

Where Heaven's free subjects might their rights Sacrilegique sacerdotes tum quemque docebant

dispute Copati efficere, ut gratis paradison adiret ;

Lest God himself should seem too absolute. P't populus patriâ cum libertate sacratis

Pulpits their sacred satire learn’d to spare, Assererent sua jura locis, ne scilicet unquam

And vice admir'd to find a flatt'rer there ! (Crediderim) Omnipotens foret ipse potentior | Encourag'd thus, wit's Titans brav'd the skies, æquo.

And the press groan’d with licens'd blasphemies-Templa sacram satiram jam tum violata silebant: These monsters, critics, with your darts engage, Et laudes vitii, vitio mirante, sonabant !

Here point your thunder, and exhaust your rage) Ascensi hine musæ Titanes ad astra ruerunt,

Yet shun their fault, who scandalously nice,
Legeque sancitum quassit blasphemia præluin. Will needs mistake an author into vice;
Hæc monstra, O critici, contra hæc convertite te- All seems infected that th' infected spy,
Hacfulmen, tonitruque styli torquete severi, [lum, As all looks yellow to the jaundic'd eye.
Et penitus totum obnixi exonerate furorem!
At tales fugias, qui, non sine fraude severi,
Scripta malam in partem, livore interprete, ver

tunt ;
Pravis ompia prava videntur, ut omnia passim
Ictericus propriâ ferrugine tingit ocellus.

Jam mores critici proprios, adverte, docebo; Learn then what morals critics ought to shor, Dimidiata etenim est tibi sola scientja virtua. For 'tis but half a judge's task to know : Non satis est ars, ingenium, doctrinaque vires 'Tis not enough, wit, art, and learning join, Quæque suas jungant, si non quoque candor ho- | In all you speak, let truth and candour shine : nestis,

That not alone what to your judgment's due Et veri sincerus amor sermonibus insint. All may allow; but seek your friendship too. Sic tibi non solum quisque amplos solvet honores, Sed te, qui criticum probat exoptabit amicum,

Matus, quando animus dubius tibi fluctuat, Be silent always when you doubt your sense ; Sin tibi confidis, dictis confide prudenter. [esto; And speak, though sure with seeming diffidence; Quidam bebetes semperperstant erroribus; at tu Some positive, persisting fops we know, Præteritas lætus culpas fateare, dies que That if once wrong will needs be always so ; Quisque dies redimat, criticoque examine tentet. But you with pleasure own your errours past,

And make each day a critic on the last. Hoc tibi non satis est, verum, quod præcipis, 'Tis not enough your counsel still be true, esse,

Blunt truths more mischief thay nice falsehoods Veridici mala rusticitas mage sæpe molesta est




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Auribus, ingenuam quam verba ferentia fraudem; / Men must be taught, as if you taught 'em not,
Non ut præceptor, care des præcepta, reique And things upknown propos'd as things forgot.
Ignaros, tanquam immemores, catus instrue : Without good-breeding, truth is disapprov'd ;

That only makes superior sense belov'd,
Ipse placet, si non careat candore, nec ullos
Judicium, urbanis quod fulget moribus, urit.

Tu nulli invideas monitus, rationis avarus Be niggards of advice on no pretence;
Si sis, præ reliquis sordes miserandus avaris.

For the worst avarice is that of sense.
Ne vili obsequio criticorum jura refigas,

With mean complacence ne'er betray your trust,
Nec fer judicium nimis officiosus iniquuin ; Nor be so civil as to prove unjust;
Prudentem haud irritabis (ne finge) monendo,

Fear most the anger of the wise to raise,
Qui laude est dignus patiens culpabitur idem. Those best can bear reproof who merit praise.
Consultum meliùs criticis foret, illa maneret

'Twere well, might critics still this freedom Si nunc culpandi libertas. Appius autem,

