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briateth less than wine pure. The cause of the rosive; the pine-apple hath a kertel that is
former is, for that the wine descendeth not so fast strong and abstersive: the fruit of the brier is
to the bottom of the stomach, but maketh longer said to make children, or those that eat them,
stay in the upper part of the stomach, and send scabbed. And therefore no marvel, though can-
eth vapours faster to the head ; and therefore ine- tharides have such a corrosive and cauterising
briateth sooner. And for the same reason, sops quality; for there is not any other of the insecta,
in wine, quantity for quantity, inebriate more than but is bred of a duller matter. The body of the
wine of itself. The cause of the latter is, for that cantharides is bright coloured; and it may be,
the sugar doth inspissate the spirits of the wine, that the delicate coloured dragon-flies may have
and maketh them not so easy to resolve into va- likewise some corrosive quality.
pour. Nay farther, it is thought to be some remedy
against inebriating, if wine sugared be taken after Experiments in consort touching lassitude.
wine pure. And the same effect is wrought either 730. Lassitude is remedied by bathing, or
by oil or milk, taken upon much drinking. anointing with oil and warm water. The cause

is, for that all lassitude is a kind of contusion, Experiment solitary touching the help or hurt of and compression of the parts; and bathing and wine, though moderately used.

anointing give a relaxation or emollition; and the 727. The use of wine in dry and consumed mixture of oil and water is better than either of bodies is hurtful; in moist and full bodies it is them alone; because water entereth better into good. The cause is, for that the spirits of the the pores, and oil after entry softeneth better. It wine do prey upon the dew or radical mois- is found also, that the taking of tobacco doth help ture, as they term it, of the body, and so deceive and discharge lassitude. The reason whereof is, the animal spirits. But where there is mois. partly, because by cheering or comforting of the ture enough, or superfluous, there wine helpeth to spirits, it openeth the parts compressed or condigest, and desiccate the moisture.

tused; and chiefly because it refresheth the spirits

by the opiate virtue thereof, and so dischargeth Experiment solitary touching caterpillars. weariness, as sleep likewise doth. 728. The caterpillar is one of the most general 731. In going up a hill, the knees will be most of worms, and breedeth of dew and leaves; for weary; in going down a hill, the thighs. The we see infinite number of caterpillars which breed cause is, for that in the lift of the feet, when a man upon trees and hedges, by which the leaves of the goeth up the hill, the weight of the body beareth trees or hedges are in great part consumed; as most upon the knees; and in going down the hill, well by their breeding out of the leaf, as by their upon the thighs. feeding upon the leaf. They breed in the spring chiefly, because then there is both dew and leaf. Experiment solitary touching the casting of the skin And they breed commonly when the east winds

and shell in some creatures. have much blown; the cause whereof is, the 732. The casting of the skin is by the ancients dryness of that wind; for to all vivification upon compared to the breaking of the secundine, or putrefaction, it is requisite the matter be not too caul, but not rightly: for that were to make every moist : and therefore we see they have cobwebs casting of the skin a new birth : and besides, the about them, which is a sign of a slimy dryness ; secundine is but a general cover, not shaped acas we see upon the ground, whereupon, by dew cording to the parts, but the skin is shaped acand sun, cobwebs breed all over. We see also cording to the parts. The creatures that cast the green caterpillar breedeth in the inward parts their skin are, the snake, the viper, the grasshopof roses, especially not blown, where the dew per, the lizard, the silk-worm, &c. Those that sticketh; but especially caterpillars, both the cast their shell are, the lobster, the crab, the crawgreatest, and the most, breed upon cabbages, fish, the hodmandod or dedman, the tortoise, &c. which have a fat leaf, and apt to putrefy. The The old skins are found, but the old shells never : caterpillar, towards the end of summer, waxeth so as it is like, they scale off, and crumble away volatile, and turneth to a butterfly, or perhaps by degrees. And they are known by the extreme some other fly. There is a caterpillar that hath a tenderness and softness of the new shell, and fur or down upon it, and seemeth to have affinity somewhat by the freshness of the colour of it. with the silk-worm.

The cause of the casting of skin and shell should

seem to be the great quantity of matter in those Experiment solitary touching the flies cantharides. creatures that is fit to make skin or shell; and

729. The flies cantharides are bred of a worm again, the looseness of the skin or shell, that or caterpillar, but peculiar to certain fruit-trees; sticketh not close to the flesh. For it is certain, as are the fig-tree, the pine-tree, and the wild that it is the new skin or shell that putteth off the brier; all which bear sweet fruit, and fruit that old: so we see, that in deer it is the young horn hath a kind of secret biting or sharpness: for that putteth off the old; and in birds, the young the fig hath a milk in it that is sweet and cor-feathers put off the old : and so birds that have

much matter for their beak, cast their beaks, the Experiment solitary, touching medicines that cona new beak putting off the old.

dense and relieve the sprits.

