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of the ancients, that dust helpeth the fruitfulness times they are forced to resow summer corn of trees, and of vines by name; insomuch as where they sowed winter corn. Another ill acthey cast dust upon them of purpose. It should cident is bitter frosts continued without snow, seem, that that powdering, when a shower com- especially in the beginning of the winter, after eth, maketh a kind of soiling to the tree, being the seed is new sown. Another disease is worms, earth and water finely laid on. And they note, which sometimes breed in the root, and happen that countries where the fields and ways are upon hot suns and showers immediately after the dusty bear the best vines.
sowing; and another worm breedeth in the ear 667. It is commended by the ancients for an itself, especially when hot suns break osten out of excellent help to trees, to lay the stalks and leaves clouds. Another disease is weeds, and they are of lupins about the roots, or to plough them into such as either choke and over-shadow the corn, the ground where you will sow corn. The burn- and bear it down, or starve the corn, and deceive ing also of the cuttings of vines, and casting them it of nourishment. Another disease is over-rankupon land, doth much good. And it was gener-ness of the corn; which they use to remedy by ally received of old, that dunging of grounds mowing it after it is come up, or putting sheep into when the west wind bloweth, and in the decrease it. Another ill accident is laying of corn with of the moon, doth greatly help; the earth, as it great rains, near or in harvest. Another ill acciseemeth, being then more thirsty and open to dent is, if the seed happen to have touched oil, receive the dung.
or any thing that is fat; for those substances 668. The grafting of vines upon vines, as I have an antipathy with nourishment of water. take it, is not now in use: the ancients had it, 670. The remedies of the diseases of corn and that three ways; the first was incision, which have been observed as followeth. The steeping is the ordinary manner of grafting: the second of the grain, before sowing, a little time in wine, was terebration through the middle of the stock, is thought a preservative : the mingling of seed and putting in the cions there: and the third was corn with ashes is thought to be good : the sowing pairing of two vines that grow together to the at the wane of the moon is thought to make the marrow, and binding them close.
corn sound : it hath not been practised, but it is 669. The disease and ill accidents of corn are thought to be of use to make some miscellane in worthy to be inquired; and would be more worthy corn, as if you sow a few beans with wheat, your to be inquired, if it were in men's power to help wheat will be the better. It hath been observed them, whereas many of them are not to be reme- that the sowing of corn with housleek doth good. died. The mildew is one of the greatest, which, Though grain that toucheth oil or fat receiveth out of question, cometh by closeness of air; and hurt, yet the steeping of it in the dregs of oil, therefore in hills, or large champaign grounds, it when it beginneth to putrefy, which they call seldom cometh; such as is with us York's woald. amurca, is thought to assure it against worms. This cannot be remedied, otherwise than that in It is reported also, that if corn be mowed, it will countries of small enclosure the ground be turned make the grain longer, but emptier, and having into larger fields: which I have known to do more of the husk. good in some farms. Another disease is the 671. It hath been noted, that seed of a year putting forth of wild oats, whereinto corn often- old is the best, and of two or threc years is times, especially barley, doth degenerate. It worse, and that which is more old is quite barren; happeneth chiefly from the weakness of the grain though, no doubt, some seeds and grains last that is sown; for if it be either too old or mouldy, better than others. The corn which in the vanning it will bring forth wild oats. Another disease is lieth lowest is the best; and the corn which the satiety of the ground; for if you sow one broken or bitten retaineth a little yellowness, is ground still with the same corn, I mean not the better than that which is very white. same corn that grew upon the same ground, but 672. It hath been observed, that of all roots the same kind of grain, as wheat, barley, &c. of herbs, the root of sorrel goeth the farthest into it will prosper but poorly: therefore besides the the earth ; insomuch that it hath been known to resting of the ground, you must vary the seed. go three cubits deep: and that it is the root that Another ill accident is from the winds, which continueth fit longest to be set again, of any root hurt at two times; at the flowering, hy shaking that groweth. It is a cold and acid herb, that, off the flowers, and at the full ripening, by shaking as it seemeth loveth the earth, and is not much out the corn. Another ill accident is drought, drawn by the sun. at the spindling of the corn, which with us is 673. It hath been observed, that some herbs rare, but in hotter countries common; insomuch like best being watered with salt water: as radish, as the word calamitas was first derived from beet, rue, pennyroyal; this trial would be extended calamus, when the corn could not get out of the to some other herbs; especially such as are stalk. Another ill accident is over-wet at sowing strong, as tarragon, mustard-seed, rocket, and the time, which with us breedeth much dearth, inso- like. much as the corn never cometh up; and many 674. It is strange that is generally received,
how some poisonous beasts affect odorate and cient and modern writers have also laboured ; wholesome herbs; as that the snake loveth fen- but their causes and axioms are so full of imaginel; that the toad will be much under sage; that nation, and so infected with the old received frogs will be in cinque-foil. It may be it is rather theories, as they are mere inquinations of experithe shade, or other coverture, that they take liking ence, and concoct it not. in than the virtue of the herb.