Eece ! rubet, quoties loqueris, torvoque tremen- But Appins reddens at each word you speak,
Intuitu, reddit sævi trucia ora gigantis (dus And stares, tremendous with a threat'ning eye,
Jam picta in veteri magè formidanda tapete. Like some fierce tyrant in old tapestry!
Fac mittas tumidum tituloque et stemmate stul. Fear most to tax an honourable fool,

[di ; M'hose right it is uncensur'd to be dull;
Cui quædam est data jure licentia sæpe stupen- Such without wit, are poets when they please,
Tales et libitum vates absque indole, eâdem, As without learning they can take degrees.
Quâ sine doctrinâ doctores lege creantur.

Leave dang'rous truths to unsuccessful satires,
Contemptis prudens satiris res linque tacendas,

And flattery tu fulsome dedicators, (more,
Assentatorumque infamem exerceat artem, Whom, when they praise, the world believes no
Nominibus libros magnis gensignara dicandi; Than when they promise to give scribbling o'er.
Quæ cum mendaci laudes effutjat ore, (olim 'Tis best sometimes your censure to restrain
Non magnè credenda est, quam quando pejerat And charitably let the dull be vain.
Non iterum pingues unquam conscribere versus. Your silence there is better than your spite,
Nou raro est satius bilem cohibere suëscas, (deos For who can rail so long as they can write ?
Humanusque sinas hebetem sibi plaudere: pru- Still humming on, their drowsy course they keep,
Hic taceas moneo, nihil indignatio prodest, And lash'd so long, like tops, are lash'd asleep.
Fessus eris culpando, ea gens haud fessa canendo: False steps but help them to renew the race,
Nam temnens stimulos, tardum cum murmure As after stumbling, jades will mend their pace :

What crowds of these, impertinently bold,
Continuat, donec jam tandem, turbinis instar In sounds, and jing'ling syllables grown old,
Vapulet in torporem,& semper eundo quiescat. Still run on poets in a raging vein,
Talibus ex lapsu vis est reparata frequenti, Ev'n to the dregs and squeezings of the brain;
Ut tardi titubata urgent vestigia manni.

Strain out the last dull droppings of their sense,
Horum pleraque pars, cui nulla amentia defil, And rhyme with all the rage of impotence.
Tinnitu numerorum et amore senescit inani,
Perstat difficili carmen deducere vena,
Donec inexhausto restat fæx ulla cerebro,
Relliquias stillat vix expressæ malè mentis,
Et miseram invalidâ exercet prurigine musam.

Sunt nobis vates boc de grege, sed tamen idem Such shameless bards we have, and yet is
Affirmo, criticorum ejusdem sortis abunde est.

Helluo librorum, qui sudat, hebetque legendo, There are as mad abandou'd critics too.
Cui mens nugarum doctå farragine turget The book-full blockhead, ignorantly read,
Attentas propriæ voci malè recreat aures; With loads of learned lumber in his head,
Auditorque sibi solus miser ipse videtur.

With his own tongue still edifies his ears,
Ille omnes legit authores, omnesque lacessit And always list'ning to himself appears
Durfeio infestus pariter magnoque Drydeno. All books be reads, and all he reads assails,
Judice sub tali semper furatur, emitve [(illi From Dryden's fables, doun to Durfy's tales.
Quisque suum bonus author opus: non Garthius with him most authors steal their works, or buy ;
Si credas) proprium contexuit ipse poema. Garth did not write his own Dispensary.
In scenis nora si comcedia agatur, “amicus Name a new play, and he's the poet's friend,
Hujus scriptor (ait) meus est, cui non ego paucas Nay, show'd his faults--but when wou'd poets
Ostendi maculas; sed mens est nulla poetis.”

mend ?
Non locus est taın sanctus, ut hunc expellere No place so sacred from such fops is barr'd,

[pete sacras Nor is Paul's-church more safe than Paul's Nec templum in tuto est, plusquam via; quin

Aufugiens aras, & ad aras iste sequetur

Nay fly to altars; there he'll talk you dead;
Occidetque loquendo; etenim stultus ruet ultro For fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
Nil metuens, ubi ferre pedem vex angelus audet. Distrustful sense with modest caution speaks,
Diffidit sibimet sapientia cauta, brevesque It still looks home, and short excursions makes,
Excursus tentas in se sva lumina vertint; But rattling nonsense in full vollies breaks,
Stultitia at præceps violento vortice currit And never shock'd, and never turn'd aside,
Non unquam tremefacta, nec unquam è tramite Bursts out, resistless, with a thund'ring tide!