738. They have in Turkey a drink called Esperiments in consort touching the postures of the coffee, made of a berry of the same name, as body.

black as soot, and of a strong scent, but not aro733. Lying not erect, but hollow, which is in matical; which they take, beaten into powder, in the making of the bed; or with the legs gathered water, as hot as they can drink it: and they take up, which is in the posture of the body, is the it, and sit at it in their coffee-houses, which are more wholesome. The reason is, the better com- like our taverns. This drink comforteth the brain forting of the stomach, which is by that less pen- and heart, and helpeth digestion. Certainly this sile: and we see that in weak stomachs, the lay- berry coffee, the root and leaf beetle, the leaf toing up of the legs high, and the knees almost to bacco, and the tear of poppy, opium, of which the the mouth, helpeth and comforteth. We see also, Turks are great takers, supposing it expelleth that galley-slaves, notwithstanding their misery all fear, do all condense the spirits, and make otherwise, are commonly fat and fleshy; and the them strong and aleger. But it seemeth they reason is, because the stomach is supported some- are taken after several manners; for coffee and what in sitting, and is pensile in standing or go- opium are taken down, tobacco but in smoke, and ing. And therefore, for prolongation of life, it i beetle is but charaped in the mouth with a little good to choose these exercises where the limbs lime. It is like there are more of them, if they move more than the stomach and belly; as in were well found out, and well corrected. Query, Towing, and in sawing, being set.

of henbane-seed; of mandrake; of saffron, root 734. Megrims and giddiness are rather when and flower; of folium indum ; of ambergrease; we rise after long sitting, than while we sit. of the Assyrian amomum, if it may be had; and The cause is, for that the vapours, which were of the scarlet powder which they call kermes : gathered by sitting, by the sudden motion fly more and, generally, of all such things as do inebriate up into the head.

and provoke sleep. Note, that tobacco is not 735. Leaning long upon any part maketh it taken in root or seed, which are more forcible numb, and as we call it asleep. The cause is, for ever than leaves. that the compression of the part suffereth not the spirits to have free access; and therefore when Experiment solitary touching paintings of the body. we come out of it, we feel a stinging or pricking, 739. The Turks have a black powder, made of which is the re-entrance of the spirits.

a mineral called alcohol, which with a fine long

pencil they lay under their eyelids, which doth Experiment solitary touching pestilential years. colour them black; whereby the white of the eye

736. It hath been noted, that those years are is set off more white. With the same powder pestilential and unwholesome, when there are they colour also the hairs of their eyelids, and of great numbers of frogs, flies, locusts, &c. The their eyebrows, which they draw into embowed cause is plain; for that those creatures being en- arches. You shall find that Xenophon maketh gendered of putrefaction, when they abound, mention, that the Medes used to paint their eyes. show a general disposition of the year, and con- The Turks use with the same tincture to colour stitution of the air, to diseases of putrefaction. the hair of their heads and beards black. And And the same prognostic, as hath been said be- divers with us that are grown gray, and yet fore, holdeth, if you find worms in oak-apples : would appear young, find means to make their for the constitution of the air appeareth more hair black, by combing it, as they say, with a subtilly in any of these things, than to the sense leaden comb, or the like. As for the Chineses, of man.

who are of an ill complexion, being olivaster, they

paint their cheeks scarlet, especially their king Experiment solitary touching the prognostics of hard and grandees. Generally, barbarous people, that winiers.

go naked, do not only paint themselves, but they 737. It is an observation amongst country peo- pounce and raise their skin, that the painting ple, that years of store of haws and hips do com- may not be taken forth; and make it into works. monly portend cold winters; and they ascribe it So do the West Indians; and so did the ancient to God's providence, that, as the Scripture saith, Picts and Britons ; so that it seemeth men would reacheth even to the falling of a sparrow; and have the colours of birds' feathers, if they could much more is like to reach to the preservation of tell how; or at least they will have gay skins inbirds in such seasons. The natural cause also stead of gay clothes. may be the want of heat, and abundance of moisture, in the summer precedent; which put- Experiment solitary touching the use of bathing and teth forth those fruits, and must needs leave great

anointing. quantity of cold vapours not dissipated; which 740. It is strange that the use of bathing, as a causeth the cold of the winter following. part of diet, is left. With the Romans and Gre.