675. It were a matter of great profit, save that Experiment solitary touching healing of wounds. I doubt it is too conjectural to venture upon, if 677. It hath been observed by some of the anone could discern what corn, herbs, or fruits, are cients, that skins, and especially of rams, newly like to be in plenty or scarcity, by some signs pulled off, and applied to the wounds of stripes, and prognostic in the beginning of the year: for do keep them from swelling and exulcerating, as for those that are like to be in plenty, they and likewise heal them and close them up; and may be bargained for upon the ground: as the that the whites of eggs do the same. The cause old relation was of Thales, who, to show how is a temperate conglutination, for both bodies are easy it was for a philosopher to be rich, when he clammy and viscous, and do bridle the deflux of foresaw a great plenty of olives, made a monoply of humours to the hurts, without penning them in them. And for scarcity, men may make profit too much. in keeping better the old store. Long continuance of snow is believed to make a fruitful year of Experiment solitary touching fat diffused in flesh. corn; an early winter, or a very late winter, a 678. You may turn almost all flesh into a fatty barren year of corn: an open and serene winter, substance, if you take flesh and cut it into pieces, an ill year of fruit, in these we have partly touched and put the pieces into a glass covered with parchbefore: but other prognostics of like nature are ment, and so let the glass stand six or seven diligently to be inquired.
hours in boiling water. It may be an experiment 676. There seem to be in some plants singu- of profit for making of fat or grease for many larities, wherein they differ from all other : the uses; but then it must be of such flesh as is not olive hath the oily part only on the outside; edible; as horses, dogs, bears, foxes, badgers, whereas all other fruits have it in the nut or &c. kernel. The fir hath, in effect, no stone, nut, or kernel, except you will count the little grains Experiment solitary touching ripening of drink kernels. The pomegranate and pine-apple have
before the time. only amongst fruits grains distinct in several
679. It is reported by one of the ancients, that cells. No herbs have curled leaves but cabbage new wine put into vessels well stopped, and the and cabbage-lettuce. None have doubled leaves, vessels let down into the sea, will accelerate very one belonging to the stalk, another to the fruit or much the making of them ripe and potable. The seed, but the artichoke. No lower hath that same would be tried in wort. kind of spread that the woodbine hath. This may be a large field of contemplation; for it Experiment solitary touching pilosity and plus showeth that in the frame of nature, there is, in
mage. the producing of some species, a composition of 680. Beasts are more hairy than men, and matter, which happeneth oft, and may be much savage men more than civil, and the plumage diversified : in others, such as happeneth rarely, of birds exceedeth the pilosity of beasts. The and admitteth little variety: for so it is likewise cause of the smoothness in men is not any abunin beasts : dogs have a resemblance with wolves dance of heat and moisture, though that indeed and foxes; horses with asses, kine with buffles, causeth pilosity: but there is requisite to pilosity, hares with coneys, &c. And so in birds: kites not so much heat and moisture, as excrementitious and kestrels have a resemblance with hawks; heat and moisture ; for whatsoever assimilateth, common doves with ring-doves and turtles; black- goeth not into the hair, and excrenientitious birds with thrushes and mavises; crows with moisture aboundeth most in beasts, and men that ravens, daws, and choughs, &c. But elephants are more savage. Much the same reason is there and swine amongst beasts; and the bird of para- of the plumage of birds, for birds assimilate less, dise and the peacock amongst birds; and some and excern more than beasts, for their excrements few others, have scarce any other species that are ever liquid, and their flesh generally more dry; have affinity with them.