Fulmine fulmineo se totam invicta profundit.

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Tu vero quispam est monita instillare peritus, But where's the man who counsel can bestow,
Qui, qnod scis,lætus monstras, neque scire super- Still pleas'd to teach, and yet not proud to know?
Non odio ductus pravove favore, nec ulli [bis, Unbiass'd, or by favour, or by 'spite;
Addictus sectæ, ut pecces, neque cæcus,ut erres; Not dully prepossess'd, or blindly right,
Doctus, at urbanus, sincerus, at anlicus idem, Though learn'd, well-bred; and though well-bred,
Audatèrgne pudens mediâque humanus in irâ.

sincere ;
Qui nunquam dubites vel amico ostendere culpas, Modestly bold, and humanely severe?
Et celebres inimicum haqd parca laude meren. Who to a friend his faults can freely show,
Purgato ingenio felix, sed & infinito. [tem. And gladly praise the merit of a foe?
Et quod librorumque hominumquescientia ditat; | Blest with a taste exact and unconfin'd;
Colloquium cui come, animus summissus & in- A knowledge both of books and human kind;

Gen'rous converse; a soul exenupt from pride, Laudandique omnes, ratio cum præcipit, ardor! And love to praise, with reason on his side?

Tales extiterunt critici, quos Græcia quondam Such once were critics; such the happy few, Romaque mirata est natos melioribus annis. Athens and Rome in better ages knew. Primus Aristoteles est ausus solvere navem, The mighty Stagyrite first left the shore, Atque datis velis vastum explorare profundum. Spread all his sails, and durst the deep explore ; Tutus jit, longèque ignotas attigit oras

He steer'd securely, and discover'd far, Lumina Mæoniæ observans radiantia stellæ. Led by the light of the Mæonian star. Jam vates, gens illa, diu quæ lege soluta est, Pocts, a race long unconfiu'd and free, Et sævæ capta est malè libertatis amore,

Still fond and proud of savage liberty, Lætantes dominum accipiunt,atque omnis eodem Receiv'd his laws, and stood convinc'd 'twas fit, Qui domnit paturam, exultat præside musa. Who conquer'd nature, should preside o'er wit.

Nusquam non grata est incuria comis Horati, Horace still charms with graceful negligence, Qui nec opinantes nos erudit absque magistro.

And without method talks us into sense ;
Ille suas leges, affabilis instar amici

Will like a friend, familiarly convey
Quam veras simul & quam claro more profundit! The truest notions in the casiest way;
Ille licet tam judicio quam divite venâ [audax He, who supreme in judgment, as in wit,
Maximus, audacem criticum, non scriptor in- Might boldly censure, as he boldły writ;
Præstaret se jure, tamen sedatus ibidem

Yet judg'd with coolness, though he sung with Censor, ubi cecinit divino concitus æstro,

fire, Carminibusque eadem inspirat, quæ tradidit His precepts teach but what his works inspire. Arte.

Our critics take a contrary extreme, Nustrates hoinines planè in contraria currunt, They judge with fury,but they write with phlegm; Tarba, stylovehemens critico,sed frigida Phæbo : Nor suffers Horace more in wrong translations Nec malè vertendo Flaccum torsere poetæ By wits, than critics in as wrong quotations. Absurdi, magè quam critici sine mente citando. See Dionysius '3 Homer's thoughts refine, Aspice, ut expoliat numeros Dionysius ipsi And call new beauties forth from ev'ry line. Mæonidæ, veneresque accersat ubique recentes! Fancy and art in gay Petronius please, Conditam ingenio jactat Petronius artem, The scholar's learning, with the courtier's ease. Cui doctrina scholas redolet simul & sapit aulam.

