Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan
Bloomsbury Publishing, 30. nov. 2011 - 416 sider
I.B.Tauris in association with the Iran Heritage Foundation
The decline and fall of Safavid Iran is traditionally seen as the natural outcome of the unrelieved political stagnation and moral degeneration which characterised late Safavid Iran. "Persia in Crisis" challenges this view. In this ground-breaking new book, Rudi Matthee revisits traditional sources and introduces new ones to take a fresh look at Safavid Iran in the century preceding the fall of Isfahan in 1722, which brought down the dynasty and ushered in a long period of turbulence in Iranian history. Inherently vulnerable because of the country's physical environment, its tribal makeup and a small economic base, the Safavid state was fatally weakened over the course of the seventeenth century. Matthee views Safavid Iran as a network of precarious alliances subject to perpetual negotiation and the society they ruled as an uneasy balance between conflicting forces. In the later seventeenth century this delicate balance shifted from cohesion to fragmentation.
An increasingly detached, palace-bound shah; a weakening link between the capital and the outlying provinces; the regime's neglect of the military and its shortsighted monetary policies combined to exacerbate rather than redress existing problems, leaving the country with a ruler too feeble to hold factionalism and corruption in check and a military unable to defend its borders against outside attack by Ottomans and Afghans. The scene was set for the Crisis of 1722. This book makes a major contribution to our understanding of Iranian history and the period that led to two hundred years of decline and eclipse for Iran.
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Iran in the Late Safavid Period
Shahs and Grand Viziers 16291666
Shahs Grand Viziers and Eunuchs 16661699
4 Monetary Policy and the Disappearing Mints 16001700
Safavid Military Politics in the Seventeenth Century
The Center and the Provinces 16001700
Shii Clerics and Minorities
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Afghans Allah Virdi Khan appointed Armenian army Baluchis Bandar Abbas Carmelites century Chardin Christian clerics coins country’s court Dutch eunuchs export Fath Ali Khan forces Gamron to Batavia Gamron to Heren Georgian ghulams gold governor grand vizier Heren XVII Hofe des persischen ibid India Iran’s Iranian Isfahan to Gamron Julfa Kaempfer Khan’s khassah Khurasan Kirman Krusinski late Safavid Les six mahmudis Mashhad Matthee Mazandaran merchants military mints Mirza Taqi monetary Mughal Muhammad Beg Nasiri Nouvelles d’Ispahan officials Ottoman period Persian persischen Grosskönigs political Qandahar Qizilbash Quli Khan qurchibashi Raphaël region reign of Shah religious revenue royal Safavid Iran Safi Quli Sanson Sept Shah Abbas Shah Abbas II Shah Isma`il Shah Safi Shah Sulayman Shah Sultan Husayn Shah Tahmasb shah’s shahbandar Shamakhi Shamlu Shaykh Ali Khan Shi`i Shiraz silver sipahsalar soldiers Sunni Surat Tabriz Tarikh-i jahan-ara-yi Abbasi Tavernier tion tribal troops tumans Turkaman Uzbeks