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cians it was as usual as eating or sleeping; and that very day when the river first riseth, great
so is it amongst the Turks at this day: whereas plagues in Cairo use suddenly to break up.
with us it remaineth but as a part of physic. I
am of opinion, that the use of it, as it was with

Experiments in consort touching sleep.
the Romans, was hurtful to health; for that it 744. Those that are very cold, and especially
made the body soft, and easy to waste. For the in their feet, cannot get to sleep: the cause may
Turks it is more proper, because that their drink- be, for that in sleep is required a free respiration,
ing water and feeding upon rice, and other food which cold doth shut in and hinder; for we see
of small nourishment, maketh their bodies so that in great colds, one can scarce draw his
solid and hard, as you need not fear that bathing breath. Another cause may be, for that cold call-
should make them frothy. Besides, the Turks eth the spirits to succour, and therefore they can-
are great sitters, and seldom walk, whereby they not so well close, and go together in the head,
sweat less, and need bathing more. But yet cer- which is ever requisite to sleep. And for the
tain it is that bathing, and especially anointing, same cause, pain and noise hinder sleep; and
may be so used as it may be a great help to darkness, contrariwise, furthereth sleep.
health, and prolongation of life. But hereof we 745. Some noises, whereof we spake in the
shall speak in due place, when we come to handle hundred and twelfth experiment, help sleep: as
experiments medicinal.

the blowing of the wind, the trickling of water,

humming of bees, soft singing, reading, &c. The Experiment solitary touching chambletting of cause is, for that they move in the spirits a gentle paper.

attention ; and whatsoever moveth attention with741. The Turks have a pretty art of chamblet-out too much labour stilleth the natural and disting of paper, which is not with us in use. They cursive motion of the spirits. take divers oiled colours, and put them severally, 746. Sleep nourisheth, or at least preserveth in drops, upon water, and stir the water lightly, bodies, a long time, without other nourishment. and then wet their paper, being of some thick- Beasts that sleep in winter, as it is noted of wild ness, with it, and the paper will be waved and bears, during their sleep wax very fat, though veined, like chamblet or marble.

they eat nothing. Bats have been found in ovens,

and other hollow close places, matted one upon Experiment solitary touching cuttle-ink.

another: and therefore it is likely that they sleep 742. It is somewhat strange, that the blood of in the winter time, and eat nothing. Query, all birds and beasts and fishes should be of a red whether bees do not sleep all winter, and spare colour, and only the blood of the cuttle should be their honey? Butterflies, and other flies, do not as black as ink. A man would think, that the only sleep, but lie as dead all winter; and yet cause should be the high concoction of that with a little heat of sun or fire, revive again. A blood; for we see in ordinary puddings, that the dormouse, both winter and summer, will sleep boiling turneth the blood to be black; and the some days together, and eat nothing. cuttle is accounted a delicate meat, and much in request.

Experiments in consort touching teeth and hard

substances in the bodies of living creatures. Erperiment solitary touching increase of weight in

To restore teeth in age, were magnale naturæ. earth.

It may be thought of. But howsoever, the nature 743. It is reported of credit, that if you take of the teeth deserveth to be inquired of, as well earth from land adjoining to the river of Nile, and as the other parts of living creatures' bodies. preserve it in that manner that it neither come to 747. There be five parts in the bodies of living be wet nor wasted; and weigh it daily, it will creatures, that are of hard substance; the skull, not alter weight until the seventeenth of June, the teeth, the bones, the horns, and the nails. which is the day when the river beginneth to rise ; The greatest quantity of hard substance continued and then it will grow more and more ponderous, is towards the head. For there is the skull of till the river cometh to its height. Which if it be one entire bone; there are the teeth ; there are true, it cannot be caused but by the air, which the maxillary bones ; there is the hard bone that then beginneth to condense; and so turneth with-is the instrument of hearing; and thence issue in that small mould into a degree of moisture, the horns; so that the building of living creatures' which produceth weight. So it hath been ob- bodies is like the building of a timber house, served, that tooacco, cut, and weighed, and then where the walls and other parts have columns dried by the fire, loseth weight; and after being and beams; but the roof is, in the better sort of laid in the open air, recovereth weight again. houses, all tile, or lead, or stone. As for birds. And it should seem, that as soon as ever the river they have three other hard substances proper to beginneth to increase, the whole body of the air them; the bill, which is of like matter with the thereabouts suffereth a change: for, that which teeth : for no birds have teeth : the shell of the is more strange, it is credibly affirmed, that upon legg: and their quills : for as for their spur, it is.