Cum docti Fabii cumulata volumina versas, In grave Quintilian's copious work we find Optima perspicuâ in serie documenta videre est, The justest rules, and clearest methud join'd; Haud secus utilia ac apothecis condimus arma, Thus useful arms in magazines we place, Ordine perpetuo sita juncturâque decorâ, All rang'd in order, and dispos'd with grace. Non modo ut obtineat quo sese oblectet ocellus, Nor thus alone the curious eye to please, Verum etiam in promptu, quando venit usus, But to be found, when need requires, with ease.

habenda. Te solum omnigenæ inspirant, Longine, Ca- Thee, bold Longinus! all the Nine inspire, mænæ,

[dederunt; And bless their critic with a poet's tire; Et propriam penitus tibi mentem animumque | An ardent judge, who zealous in his trust, En! tibi propositi criticum fideique tenacem, With warmth gives sentence, yet is always just; Qui vehemens sua jura, sed omnibus æqua mi- Whose own example strengthens all his laws, nistrat;

And is himself that great subliine he draws. Quo probat exemplo, quas tradit acumine leges, Semper sublimni sublimior argumento!

Successere diù sibi tales, pulsaque fugit Thus long succeeding critics justly reign'd, Barbara præscriptas exosa licentia leges. Licence supress'd, and useful laws ordain'd. Româ perpetuo crescente scientia crevit, Learning and Rome alike in empire grew, Atque artes aquilarum equitâre audacibus alis; And arts still follow'd where her eagles flew; Sed tandem superala iisdem victoribus uno From the same foes, at last, both felt their doom, koma triumphata est musis comitantibus ævo. And the same age saw learning fall and Rome. Dira superstitio & comes est bacchata tyrannis, With tyranny then superstition join'd, Et simul illa animos, hæc corpora sub juga misit, As that the body, this enslav'd the mind; Credita ab omnibus omnia sunt,sed cognita nullis, Much was believ'd, but little understow, Et stupor est ausus titulo pietatis abuti !

And to be dull was construed to be good; Obruta diluvio sic est doctrina secundo,

A second deluge learning thus o'er-run, Et Monachis finita Gotborum exorsa fuerupt. And the Monks finish'd what the Goths bec

13 Dionysius of Halicarnasse

bays !

At vero tandem memorabile nomen Erasmus, At length Erasmus, that great injur'd name, (Cuique sacerdoti jactandus, cuique pudendus) (The glory of the priest-hood, and the shame) Barbariæ obnixus torrentia tempora vincit,

Stemm'd the wild torrent of a barb'rous age, Atque Gothos propriis sacros de finibus arcet. And drove those holy Vandals off the stage.

At Leo jam rursus viden' aurea secula condit, But see each muse in Leo's golden days, Sertaque neglectis revirescunt laurea musis! Starts from her trance, and trims her wither'd Antiquus Romæ Genius de pulvere sacro Attollit sublime caput. Tunc cæpit amari Rome's ancient genius, o'er its ruin spread, Sculptura atque artes sociæ, cælataque rupes

Shakes off the dust, and rears bis rev'rend head! Vivere, et in pulchras lapides mollescere formas; Then Sculpture and her sister arts revive, Divinam harmonam surgentia templa sonabant, Stones leap'd to form, and rocks began to live; Atque stylo & calamo Raphael & Vida vigebant; With sweeter notes cach rising temple rung; Illustris vates ! cni laurea serta poeta

A Raphael painted, and a Vida '4 sung ! Intertexta hederis critici geminata refulgent: Immortal Vida! on whose honour'd brow Jamque æquat claram tibi, Mantua, Vida Cre- The poet's bays and critic's ivy grow: monam,

Cremona now shall ever boast thy name, Utque loci, sic semper erit vicinia famæ. As next in place to Mantua, next in fame!

