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observation, that in furnaces of copper and brass, therefore imagination; and whereas some of the where chalcites, which is vitriol, is often cast in ancients have said, that their motion is indeterto mend the working, there riseth suddenly a fly, minate, and their imagination indefinite, it is negwhich sometimes moveth as if it took hold of the ligently observed; for ants go right forward to walls of the furnace: sometimes is seen moving their hills, and bees do admirably know the way in the fire below; and dieth presently as soon as from a flowery heath two or three miles off to it is out of the furnace : which is a noble instance, their hives. It may be, gnats and flies have and worthy to be weighed; for it showeth, that their imagination more mutable and giddy, as as well violent heat of fire, as the gentle heat of small birds likewise have. It is said by some living creatures, will vivify, if it have matter pro- of the ancients, that they have only the sense of portionable. Now the great axiom of vivifica- feeling, which is manifestly untrue: for if they tion is, that there must be heat to dilate the spirit go forth right to a place, they must needs have of the body; an active spirit to be dilated; matter sight; besides, they delight more in one flower or viscous or tenacious to hold in the spirit; and herb than in another, and therefore have taste : that matter to be put forth and figured. Now a and bees are called with sound upon brass, and spirit dilated by so ardent a fire as that of the therefore they have hearing; which showeth likefurnace, as soon as ever it cooleth never so little, wise, that though their spirit be diffused, yet there congealeth presently. And, no doubt, this action is a seat of their senses in their head. is furthered by the chalcites, which hath a spirit Other observations concerning the insecta, tothat will put forth and germinate, as we see in gether with the enumeration of them, we refer to chymical trials. Briefly, most things putrefied that place, where we mean to handle the title of bring forth insecta of several names; but we will animals in general. not take upon us now to enumerate them all.
697. The insecta have been noted by the an- Experiment solitary touching leaping. cients to feed little: but this hath not been dili- 699. A man leapeth better with weights in his gently observed; for grasshoppers eat up the green hands than without. The cause is, for that the of whole countries; and silk-worms devour leaves weight, if it be proportionable, strengtheneth the swiftly; and ants make great provision. It is sinews by contracting them. For otherwise, true, that creatures that sleep and rest much, eat where no contraction is needful, weight hinderlittle; as dormice and bats, &c. They are all eth. As we see in horse-races, men are curious without blood: which may be, for that the juice to foresee, that there be not the least weight upon of their bodies is almost all ones not blood, and the one horse more than upon the other. In leapflesh, and skin, and bone, as in perfect creatures; ing with weights the arms are first cast backthe integral parts have extreme variety, but the wards, and then forwards, with so much the similar parts little. It is true, that they have, greater force; for the hands go backward before some of them, a diaphragm and an intestine; and they take their rise. Query, if the contrary mothey have all skins; which in most of the insectation of the spirits, immediately before the motion are cast often. They are not generally of long we intend, doth not cause the spirits as it were life ; yet bees have been known to live seven years; to break forth with more force ? as breath also, and snakes are thought, the rather for the casting drawn and kept in, cometh forth more forcibly: of their spoil, to live till they be old: and eels, and in casting of any thing, the arms, to make a which many times breed of putrefaction, will live greater swing, are first cast backward. and grow very long: and those that interchange from worms to flies in the summer, and from flies Experiment solitary touching the pleasures and disto worms in the winter, have been kept in boxes pleasures of the senses, especially of hearing. four years at the least. Yet there are certain 700. Of musical tones and unequal sounds we flies that are called ephemera that live but a day. have spoken before; but touching the pleasure The cause is the exility of the spirit, or perhaps and displeasure of the senses, not so fully. Harsh the absence of the sun; for that if they were sounds, as of a saw when it is sharpened ; grindbrought in, or kept close, they might live longer. ing of one stone against another; squeaking or Many of the insecta, as butterflies and other shrieking noise; make a shivering or horror in flies, revive easily when they seem dead, being the body, and set the teeth on edge. The cause brought to the sun or fire. The cause whereof is, for that the objects of the ear do affect the is the diffusion of the vital spirit, and the easy spirits, immediately, most with pleasure and dilating of it by a little heat. They stir a good offence. We see there is no colour that affectwhile after their heads are off, or that they be cuteth the eye much with displeasure: there be in pieces; which is caused also, for that their sights that are horrible, because they excite the vital spirits are more diffused throughout all their memory of things that are odious fearful; but parts, and less confined to organs than in perfect the same things painted do little affect. As for creatures.