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but a nail. But no living creatures that have 754. Horses have, at three years old, a tooth shells very hard, as oysters, cockles, muscles, put forth, which they call the colt's tooth: and at scallops, crabs, lobsters, craw-fish, shrimps, and four years old there cometh the mark tooth, which especially the tortoise, have bones within them, hath a hole as big as you may lay a pea within but only little gristles.

it, and that weareth shorter and shorter every year, 748. Bones, after full growth, continue at a till that at eight years old the tooth is smooth, stay; and so doth the skull : horns, in some and the hole gone: and then they say, that the creatures, are cast and renewed : teeth stand at a mark is out of the horse's mouth. stay, except their wearing : as for nails, they 755. The teeth of men breed first, when the grow continually: and bills and beaks will over- child is about a year and half old: and then they grow, and sometimes be cast, as in eagles and cast them, and new come about seven years old. parrots.

But divers have backward teeth come forth at 749. Most of the hard substances fly to the ex- twenty, yea some at thirty and forty. Query, of tremes of the body: as skull, horns, teeth, nails, the manner of the coming of them forth. They and beaks : only the bones are more inward, and tell a tale of the old Countess of Desmond, who clad with flesh. As for the entrails, they are all lived till she was seven-score years old, that she without bones: save that a bone is sometimes did dentire twice or thrice, casting her old teeth, found in the heart of a stag; and it may be in and others coming in their place. some other creature.

756. Teeth are much hurt by sweetmeats; and 750. The skull hath brains, as a kind of mar- by painting with mercury ; and by things overrow, within it. The back-bone hath one kind of hot; and by things over-cold ; and by rheums. marrow, which hath an affinity with the brain; And the pain of the teeth is one of the sharpest and other bones of the body have another. The of pains. jaw-bones have no marrow severed, but a little 757. Concerning teeth, these things are to be pulp of marrow diffused. Teeth likewise are considered. 1. The preserving of them. 2. The thought to have a kind of marrow diffused, which keeping of them white. 3. The drawing of them causeth the sense and pain; but it is rather with least pain. 4. The staying and easing of sinew: for marrow hath no sense, no more than the tooth-ache. 5. The binding in of artificial blood. Horn is alike throughout; and so is the nail. teeth, where teeth have been strucken out. 6.

751. None other of the hard substances have And last of all, that great one of restoring teeth sense, but the teeth; and the teeth have sense, in age. The instances that give any likelihood not only of pain, but of cold.

of restoring teeth in age, are the late coming of But we will leave the inquiries of other hard teeth in some, and the renewing of the beaks in substances unto their several places, and now in- birds, which are commaterial with teeth. Query, quire only of the teeth.

therefore, more particularly how that cometh. 752. The teeth are, in men, of three kinds : And again, the renewing of horns. But yet that sharp, as the fore-teeth: broad, as the back-teeth, hath not been known to have been provoked by which we call the molar-teeth, or grinders, and art; therefore let trial be made, whether horns pointed teeth, or canine, which are between both. may be procured to grow in beasts that are not But there have been some men that have had horned, and how? And whether they may be their teeth undivided, as of one whole bone, with procured to come larger than usual, as to make some litle mark in the place of the division, as an ox or a deer have a greater head of horns ? Pyrrhus had. Some creatures have over-long or And whether the head of a deer, that by age is out-growing teeth, which we call fangs, or tusks: more spitted, may be brought again to be more as boars, pikes, salmons, and dogs, though less. branched ? for these trials, and the like, will Some living creatures have teeth against teeth, as show, whether by art such hard matter can be men and horses; and some have teeth, especially called and provoked. It may be tried, also, their master-teeth, indented one within another whether birds may not have something done to like saws, as lions; and so again have dogs. them when they are young, whereby they may be Some fishes have diverse rows of teeth in the made to have greater or longer bills; or greater roofs of their mouths, as pikes, salmons, trouts, and longer talons? And whether children may &c. And many more in salt-waters. Snakes not have some wash, or something to make their and other serpents have venomous teeth, which teeth better and stronger? Coral is in use as a are sometimes mistaken for their sting.

help to the teeth of children. 753. No beast that hath horns hath upper teeth ; and no beast that hath teeth above wanteth Experiments in consort touching the generation and them below: but yet if they be of the same kind, bearing of living creatures in the womb. it followeth not, that if the hard matter goeth not 758. Some living creatures generate but at cer. into upper teeth, it will go into horns, nor yet e tain seasons of the year, as deer, sheep, wild converso; for does, that have no horns, have no conies, &c., and most sorts of birds and fishes : upper teeth.

