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are freed from the grosser. So the apothecaries' 10. If you strike or pierce a solid body that is clarify their syrups by whites of eggs, beaten brittle, as glass, or sugar, it breaketh not only with the juices which they would clarify; which where the immediate force is; but breaketh all whites of eggs gather all the dregs and grosser about into shivers and fitters; the motion, upon parts of the juice to them; and after the syrup the pressure, searching all ways, and breaking being set on the fire, the whites of eggs them- where it findeth the body weakest. selves harden, and are taken forth. So hippocras 11. The powder in shot, being dilated into is clarified by mixing with milk, and stirring it such a flame as endureth not compression, moveth about, and then passing it through a woollen bag, likewise in round, the flame being, in the nature which they call Hippocrates's Sleeve, and the of a liquid body, sometimes recoiling, sometimes cleaving nature of the milk draweth the powder breaking the piece, but generally discharging the of the spices, and grosser parts of the liquor to it; bullet, because there it findeth easiest deliverand in the passage they stick upon the woollen ance. bag.
12. This motion upon pressure, and the reci7. The clarifying of water is an experiment tend- procal thereof, which is motion upon tensure, we ing to health; besides the pleasure of the eye, use to call, by one common name, motion of liwhen water is crystalline. It is effected by cast- berty; which is, when any body, being forced to ing in and placing pebbles at the head of a cur- a preternatural extent or dimension, delivereth rent, that the water may strain through them. and restoreth itself to the natural: as when a
8. It may be, percolation doth not only cause blown bladder pressed, riseth again; or when clearness and splendour, but sweetness of savour; leather or cloth tentured, spring back. These for that also followeth as well as clearness, when two motions, of which there be infinite instances, the finer parts are severed from the grosser. So it we shall handle in due place. is found, that the sweats of men, that have much 13. This motion upon pressure is excellently heat, and exercise much, and have clean bodies, also demonstrated in sounds; as when one chimand fine skins, do smell sweet; as was said of eth upon a bell, it soundeth ; but as soon as he Alexander; and we see commonly that gums layeth his hand upon it, the sound ceaseth: and have sweet odours.
so the sound of a virginal string, as soon as tho
quill of the jack falleth from it, stoppeth. For Experiments in consort, touching motion of bodies these sounds are produced by the subtile percusupon their pressure.
sion of the minute parts of the bell, or string, 9. Take a glass, and put water into it, and wet upon the air; all one, as the water is caused to your finger, and draw it round about the lip of the leap by the subtile percussion of the minute parts glass, pressing it somewhat hard; and after you of the glass, upon the water, whereof we spake have drawn it some few times about, it will make a little before in the ninth experiment. For you the water frisk and sprinkle up in fine dew. This must not take it to be the local shaking of the instance doth excellently demonstrate the force of bell, or string, that doth it: as we shall fully compression in a solid body: for whensoever a declare, when we come hereafter to handle sounds. solid body, as wood, stone, metal, &c. is pressed, there is an inward tumult in the parts thereof Experiments in consort, touching separations of seeking to deliver themselves from the compres
bodies by weight. sion: and this is the cause of all violent motion. 14. Take a glass with a belly and a long neb; Wherein it is strange in the highest degree, that fill the belly, in part, with water : take also this motion hath never been observed, nor inquir- another glass, whereinto put claret wine and waed; it being of all motions the most common, and ter mingled; reverse the first glass, with the belly the chief root of all mechanical operations. This upwards, stopping the neb with your finger; motion worketh in round at first, by way of proof then dip the mouth of it within the second glass, and search which way to deliver itself: and then and remove your finger: continue it in that posworketh in progress where it findeth the deliver- ture for a time; and it will unmingle the wine ance easiest. In liquors this motion is visible; from the water : the wine ascending and settling for all liquors strucken make round circles, and in the top of the upper glass; and the water dewithal dash; but in solids, which break not, it is scending and settling in the bottom of the lower so subtile as it is invisible; but nevertheless be- glass. The passage is apparent to the eye; for wrayeth itself by many effects ; as in this instance you shall see the wine, as it were, in a small whereof we speak. For the pressure of the fin- vein, rising through the water. For handsomeger, furthered by the wetting, because it sticketh so ness' sake, because the working requireth some much the better unto the lip of the glass, after small time, it were good you hang the upper glass some continuance, putteth all the small parts of upon a nail. But as soon as there is gathered sothe glass into work, that they strike the water much pure and unmixed water in the bottom of sharply; from which percussion that sprinkling the lower glass, as that the mouth of the upper cometh.
glass dippeth into it, the motion ceaseth.