smells, tastes, and touches, they be things that 698. The insecta have voluntary motion, and I do affect by a participation or impulsion of the
body of the object. So it is sound alone that the nightingale-pipe of a regal; and in a discord doth immediately and incorporeally affect most; straight falling upon a concord; but if you stay this is most manifest in music, and concords and upon it, it is offensive: and therefore there be discords in music ; for all sounds, whether they these three degrees of pleasing and displeasing in be sharp or flat, if they be sweet, have a round sounds, sweet sounds, discords, harsh sounds, ness and equality; and if they be harsh, are un- which we call by divers names, as shrieking or equal; for a discord itself is but a harshness of grating, such as we now speak of. As for the setdivers sounds meeting. It is true that inequality ting of the teeth on edge, we see plainly what an not stayed upon, but passing, is rather an increase intercourse there is between the teeth and the organ of sweetness; as in the purling of a wreathed of the hearing, by the taking of the end of a bow string; and in the raucity of a trumpet; and in between the teeth, and striking upon the string.
Experiment solitary touching veins of medicinal may have them new at some good distance from earth.
the sea : and besides, it may be, the fish will eat 701. There be minerals and fossils in great the pleasanter, and may fall to breed. And it is variety; but of veins of earth medicinal, but few; said, that Colchester oysters, which are put into the chief are, terra lemnia, terra sigillata communis, pits, where the sea goeth and cometh, but yet so and bolus armenus; whereof terra lemnia is the that there is a fresh water coming also to them chief. The virtues of them are, for curing of when the sea voideth, become by that means wounds, stanching of blood, stopping of fluxes, fatter, and more grown. and rheums, and arresting the spreading of poison, infection, and putrefaction: and they Experiment solitary touching attraction by similihave of all other simples the perfectest and purest
tude of substance. quality of drying, with little or no mixture of 704. The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible any other quality. Yet it is true, that the bole- shoot; insomuch as it hath been known, that the armoniac is the most cold of them, and that terra arrow hath pierced a steel target, or a piece of lemnia is the most hot, for which cause the island brass of two inches thick: but that which is more Lemnos, where it is digged, was in the old fabu- strange, the arrow, if it be headed with wood, lous ages consecrated to Vulcan.
hath been known to pierce through a piece of wood
of eight inches thick. And it is certain, that we Experiment solitary touching the growth of sponges. had in use at one time, for sea fight, short arrows,
702. About the bottom of the Straits are ga- which they called sprights, without any other thered great quantities of sponges, which are ga- heads, save wood sharpened: which were disthered from the sides of rocks, being as it were charged out of muskets, and would pierce through a large but tough moss. It is the more to be the sides of ships where a builet would not pierce. noted, because that there be but few substances, But this dependeth upon one of the greatest seplant-like, that grow deep within the sea; for crets in all nature; which is, that similitude of they are gathered sometimes fifteen fathom deep: substance will cause attraction, where the body and when they are laid on shore, they seem to be is wholly freed from the motion of gravity : for of great bulk; but crushed together, will be if that were taken away, lead would draw lead, transported in a very small room.
and gold would draw gold, and iron would draw
iron, without the help of the loadstone. But this Experiment solitary touching sea-fish put in fresh same motion of weight or gravity, which is a waters.
mere motion of the matter, and hath no affinity 703. It seemeth that fish that are used to the with the form or kind, doth kill the other motion, salt water, do nevertheless delight more in fresh. except itself be killed by a violent motion, as in We see, that salmons and smelts love to get into these instances of arrows; for then the motion rivers, though it be against the stream. At the of attraction by similitude of substance beginneth haven of Constantinople you shall have great to show itself. But we shall handle this point quantities of fish that come from the Euxine sea, of nature fully in due place. that when they come into the fresh water, do inebriate, and turn up their bellies, so as you may
Experiment solitary touching certain drinks in take them with your hand. I doubt there hath
Turkey. not been sufficient experiment made of putting 705. They have in Turkey and the east certain sea-fish into fresh water ponds, and pools. It is confections, which they call servets, which are a thing of great use and pleasure; for so you like to candied conserves, and are made of sugar
and lemons, or sugar and citrons, or sugar and issueth, chiefly, out of the parts that are less violets, and some other flowers; and some mix- fleshy, and more dry; as the forehead and breast. ture of amber for the more delicate persons : and 709. Men sweat more in sleep than waking; those they dissolve in water, and therefore make and yet sleep doth rather stay other fluxions, than their drink, because they are forbidden wine by cause them; as rheums, looseness of the body, their law. But I do much marvel, that no Eng- &c. The cause is, for that in sleep the heat and lishman, or Dutchman, or German, doth set up spirits do naturally move inwards, and there rest. brewing in Constantinople; considering they But when they are collected once within, the heat have such quantity of barley. For as for the becometh more violent and irritate; and thereby general sort of men, frugality may be the cause expelleth sweat. of drinking water : for that it is no small saving 710. Cold sweats are, many times, mortal, and to pay nothing for one's drink: but the better near death : and always ill, and suspected : as in sort might well be at the cost. And yet I wonder great fears, hypochondriacal passions, &c. The the less at it, because I see France, Italy, or cause is, for that cold sweats come by a relaxation Spain, have not taken into use beer or ale; or forsaking of the spirits, whereby the moisture which, perhaps, if they did, would better both of the body, which heat did keep firm in the parts, their healths and their complexions. It is likely severeth and issueth out. it would be matter of great gain to any that 711. In those diseases which cannot be disshould begin it in Turkey.