besides, they have not instruments for urine; and We leave the description of plants, and their so all the excrementitious moisture goeth into the virtues, to herbals, and other like books of natu- feathers; and therefore it is no marvel though ral history, wherein men’s diligence hath been birds be commonly better meat than beasts, begreat, even to curiosity : for our experiments are cause their flesh doth assimilate more finely, and only such as do ever ascend a degree to the deriv- secerneth more subtilly. Again, the head of man ing of causes, and extracting of axioms, which hath hair upon the first birth, which no other part we are not ignorant but that some both of the an- 1 of the body hath. The cause may be want of
perspiration ; for much of the matter of hair, in so as men may put their hand under the vessel the other parts of the body, goeth forth by insen- and remove it. The cause is, for that the moisture sible perspiration; and besides, the skull being of of water as it quencheth coals where it entereth, a more solid substance, nourisheth and assimila- so it doth allay heat where it toucheth : and teth less, and excerneth more, and so likewis therefore note well, that moisture, although it doth the chin. We see also, that hair cometh doth not pass through bodies, without communinot upon the palms of the hands, nor soles of the cation of some substance, as heat and cold do, feet; which are parts more perspirable. And yet it worketh manifest effects; not by entrance children likewise are not hairy, for that their of the body, but by qualifying of the heat and skins are more perspirable.
cold; as we see in this instance: and we see
likewise, that the water of things distilled in Experiment solitary touching the quickness of
water, which they call the bath, differeth not motion in birds.
much from the water of things distilled by fire. 681. Birds are of swifter motion than beasts; We see also, that pewter dishes with water in for the flight of many birds is swifter than the them will not melt easily, but without it they race of many beasts. The cause is, for that the will ; nay, we see more, that butter, or oil, which spirits in birds are in greater proportion, in com- in themselves are inflammable, yet by virtue of parison of the bulk of their body, than in beasts; their moisture will do the like. for as for the reason that some give, that they are partly carried, whereas beasts go, that is nothing, Experiment solitary touching yawning. for by that reason swimming should be swifter 685. It hath been noted by the ancients, that than running: and that kind of carriage also is it is dangerous to pick one's ear whilst he yawnnot without labour of the wing.
eth. The cause is, for that in yawning the
inner parchment of the ear is extended, by the Experiment solitary touching the different clear. drawing in of the spirit and breath; for in yawn
ness of the sea. 682. The sea is clearer when the north wind drawn in, and then strongly expelled.
ing and sighing both, the spirit is first strongly. bloweth than when the south wind. The cause is, for that salt water hath a little oiliness in the sur- Experiment solitary touching the hiccough. face thereof, as appeareth in very hot days; and
686. It hath been observed by the ancients, again, for that the southern wind relaxeth the that sneezing doth cease the hiccough. The water somewhat; as no water boiling is so clear
cause is, for that the motion of the hiccough is as cold water.
a lifting up of the stomach, which sneezing doth Experiment solitary touching the different heats of somewhat depress, and divert the motion another fire and boiling water.
way. For first we see that the hiccough cometh 683. Fire burneth wood, making it first lumi- of fulness of meat, especially in children, which
causeth an extension of the stomach: we see nous, then black and brittle, and lastly, broken
also it is caused by acid meats, or drinks, which and incinerate : scalding water doth none of these. The cause is, for that by fire the spirit motion is ceased either by diversion, or by de
is by the pricking of the stomach; and the of the body is first refined, and then emitted ; tention of the spirits ; diversion, as in sneezing ; whereof the refining or attenuation causeth the detention, as we see holding of the breath doth light, and the emission, first the fragility, and after the dissolution into ashes; neither doth help somewhat to cease the hiccough; and putany other body enter: but in water the spirit of ting a man into an earnest study doth the like, the body is not refined so much; and besides, nostrils, or gargarized, doth it also ; for that it
as is commonly used : and vinegar put to the part of the water entereth, which doth increase
is astringent, and inhibiteth the motion of the the spirit, and in a degree extinguish it: therefore we see that hot water will quench fire. And
spirits. again we see, that in bodies wherein the water
Experiment solitary touching sneezing. doth not much enter, but only the heat passeth,
687. Looking against the sun doth inducehot water worketh the effects of fire, as in eggs sneezing. The cause is, not the heating of the boiled and roasted, into which the water entereth nostrils, for then the holding up of the nostrils not at all, there is scarce difference to be discerned; but in fruit and flesh, whereinto the but the drawing down of the moisture of the
against the sun, though one wink, would do it; water entereth in some part, there is much more brain; for it will make the eyes run with water; difference.
and the drawing of moisture to the eyes doth Experiment solitary touching the qualification of draw it to the nostrils by motion of consent; and heat by moisture.
so followeth sneezing; as contrariwise, the 684. The bottom of a vessel of boiling water, tickling of the nostrils within doth draw the as hath been observed, is not very much heated, moisture to the nostrils, and to the eyes by con
sent; for they also will water. But yet it hath | which is hard, they open that which is stopped been observed, that if one be about to sneeze, and shut, and they expel that which is offensive the rubbing of the eyes till they run with water gently, without too much perturbation. Of this will prevent it. Whereof the cause is, for that kind are elder-flowers, which therefore are proper the humour which was descending to the nostrils, for the stone: of this kind is the dwarf-pine, is diverted to the eyes.