15. Let the upper glass be wine, and the lower must of wine, or wort of beer, while it worketh, water; there followeth no motion at all. Let before it be tunned, the burrage stay a small the upper glass be water pure, the lower water time, and be often changed with fresh; it will coloured, or contrariwise, there followeth no mo-make a sovereign drink for melancholy passions. tion at all. But it hath been tried, that though And the like I conceive of orange flowers. the mixture of wine and water, in the lower 19. Rhubarb hath manifestly in it parts of glass, be three parts water and but one wine, yet contrary operations : parts that purge; and parts it doth not dead the motion. This separation of that bind the body; and the first lie looser, and water and wine appeareth to be made by weight; the latter lie deeper: so that if you infuse rhufor it must be of bodies of unequal weight, or barb for an hour, and crush it well, it will purge else it worketh not; and the heavier body must better, and bind the body less after the purging ever be in the upper glass. But then note withal, than if it had stood twenty-four hours; this is that the water being made pensile, and there tried; but I conceive likewise, that by repeating being a great weight of water in the belly of the the infusion of rhubarb several times, as was glass, sustained by a small pillar of water in the said of violets, letting each stay in but a small neck of the glass, it is that which setteth the time, you may make it as strong a purging medimotion on work: for water and wine in one glass, cine as scammony. And is not a small thing with long standing, will hardly sever.
won in physic, if you can make rhubarb, and 16. This experiment would be extended from other medicines that are benedict, as strong purmixtures of several liquors, to simple bodies which gers as those that are not without some malignity. consist of several similar parts: try it therefore 20. Purging medicines, for the most part, have with brine or salt-water, and fresh water: placing their purgative virtue in a fine spirit; as appearthe salt-water, which is the heavier, in the upper eth by that they endure not boiling without much glass; and see whether the fresh will come loss of virtue. And therefore it is of good use in above. Try it also with water thick sugared, and physic, if you can retain the purging virtue, and pure water; and see whether the water, which take away the unpleasant taste of the purger; cometh above, will lose its sweetness: for which which it is like you may do, by this course of purpose it were good there were a little cock infusing oft, with little stay, for it is probable that made in the belly of the upper glass.
the horrible and odious taste is in the grosser part.
21. Generally, the working by infusions is Experiments in consort, touching judicious and gross and blind, except you first try the issuing accurate infusions, both in liquors and air.
of the several parts of the body, which of them 17. In bodies containing fine spirits, which do issue more speedily, and which more slowly; easily dissipate, when you make infusions, the and so by apportioning the time, can take and rule is, a short stay of the body in the liquor re- leave that quality which you desire. This to ceiveth the spirit; and a longer stay confoundeth know there be two ways; the one to try what it; because it draweth forth the earthy part long stay, and what short stay worketh as hath withal, which embaseth the finer. And there- been said ; the other to try in order the succeeding fore it is an error in physicians, to rest simply upon infusions of one and the same body, successively, the length of stay for increasing the virtue. But in several liquors. As, for example; take orange if you will have the infusion strong, in those pills, or rosemary, or cinnamon, or what you will; kinds of bodies which have fine spirits, your way and let them infuse half an hour in water; then is not to give longer time, but to repeat the infu- take them out, and infuse them again in other sion of the body oftener. Take violets, and in-water; and so the third time: and then taste and fuse a good pugil of them in a quart of vinegar; consider the first water, the second, and the third; let them stay three quarters of an hour, and take and you will find them differing, not only in them forth, and refresh the infusion with like strength and weakness, but otherwise in taste or quantity of new violets seven times; and it will odour; for it may be the first water will have make a vinegar so fresh of the flower, as if, a more of the scent, as more fragrant; and the twelvemonth after, it be brought you in a saucer, second more of the taste, as more bitter or biting, you shall smell it before it come at you. Note, &c. that it smelleth more perfectly of the flower a 22. Infusions in air, for so we may well call good while after than at first.
odours, have the same diversities with infusions 18. This rule, which we have given, is of sin- in water; in that the several odours, which are gular use for the preparations of medicines, and in one flower, or other body, issue at several other infusions. As for example: the leaf of times; some earlier, some later: so we find that burrage hath an excellent spirit to repress the violets, woodbines, strawberries, yield a pleasing fuliginous vapour of dusky melancholy, and so scent, that cometh forth first; but soon after an to cure madness: but nevertheless if the leaf be ill scent quite differing from the former. Which infused long it yieldeth forth but a raw substance, is caused, not so much by mellowing, as by the of no virtue: therefore I suppose, that if in the late issuing of the grosser spirit.