charged by sweat, sweat is ill, and rather to be
stayed; as in diseases of the lungs, and fluxes of Erperiments in consort touching sweat. the belly : but in those diseases which are expelled 706. In bathing in hot water, sweat, neverthe-by sweat, it easeth and lighteneth; as in agues, less, cometh not in the parts under the water. pestilences, &c. The cause is, for that sweat in The cause is; first, for that sweat is a kind of the latter sort is partly critical, and sendeth forth colliquation, and that kind of colliquation is not the matter that offendeth : but in the former, it made either by an over-dry heat, or an over-moist either proceedeth from the labour of the spirits, heat: for over-moisture doth somewhat extin- which showeth them oppressed; or from motion guish the heat, as we see that even hot water of consent, when nature, not able to expel the quencheth fire; and over-dry heat shutteth the disease where it is seated, moveth to an expulsion pores: and therefore men will sooner sweat co- indifferent over all the body. vered before the sun or fire, than if they stood naked : and earthen bottles, filled with hot water,
Experiment solitary touching the glow-worm. do provoke in bed a sweat more daintily than 712. The nature of the glow-worm is hitherto brick-bats hot. Secondly, hot water doth cause not well observed. Thus much we see: that evaporation from the skin; so as it spendeth the they breed chiefly in the hottest months of summatter in those parts under the water, before it mer; and that they breed not in champain, but in issueth in sweat. Again, sweat cometh more bushes and hedges. Whereby it may be conplentifully, if the heat be increased by degrees, ceived, that the spirit of them is very fine, and not than if it be greatest at first, or equal. The to be refined but by summer heats : and again, cause is, for that the pores are better opened by that by reason of the fineness, it doth easily exa gentle heat, than by a more violent; and by hale. In Italy, and the hotter countries, there is their opening, the sweat issueth more abundantly. a fly they call lucciole, that shineth as the glowAnd therefore physicians may do well when they worm doth; and it may be is the flying glowprovoke sweat in bed by bottles, with a decoction worm. But that fly is chiefly upon fens and of sudorific herbs in hot water, to make two de- marshes. But yet the two former observagrees of heat in the bottles; and to lay in the tions hold; for they are not seen but in the heat bed the less heated first, and after half an hour, of summer; and sedge, or other green of the the more heated.
fens, give as good shade as bushes. It may be 707. Sweat is salt in taste; the cause is, for the glow-worms of the cold countries ripen not that that part of the nourishment which is fresh so far as to be winged. and sweet, turneth into blood and flesh: and the sweat is only that part which is separate and ex- Experiments in consort touching the impressions cerned. Blood also raw hath some saltness more
which the passions of the mind make upon the body. than flesh: because the assimilation into flesh is 713. The passions of the mind work upon the not without a little and subtile excretion from the body the impressions following. Fear causeth blood.
paleness, trembling, the standing of the hair up708. Sweat cometh forth more out of the up-right, starting, and shrieking. The paleness is per parts of the body than the lower; the reason caused, for that the blood runneth inward to sucis, because those parts are more replenished with cour the heart. The trembling is caused, for that spirits ; and the spirits are they that put forth through the flight of the spirits inward, the outsweat: besides, they are less fleshy, and sweat | ward parts are destituted, and not sustained.