which is proper for the jaundice: of this kind is
hartshorn, which is proper for agues and infections: Experiment solitary touching the tenderness of the of this kind is piony, which is proper for stopteeth.
pings in the head : of this kind is fumitory, which 688. The teeth are more by cold drink, or the is proper for the spleen: and a number of others. like, affected than the other parts. The cause is Generally, divers creatures bred of putrefaction, double; the one, for that the resistance of bone though they be somewhat loathsome to take, are to cold is greater than of flesh, for that the flesh of this kind, as earth-worms, timber-sows, snails, shrinketh, but the bone resisteth, whereby the &c. And I conceive that the trochisks of vipers, cold becometh more eager: the other is, for that which are so much magnified, and the flesh of the teeth are parts without blood; whereas blood snakes some ways condited and corrected, which helpeth to qualify the cold : and therefore we see of late are grown into some credit, are of the same that the sinews are much affected with cold, for nature. So the parts of beasts putrefied, as casthat they are parts without blood; so the bones toreum and musk, which have extreme subtile in sharp colds wax brittle : and therefore it hath parts, are to be placed amongst them. We see been seen, that all contusions of bones in hard also, that putrefactions of plants, as agaric and weather are more difficult to cure.
Jews-ear are of greatest virtue. The cause is,
for that putrefaction is the subtilest of all motions Experiment solitary touching the tongue.
in the parts of bodies; and since we cannot take 689. It hath been noted, that the tongue re- down the lives of living creatures, which some ceiveth more easily tokens of diseases than the of the Paracelsians say, if they could be taken other parts, as of heats within, which appear down, would make us immortal ; the next is for most in the blackness of the tongue. Again, subuilty of operation, to take bodies putrefied, such pyed cattle are spotted in their tongues, &c. as may be safely taken. The cause is, no doubt, the tenderness of the part, which whereby receiveth more easily all Experiments in consort touching Venus. alterations, than any other parts of the flesh. 693. It hath been observed by the ancients,
that much use of Venus doth dim the sight: and E.rperiment solitary touching the taste.
yet eunuchs which are unable to generate, are 690. When the mouth is out of taste, it maketh nevertheless also dim-sighted. The cause of things taste sometimes salt, chiefly bitter, and dimness of sight in the former, is the expense of sometimes loathsome, but never sweet. The spirits; in the latter, the over-moisture of the cause is, the corrupting of the moisture about the brain: for the over-moisture of the brain doth tongue, which many times turneth bitter, and thicken the spirits visual, and obstructeth their salt, and loathsome; but sweet never: for the passages, as we see by the decay in the sight in rest are degrees of corruption.
age, where also the diminution of the spirits con
curreth as another cause : we see also that blindErperiment solitary touching some prognostics of ness cometh by rheums and cataracts. Now in pestilential seasons.
eunuchs, there are all the notes of moisture, as 691. It was observed in the great plague of the the swelling of their thighs, the looseness of their last year, that there were seen, in divers ditches belly, the smoothness of their skin, &c. and low grounds about London, many toads that 694. The pleasure of the act of Venus is the had tails two or three inches long at the least; greatest of the pleasures of the senses: the whereas toads usually have no tails at all. matching of it with itch is improper, though that Which argueth a great disposition to putrefaction also be pleasing to the touch. But the causes in the soil and air. It is reported likewise, that are profound. First, all the organs of the senses roots, such as carrots and parsnips, are more qualify the motions of the spirits, and make so sweet and luscious in infectious years than in many several species of motions, and pleasures or
displeasures thereupon, as there be diversities of Experiment solitary touching special simples for and smell, are of several frame, and so are the
organs. The instruments of sight, hearing, taste, medicines.