23. As we may desire to extract the finest of a good length, three or four foot deep within spirits in some cases; so we may desire also to the same ground; with one end upon the high discharge them, as hurtful, in some other. So ground, the other upon the low. Cover the trough wine burnt, by reason of the evaporating of the with brakes a good thickness, and cast sand upon finer spirit, inflameth less, and is best in agues: the top of the brakes: you shall see, saith he, opium loseth some of its poisonous quality, if it that after some showers are past, the lower end be vapoured out, mingled with spirits of wine, or of the trough will run like a spring of water: the like: sena loseth somewhat of its windiness which is no marvel, if it hold while the rainby decocting; and generally, subtile or windy water lasteth; but he said it would continue long spirits are taken off by incension, or evaporation. time after the rain is past: as if the water did And even in infusions in things that are of too multiply itself upon the air, by the help of the high a spirit, you were better pour off the first coldness and condensation of the earth, and the infusion, after a small time, and use the latter. consort of the first water.
Experiment solitary touching the appetite of con- Experiment solitary touching the venomous quality tinuation in liquids.
of man's flesh. 24. Bubbles are in the form of a hemisphere; 26. The French, which put off the name of air within, and a little skin of water without: the French disease unto the name of the disease and it seemeth somewhat strange, that the air of Naples, do report, that at the siege of Naples, should rise so swiftly while it is in the water; there were certain wicked merchants that barrelled and when it cometh to the top, should be stayed up man's flesh, of some that had been lately slain by so weak a cover as that of the bubble is. But in Barbary, and sold it for tunney; and that upon as for the swift ascent of the air, while it is under that foul and high nourishment was the original the water, that is a motion of percussion from the of that disease. Which may well be, for that it water; which itself descending driveth up the is certain that the cannibals in the West Indies air; and no motion of levity in the air. And eat man's flesh: and the West Indies were full this Democritus called “motus plagæ.” In this of the pox when they were first discovered : and common experiment, the cause of the inclosure at this day the mortalest poisons, practised by of the bubble is, for that the appetite to resist the West Indians, have some mixture of the separation, or discontinuance, which in solid blood, or fat, or flesh of man: and divers witches bodies is strong, is also in liquors, though fainter and sorceresses, as well amongst the heathen, as and weaker; as we see in this of the bubble: amongst the Christians, have fed upon man's we see it also in little glasses of spittle that Mesh, to aid, as it seemeth, their imagination, children make of rushes; and in castles of bub- with high and foul vapours. bles, which they make by blowing into water, having obtained a little degree of tenacity by Experiment solitary touching the version and transmixture of soap: we see it also in the stillicides
mutation of air into water. of water, which if there be water enough to fol. 27. It seemeth that there be these ways, in low, will draw themselves into a small thread, likelihood, of version of vapours of air into because they will not discontinue; but if there water and moisture. The first is cold; which be no remedy, then they cast themselves into doth manifestly condense; as we see in the conround drops; which is the figure that saveth the tracting of the air in the weather-glass; whereby body most from discontinuance: the same reason it is a degree nearer to water. We see it also in is of the roundness of the bubble, as well for the the generation of springs, which the ancients skin of water, as for the air within: for the air thought, very probably, to be made by the version likewise avoideth discontinuance; and therefore of air into water, holpen by the rest, which the casteth itself into a rough figure. And for the air hath in those parts; whereby it cannot dissistop and arrest of the air a little while, it showeth pate. And by the coldness of rocks; for there that the air of itself hath little or no appetite of springs are chiefly generated. We see it also in ascending.
the effects of the cold of the middle region, as
they call it, of the air; which produceth dews Experiment solitary touching the making of artifi- and rains. And the experiment of turning water cial springs.