Standing upright of the hair is caused, for that 716. Anger causeth paleness in some, and the by the shutting of the pores of the skin, the hair going and coming of the colour in others : also that lieth aslope must needs rise. Starting is trembling in some: swelling, foaming at the both an apprehension of the thing feared, and in mouth, stamping, bending of the fist. Paleness, that kind it is a motion of shrinking, and like- and going and coming of the colour, are caused wise an inquisition in the beginning, what the by the burning of the spirits about the heart; matter should be, and in that kind it is a motion which to refresh themselves, call in more spirits of erection, and therefore when a man would from the outward parts. And if the paleness be listen suddenly to any thing, he starteth; for the alone, without sending forth the colour again, it starting is an erection of the spirits to attend. is commonly joined with some fear; but in many Screeching is an appetite of expelling that which there is no paleness at all, but contrariwise redsuddenly striketh the spirits : for it must be noted, ness about the cheeks and gills; which is by the that many motions, though they be unprofitable sending forth of the spirits in an appetite to to expel that which hurteth, yet they are offers revenge. Trembling in anger is likewise by of nature, and cause motions by consent, as in a calling in of the spirits; and is commonly groaning, or crying upon pain.
when anger is joined with fear. Swelling is 714. Grief and pain cause sighing, sobbing, caused, both by a dilatation of the spirits by overgroaning, screaming, and roaring; tears, distort- heating, and by a liquefaction or boiling of the ing of the face, grinding of the teeth, sweating. humours, thereupon. Foaming at the mouth is Sighing is caused by the drawing in of a greater from the same cause, being an ebullition. Stampquantity of breath to refresh the heart that labour-ing, and bending of the fist, are caused by an eth: like a great draught when one is thirsty. imagination of the act of revenge. Sobbing is the same thing stronger. Groaning, 717. Light displeasure or dislike causeth shakand screaming, and roaring are caused by an ing of the head, frowning and knitting of the appetite of expulsion, as hath been said : for when brows. These effects arise from the same causes the spirits cannot expel the thing that hurteth, in that trembling and horror do: namely, from the their strife to do it, by motion of consent, they retiring of the spirits, but in a less degree. For expel the voice. And this is when the spirits the shaking of the head is but a slow and defiyield, and give over to resist: for if one do con- nite trembling; and is a gesture of slight refustantly resist pain, he will not groan. Tears are sal; and we see also, that a dislike causeth, often, caused by a contraction of the spirits of the brain: that gesture of the hand, which we use when we which contraction by consequence astringeth the refuse a thing, or warn it away. The frowning moisture of the brain, and thereby sendeth tears and knitting of the brows is a gathering, or serinto the eyes. And this contraction or compres- ring of the spirits, to resist in some measure. sion causeth also wringing of the hands; for And we see also this knitting of the brows will wringing is a gesture of expression of moisture. follow upon earnest studying, or cogitation of The distorting of the face is caused by a conten- any thing, though it be without dislike. tion, first to bear and resist, and then to expel; 718. Shame causeth blushing, and casting which maketh the parts knit first, and afterwards down of the eyes. Blushing is the resort of open. Grinding of the teeth is caused likewise, blood to the face; which in the passion of shame by a gathering and serring of the spirits together is the part that laboureth most. And although to resist, which maketh the teeth also to sit hard the blushing will be seen in the whole breast if one against another. Sweating is also a com- it be naked, yet that is but in passage to the * pound motion, by the labour of the spirits, first face. As for the casting down of the eyes, it proto resist, and then to expel.
ceedeth of the reverence a man heareth to other 715. Joy causeth a cheerfulness and vigour in men; whereby, when he is ashamed, he cannot the eyes, singing, leaping, dancing, and some- endure to look firmly upon others : and we see, times tears. All these are the effects of the dila- that blushing, and the casting down of the eyes tion and coming forth of the spirits into the out- both, are more when we come before many; ward parts; which maketh them more lively and Pompeii quid mollius ? nunquam non coram plustirring. We know it hath been seen, that ex- ribus erubuit :" and likewise when we come becessive sudden joy hath caused present death, fore great or reverend persons. while the spirits did spread so much as they could 719. Pity causeth sometimes tears; and a flexnot retire again. As for tears, they are the effects ion or cast of the eye aside. Tears come from of compression of the moisture of the brain, upon the same cause that they do in grief: for pity is dilatation of the spirits. For compression of the but grief in another's behalf. The cast of the spirits worketh an expression of the moisture of the eye is a gesture of aversion, or loathness to behold brain by consent, as hath been said in grief. But the object of pity. then in joy, it worketh it diversely, viz. by pro- 720. Wonder causeth astonishment, or an impulsion of the moisture, when the spirits dilate, moveable posture of the body; casting up of the and occupy more room.