parts for generation. Therefore Scaliger doth 692. Wise physicians should with all dili-well to make the pleasure of generation a sixth gence inquire what simples nature yieldeth that sense; and if there were any other differing have extreme subtile parts, without any mordi- organs, and qualified perforations for the spirits cation or acrimony: for they undermine that | to pass, there would be more than the five senses ;
neither do we well know whether some beastscrements are the refuse and putrefaction of nouand birds have not senses that we know not; rishment. Some breed in wood, both growing and the very scent of dogs is almost a sense by and cut down. Query, in what woods most, and itself. Secondly, the pleasures of the touch are at what seasons? We see that the worms with greater and deeper than those of the other senses; many feet, which round themselves into balls, are as we see in warming upon cold; or refrige- bred chiefly under logs of timber, but not in the ration upon heat: for as the pains of the touch timber; and they are said to be found also many are greater than the offences of other senses ; so times in gardens, where no logs are. But it likewise are the pleasures. It is true that the af- seemeth their generation requireth a coverture, fecting of the spirits immediately, and, as it were, both from sun and rain or dew, as the timber is; without an organ, is of the greatest pleasure, and therefore they are not venemous, but contrawhich is but in two things; sweet smells and riwise are held by the physicians to clarify the wine, and the like sweet vapours. For smells, blood. It is observed also, that cimices are found we see their great and sudden effect in fetching in the holes of bedsides. Some breed in the men again when they swoon: for drink, it is cer- hair of living creatures, as lice and tikes; which tain that the pleasure of drunkenness is next the are bred by the sweat close kept, and somewhat pleasure of Venus; and great joys likewise make arefied by the hair. The excrements of living the spirits move and touch themselves : and the creatures do not only breed insecta when they pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same kind. are excerned, but also while they are in the body;
695. It hath been always observed that men as in worms, whereto children are most subject, are more inclined to Venus in the winter, and and are chiefly in the guts. And it hath been women in the summer. The cause is, for that lately observed by physicians, that in many pesthe spirits, in a body more hot and dry, as the tilent diseases, there are worms found in the spirits of men are, by the summer are more ex- upper parts of the body, where excrements are haled and dissipated; and in the winter more con- not, but only humours putrefied. Fleas breed densed and kept entire; but in bodies that are principally of straw or mats, where there hath cold and moist as women's are, the summer doth been little moisture; or the chamber and bedcherish the spirits, and calleth them forth; the straw kept close and not aired. It is receive' winter doth dull them. Furthermore, the absti- that they are killed by strewing wormwood in nence, or intermission of the use of Venus in the rooms. And it is truly observed, that bitter moist and well habituate bodies, breedeth a num- things are apt rather to kill, than engender putreber of diseases: and especially dangerous impos- faction; and they be things that are fat or sweet thumations. The reason is evident; for that it is a that are aptest to putrefy. There is a worm that principal evacuation, especially of the spirits; for of breedeth in meal, of the shape of a large white magthe spirits there is scarce any evacuation, but in got, which is given as a great dainty to nightinVenus and exercise. And therefore the omission gales. The moth breedeth upon cloth and other laof either of them breedeth all diseases of repletion. nifices; especially if they be laid dankish and
wet. It delighteth to be about the flame of a Experiments in consort touching the insecta. candle. There is a worm called a wevil, bred The nature of vivification is very worthy the in- under ground, and that feedeth upon roots : as quiry: and as the nature of things is commonly parsnips, carrots, &c. Some breed in waters, better perceived in small than in great; and in especially shaded, but they must be standing imperfect than in perfect; and in parts than in waters ; as the water-spider that hath six legs. whole; so the nature of vivification is best inquired The fly called the gad-lly, breedeth of somewhat in creatures bred of putrefaction. The contem- that swimmeth upon the top of the water, and plation whereof hath many excellent fruits. is most about ponds. There is a worm that breed. First, in disclosing the original vivification. Seeth of the dregs of wine decayed; which aftercondly, in disclosing the original of figuration. wards, as is observed by some of the ancients, Thirdly, in disclosing many things in the nature turneth into a gnat. It hath been observed by of perfect creatures, which in them lie more the ancients, that there is a worm that breedeth hidden. And fourthly, in traducing, by way of in old snow, and is of colour reddish, and dull of operation, some observations on the insecta, to motion, and dieth soon after it cometh out of the work effects upon perfect creatures. Note, that snow. Which should show, that snow hath in the word insecta agreeth not with the matter, but it a secret warmth; for else it could hardly vivify. we ever use it for brevity's sake, intending by it And the reason of the dying of the worm, may creatures bred of putrefaction.
be the sudden exhaling of that little spirit, as 696. The insecta are found to breed out of se- soon as it cometh out of the cold, which had veral matters : some breed of mud or dung; as the shut it in. For as butterflies quicken with heat, earthworms, eels, snakes, &c. For they are both which were benumbed with cold; so spirits may putrefactions : for water in mud doth putrefy, as exhale with heat, which were preserved in cold. not able to preserve itself; and for dung, all ex. It is affirmed both by the ancient and modern