into ice, by snow, nitre, and salt, whereof we 25. The rejection, which I continually use, of shall speak hereafter, would be transferred to the experiments, though it appeareth not, is infinite: turning of air into water. The second way is by but yet if an experiment be probable in the work, compression; as in stillatories, where the vapour and of great use, I receive it, but deliver it as is turned back upon itself, by the encounter of doubtful. It was reported by a sober man, that the sides of the stillatory; and in the dew upon an artificial spring may be made thus: Find out the covers of boiling pots; and in the dew a hanging ground, where there is a good quick towards rain, upon marble and wainscot. But fall of rain-water. Lay a half trough of stone, this is like to do no great effect; except it be upon vapours, and gross air, that are already Experiment solitary touching the condensing of very near in degree to water. The third is that, air in such sort as it may put on weight, and which may be searched into, but doth not yet yield nourishment. appear; which is, by mingling of moist vapours 29. Onions, as they hang, will many of them with air; and trying if they will not bring a re- shoot forth; and so will penny-royal; and so turn of more water than the water was at first: will an herb called orpin; with which they use for if so, that increase is a version of the air: in the country to trim their houses, binding it to a therefore put water in the bottom of a stillatory, lath or stick, and setting it against a wall. We with the neb stopped; weigh the water first; see it likewise more especially in the greater hang in the middle of the stillatory a large semper-vive, which will put out branches, two or spunge; and see what quantity of water you can three years: but it is true, that commonly they crush out of it; and what it is more or less com- wrap the root in a cloth besmeared with oil, and pared with the water spent; for you must under- renew it once in half a year. The like is reported, stand, that if any version can be wrought, it will by some of the ancients, of the stalks of lilies. be easiliest done in small pores: and that is the The cause is; for that these plants have a strong, reason why we prescribe a spunge. The fourth dense, and succulent moisture, which is not apt way is probable also, though not appearing; to exhale; and so is able, from the old store, which is, by receiving the air into the small pores without drawing help from the earth, to suffice of bodies: for, as hath been said, every thing in the sprouting of the plant: and this sprouting is small quantity is more easy for version; and chiefly in the late spring or early summer; which tangible bodies have no pleasure in the consort are the times of putting forth. We see also, that of air, but endeavour to subact it into a more stumps of trees lying out of the ground, will put dense body; but in entire bodies it is checked; forth sprouts for a time. But it is a noble trial, because if the air should condense, there is and of very great consequence, to try whether nothing to succeed: therefore it must be in loose these things, in the sprouting, do increase weight; . bodies, as sand, and powder; which we see, if which must be tried, by weighing them before they lie close, of themselves gather moisture. they be hanged up; and afterwards again, when
they are sprouted. For if they increase not in Esperiment solitary touching helps towards the weight, then it is no more but this; that what
beauty and good features of persons. they send forth in the sprout, they lose in some 28. It is reported by some of the ancients; other part: for if they gather weight, then it is that whelps, or other creatures, if they be put magnale naturæ;" for it it showeth that air young into such a cage or box, as they cannot may be made so to be condensed as to be conrise to their stature, but may increase in breadth verted into a dense body; whereas the race and or length, will grow accordingly as they can get period of all things, here above the earth, is to room; which if it be true and feasible, and that extenuate and turn things to be more pneumatical the young creature so pressed and straitened, and rare; and not to be retrograde, from pneudoth not thereupon die, it is a means to produce matical to that which is dense. It showeth also, dwarf creatures, and in a very strange figure. that air can nourish; which is another great This is certain, and noted long since, that the matter of consequence. Note, that to try this, pressure or forming of parts of creatures, when the experiment of the semper-vive must be made they are very young, doth alter the shape not a without oiling the cloth; for else, it may be, the little: as the stroking of the heads of infants, plant receiveth nourishment from the oil. between the hands, was noted of old, to make " Macrocephali;” which shape of the head, at Experiment solitary touching the commixture of that time, was esteemed. And the raising gently flame and air, and the great force thereof. of the bridge of the nose, doth prevent the de- 30. Flame and air do not mingle, except it be formity of a saddle nose. Which observation in an instant; or in the vital spirits of vegetables well weighed, may teach a means to make the and living creatures. In gunpowder, the force persons of men and women, in many kinds, of it hath been ascribed to rarefaction of the more comely and better featured than otherwise earthy substance into flame; and thus far it is they would be; by the forming and shaping of true: and then, forsooth, it is become another them in their infancy: as by stroking up the element; the form whereof occupieth more place; calves of the legs, to keep them from falling and so of necessity, followeth a dilatation; and down too low; and by stroking up the forehead, therefore, lest two bodies should be in one place, to keep them from being low-foreheaded. And there must needs also follow an expulsion of the it is a common practice to swathe infants, that pellet; or blowing up of the mine. But these they may grow more straight, and better shaped : are crude and ignorant speculations. For flame, and we see young women, by wearing strait if there were nothing else, except it were in very bodice, keep themselves from being gross and great quantity, will be suffocate with any hard corpulent.