eyes to heaven, and lifting up of the hands. For
astonishment, it is caused by the fixing of the rous parts : in fear and anger to the heart: in shame mind upon one object of cogitation, whereby it to the face: and in light dislikes to the head. doth not spatiate and transcur, as it useth; for in wonder the spirits fly not, as in fear; but only Experiments in consort touching drunkenness. settle, and are made less apt to move. As for 723. It hath been observed by the ancients, and the casting up of the eyes, and lifting up of the is yet believed, that the sperm of drunken men is hands, it is a kind of appeal to the Deity, which unfruitful. The cause is, for that it is over-moistis the author, by power and providence, of ened, and wanteth spissitude: and we have a strange wonders.
merry saying, that they that go drunk to bed get 721. Laughing causeth a dilatation of the mouth daughters. and lips; a continual expulsion of the breath, 724. Drunken men are taken with a plain dewith the loud noise, which maketh the interjec- fect, or destitution in voluntary motion. They tion of laughing; shaking of the breast and sides ; reel; they tremble; they cannot stand nor speak ranning of the eyes with water, if it be violent strongly. The cause is, for that the spirits of the and continued. Wherein first it is to be under- wine oppress the spirits animal, and occupy part stood, that laughing is scarce properly a pas- of the place where they are, and so make them sion, but hath its source from the intellect; weak to move. And therefore drunken men are for in laughing there ever precedeth a conceit of apt to fall asleep: and opiates, and stupefactives, somewhat ridiculous, and therefore it is proper to as poppy, henbane, hemlock, &c., induce a kind man. Secondly, that the cause of laughing is of drunkenness, by the grossness of their vapour, but a light touch of the spirits. And not so deep as wine doth by the quantity of the vapour. Bean impression as in other passions. And there- sides, they rob the spirits animal of their matter, fore, that which hath no affinity with the pas- whereby they are nourished : for the spirits of the sions of the mind, it is moved, and that in great wine prey upon it as well as they: and so they vehemency, only by tickling some parts of the make the spirits less supple and apt to move. body: and we see that men even in a grieved 725. Drunken men imagine every thing turnstate of mind, yet cannot sometimes forbear laugh- eth round: they imagine also that things come ing. Thirdly, it is ever joined with some degree upon them : they see not well things afar off ; of delight: and therefore exhilaration hath some those things that they see near hand, they see affinity with joy, though it be a much lighter mo- out of their place; and sometimes they see things tion: “res severa est verum gaudium.” Fourthly, double. The cause of the imagination that that the object of it is deformity; absurdity, things turn round is, for that the spirits themshrewd turns, and the like. Now to speak of the selves turn, being compressed by the vapour of causes of the effects before mentioned whereunto the wine, for any liquid body upon compression these general notes give some light. For the di- turneth, as we see in water, and it is all one to latation of the mouth and lips, continued expul- the sight, whether the visual spirits move, or the sion of the breath and voice, and shaking of the object moveth, or the medium moveth. And we breast and sides, they proceed, all, from the dila- see that long turning round breedeth the same tation of the spirits; especially being sudden. imagination. The cause of the imagination that So likewise, the running of the eyes with water, things come upon them is, for that the spirits as hath been formerly touched, where we spake visual themselves draw back; which maketh the of the tears of joy and grief, is an effect of dilata-object seem to come on; and besides, when they tion of the spirits. And for suddenness, it is a see things turn round and move, fear maketh them great part of the matter: for we see, that any think they come upon them. The cause that they shrewd turn that lighteth upon another; or any cannot see things afar off, is the weakness of the deformity, &c., moveth laughter in the instant, spirits; for in every megrim or vertigo there is an which after a little time it doth not. So we can obtenebration joined with a semblance of turning not laugh at any thing after it is stale, but whilst round; which we see also in the lighter sort of it is new: and even in tickling, if you tickle the swoonings. The cause of seeing things out of sides, and give warning, or give a hard or conti- their place, is the refraction of the spirits visual; nued touch, it doth not move laughter so much. for the vapour is as an unequal medium ; and it
722. Lust causeth a flagrancy in the eyes, and is as the sight of things out of place in water. The priapism. The cause of both these is, for that cause of seeing things double, is the swift and in lust, the sight and the touch are the things unquiet motion of the spirits, being oppressed, to desired, and therefore the spirits resort to those and fro; for, as was said before, the motion of parts which are most affected. And note well the spirits visual, and the motion of the object, in general, for that great use may be made of the make the same appearances; and for the swift observation, that, evermore, the spirits in all pas- motion of the object, we see that if you fillip a sions, resort most to the parts that labour most, lute-string, it showeth double or treble. or are most affected. As in the last which hath 726. Men are sooner drunk with small draughts been mentioned, they resort to the eyes and vene-than with great. And again, wine sugared ineVol. II.-13