Mox autem profugæ metuentes improba musæ But soun by impious arms from Latium chas'd, Arma, Italos fines linquunt, inque Arctica mi- Their ancient bounds the banish'd muses past; grant

Thence arts o'er all the northern world advance; Littora; sed criticam sibi Gallia vendicat artem. But critic learning fourish'd most in France: Gens ullas leges, docilis servire, capessit,

The rules a nation born to serve obeys; Boiloviusque vices domini gerit acer Horati. And Boileau still in right of Horace sways; At fortes spernunt præcepta externa Britanni, But we, brave Britops, foreign laws despis'd, Moribus indomiti quoque ; nam pro jure furendi And kept unconquer'd, and unciviliz'd, Angliacus pugnat genius, Romamque magistram, Fierce for the liberties of wit, and bold, Romanumque jugum semper contemnere pergit. We still defy'd the Romans, as of uld. At vero jam tum non defuit unus & alter

Yet some there were among the sounder few, Corda, licet tumefacta minûs, magis alta geren

Of those who less presum'd, and better knew, Ingenii partes veri studiosa fovendi (tes, Who durst assert the juster ancient cause, Jnque basi antiquâ leges & jura locandi.

And here restor'd wit's fundamental laws. Talis, qui cecinit doctrinæ exemplar & author, Such was the muse, whose rules and practice tell,

*'Ars bene scribendi naturæ est summa potestas.” Nature's is chief master-piece is writing well. Talis Roscommon-bonis & doctissimus idem, Such was Roscommon-not more learn'd than Nobilis ingenio magè nobilitatus honesto;

good, Qui Graios Latiosque authores novit ad unguem, With manners gen'rous as his noble blood; Dum veneres texit pudibunda industria privas.

To him the wit of Greece and Rome was known, Talis Walshius ille fuit-judex & amicus And ev'ry author's merit but his own. Musarum, censure æquus laudisque minister, Such late was Walsh--the muse's judge and Mitis precantûm censor, rehemensque merentùm

friend; Laudator, cerebrum sine mendo, & cor sine fuco! Who justly know to blame, or to commend ; Hæc saltem accipias,lacrymabilis umbra,licebit, To failings mild, but zealous for desert, Hæc debet mea musa tuæ munuscula famæ. The clearest head, and the sincerest heart. Illa eadem, infantem cujus tu fingere vocem, This humble praise, lamented shade! receive, Tu moastrare viam; horridulas componere plu- This praise at least a grateful muse may give!

The muse, whose early voice you taught to sing, Tu sæpe es solitus—duce jam miseranda remoto Prescrib'd her heights, and prun'd her tender Illa breves humili excursus molimine tentat,

wing; Nec jam quid sublime, quid ingens amplius au- (Her guide now lost) no more pretends to rise, det.

[cetur, But in low numbers short excursions tries; Illic hoc jam satis est—si hinc turba indocta do- Content, if hence th' unlearn’d their wants may Docta recognoscit stadii vestigia prisci : Censuram haud curat, famam mediocritèr ardet, The learn'd reflect on what before they knew: Culpare întrepida, at laudis tamen æqua mi- Careless of censure, not too fond of fame, nistra;

Still pleas'd to praise, yet not afraid to blame: Hauil ulli prudens assentaturve notetve;

Averse alike to fatter or offend, Se demum mendis haud immunem esse fatetur, Not free from faults, nor yet too vain to mend, At neque fastidit limâ, quando indiget, uti.

14 Hieronymus Vida, an excellent Latin poet, who writ an art of poetry in verse. He flourish. ed in the time of Leo the tenth.

Is Essay on Poetry, by the duke of Bucking ham.







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