body, such as a pellet is; or the barrel of a gun;
80 as the flame would not expel the hard body; It appeareth also, that the form of a pyramis in but the hard body would kill the flame, and not flame, which we usually see, is merely by accisuffer it to kindle or spread. But the cause of dent, and that the air about, by quenching the this so potent a motion, is the nitre, which we call sides of the flame, crusheth it, and extenuateth otherwise saltpetre, which having in it a notable it into that form; for of itself it would be round; crude and windy spirit, first by the heat of the and therefore smoke is in the figure of a pyramis fire suddenly dilateth itself; and we know that reversed; for the air quencheth the flame, and simple air, being preternaturally attenuated by receiveth the smoke. Note also, that the flame heat, will make itself room, and break and of the candle, within the flame of the spirit of blow up that which resisteth it; and secondly, wine, is troubled ; and doth not only open and when the nitre hath dilated itself, it bloweth move upwards, but moveth waving, and to and abroad the flame, as an inward bellows. And fro; as if flame of its own nature, if it were not therefore we see that brimstone, pitch, camphire, quenched, would roll and turn, as well as move wild-fire, and divers other inflammable matters, upwards. By all which it should seem, that the though they burn cruelly, and are hard to quench, celestial bodies, most of them, are true fires or yet they make no such fiery wind as gunpowder flames, as the Stoics held; more fine, perhaps, doth; and on the other side, we see that quick- and rarified than our flame is. For they are all silver, which is a most crude and watery body, globular and determinate; they have rotation; heated, and pent in, hath the like force with gun- and they have the colour and splendour of flame: powder. As for living creatures, it is certain, so that flame above is durable, and consistent, and their vital spirits are a substance compounded of in its natural place; but with us it is a stranger, an airy and flamy matter; and though air and and momentary, and impure: like Vulcan that flame being free, will not well mingle; yet bound halted with his fall. in by a body that hath some fixing, they will. . For that you may best see in those two bodies, Experiment solitary touching the different force of which are their aliments, water and oil; for they fiame in the midst and on the sides. likewise will not well mingle of themselves; but 32. Take an arrow, and hold it in flame for the in the bodies of plants, and living creatures, they space of ten pulses, and when it cometh forth, will. It is no marvel therefore, that a small you shall find those parts of the arrow which quantity of spirits, in the cells of the brain, and were on the outsides of the flame more burned, canals of the sinews, are able to move the whole blacked, and turned almost into a coal, whereas body, which is of so great mass, both with so that in the midst of the flame will be as if the great force, as in wrestling, leaping; and with fire had scarce touched it. This is an instance 80 great swiftness, as in playing division upon of great consequence for the discovery of the the lute. Such is the force of these two natures, nature of flame; and showeth manifestly, that air and flame, when they incorporate.
flame burneth more violently towards the sides
than in the midst: and which is more, that heat Experiment solitary touching the secret nature of or fire is not violent or furious, but where it is flame.
checked and pent. And therefore the Peripate31. Take a small wax candle, and put it in a tics, howsoever their opinion of an element of fire socket of brass or iron; then set it upright in a above the air is justly exploded, in that point porringer full of spirit of wine heated: then set they acquit themselves well: for being opposed, both the candle and spirit of wine on fire, and you that if there were a sphere of fire, that encomshall see the flame of the candle open itself, and passed the earth so near hand, it were impossible become four or five times bigger than otherwise but all things should be burnt up; they answer, it would have been; and appear in figure globu- that the pure elemental fire, in its own place, and Jar, and not in pyramis. You shall see also, that not irritated, is but of a inoderate heat. the inward flame of the candle keepeth colour, and doth not wax any whit blue towards the Experiment solitary touching the decrease of the colour of the outward flame of the spirit of wine. natural motion of gravity, in great distance from This is a noble instance; wherein two things the earth; or within some depth of the earlh. are most remarkable: the one, that one flame 33. It is affirmed constantly by many, as a within another quencheth not; but is a fixed usual experiment, that a lump of ore in the botbody, and continueth as air or water do. And tom of a mine will be tumbled and stirred by therefore flame would still ascend upwards in one two men's strength, which, if you bring it to the greatness, if it were not quenched on the sides : top of the earth, will ask six men's strength at and the greater the flame is at the bottom, the the least to stir it. It is a noble instance, and is higher is the rise. The other, that flame doth fit to be tried to the full; for it is very probable, not mingle with flame, as air doth with air, or that the motion of gravity worketh weakly, both water with water, but only remaineth contiguous; far from the earth, and also within the earth: the as it cometh to pass betwixt consisting bodies. former, because the appetite of union of dense