others at any time of the year, as men; and all

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domestic creatures, as horses, hogs, dogs, cats, that are longer in coming to their maturity or
&c. The cause of generation at all seasons growth are longer in the womb; as is chiefly
seemeth to be fulness: for generation is from re- seen in men : and so elephants, which are long
dundance. This fulness ariseth from two causes; in the womb, are long time in coming to their
either from the nature of the creature, if it be hot, full growth. But in most other kinds, the con-
and moist, and sanguine; or from plenty of food. stitution of the womb, that is, the hardness or
For the first, men, horses, dogs, &c. which breed dryness thereof, is concurrent with the former
at all seasons, are full of heat and moisture; doves cause. For the colt hath about four years of
are the fullest of heat and moisture amongst birds, growth; and so the fawn; and so the calf. But
and therefore breed often; the tame dove almost whelps, which come to their growth, commonly,
continually. But deer are a melancholy dry within three quarters of a year, are but nine weeks
creature, as appeareth by their fearfulness, and in the womb. As for birds, as there is less di.
the hardness of their flesh. Sheep are a cold versity amongst them in the time of bringing
creature, as appeareth by their mildness, and for forth; so there is less diversity in the time of
that they seldom drink. Most sort of birds are their growth : most of them coming to their
of a dry substance in comparison of beasts. growth within a twelvemonth.
Fishes are cold. For the second cause, fulness 760. Some creatures bring forth many young
of food ; men, kine, swine, dogs, &c. feed full; ones at a burden: as bitches, hares, conies, &c.
and we see that those creatures, which being Some ordinarily but one; as women, lionesses,
wild, generate seldom, being tame, generate &c. This may be caused, either by the quantity
often; which is from warmth, and fulness of sperm required to the producing one of that
of food. We find, that the time of going to kind; which if less be required, inay admit greater
rut of deer is in September ; for that they need number; if more, fewer: or by the partitions and
the whole summer's feed and grass to make them cells of the womb, which may sever the sperm.
fit for generation. And if rain come early about
the middle of September, they go to rut some-

Experiments in consort touching species visible.
what the sooner; if drought, somewhat the later. 761. There is no doubt, but light by refraction
So sheep, in respect of their small heat, generate will show greater, as well as things coloured.
about the same time, or somewhat before. But For like as a shilling in the bottom of the water
for the most part, creatures that generate at cer- will show greater; so will a candle in a lanthorn,
tain seasons, generate in the spring; as birds in the bottom of the water. I have heard of a
and fishes ; for that the end of the winter, and practice, that glow-worms in glasses were put in
the heat and comfort of the spring prepareth the water to make the fish come. But I am not
them. There is also another reason why some yet informed, whether when a diver diveth, hav-
creatures generate at certain seasons; and that is ing his eyes open, and swimmeth upon his back;
the relation of their time of bearing to the time whether, I say, he seeth things in the air, greater
of generation ; for no creature goeth to generate or less. For it is manifest, that when the eye
whilst the female is full; nor whilst she is busy standeth in the finer medium, and the object is in
in sitting, or rearing her young. And therefore it the grosser, things show greater; but contrari-
is found by experience, that if you take the eggs wise, when the eye is placed in the grosser me-
or young ones out of the nests of birds, they will dium, and the object in the finer, how it worketh
fall to generate again three or four times one after I know not.

762. It would be well bolted out, whether great 759. Of living creatures, some are longer time refractions may not be made upon reflections, as in the womb, and some shorter. Women go well as upon direct beams. For example, we commonly nine months ; the cow and the ewe see, that take an empty basin, put an angel of about six months; does go about nine months; gold, or what you will, into it; then go so far mares eleven months; bitches nine weeks ; ele- from the basin, till you cannot see the angel, bephants are said to go two years; for the received cause it is not in a right line; then fill the basin tradition of ten years is fabulous. For birds with water, and you shall see it out of its place, there is double inquiry; the distance between because of the reflection. To proceed, therefore the treading or coupling, and the laying of the egg; put a looking-glass into a basin of water; I supand again between the egg laid, and the disclos- pose you shall not see the image in a right line, ing or hatching. And amongst birds, there is or at equal angles, but aside. I know not wheless diversity of time than amongst other crea- ther this experiment may not be extended so, as tures; yet some there is; for the hen sitteth but you might see the image, and not the glass; three weeks, the turkey-hen, goose, and duck, a which for beauty and strangeness were a fine month: Query, of others. The cause of the proof: for then you should see the image like a great difference of times amongst living creatures spirit in the air. As for example, if there be a is, either from the nature of the kind, or from the cistern or pool of water, you shall place over constitution of the womb. For the former, those against it a picture of the devil, or what you will,

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