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well have a transmigration of species. Where-| herbs some earths do put forth of themselves, and fore, wanting instances which do occur, we shall to take that earth and to pot it, or vessel it: and give directions of the most likely trials; and gen- in that to set the seed you would change: as, for erally we would not have those that read this example, take from under walls or the like, where work of Sylva Sylvarum" account it strange, or nettles put forth in abundance, the earth, which think that it is an over-haste, that we have set you shall there find, without any string or root of down particulars untried : for contrariwise, in our the nettles: and pot that earth, and set in it stockown estimation, we account such particulars more gillyflowers, or wallflowers, &c., or sow in the worthy than those that are already tried and seeds of thein, and see what the event will be; or known; for these latter must be taken as you take earth that you have prepared to put forth find them; but the other do level point-blank at mushrooms of itself, whereof you shall find some the inventing of causes and axioms.
instances following, and sow in it purslane seed, 523. First, therefore, you must make account, or lettuce seed; for in these experiments, it is that if you will have one plant change into another, likely enough that the earth being accustomed to you must have the nourishment over-rule the send forth one kind of nourishment, will alter the seed; and therefore you are to practise it by nou
new seed. rishment as contrary as may be to the nature of 530. The fifth rule shall be, to make the herb the herb, so nevertheless as the herb may grow, grow contrary to its nature; as to make groundand likes ise with seeds that are of the weakest herbs rise in height: as, for example, carry camosort, and have least vigour. You shall do well, mile, or wild thyme, or the green strawberry upon therefore, to take marsh-herbs, and plant them on sticks, as you do hops upon poles, and see what tops of hills and champaigns; and such plants as the event will be. require much moisture upon sandy and very dry 531. The sixth rule shall be, to make plants grounds. As for example, marshı-mallows and grow out of the sun or open air; for that is a sedge, upon hills; cucumber, and lettuce seeds, great mutation in nature, and may induce a change and coleworts, upon a sandy plot; so contrari- in the seed; as barrel up earth and sow some seed wise, plant bushes, heathling, and brakes, upon in it, and put it in the bottom of a pond, or put it a wet or marsh ground. This, I conceive also, in some great hollow tree: try also the sowing of that all esculent and garden herbs, set upon the seeds in the bottoms of caves; and pots with tops of hills, will prove more medicinal, though seeds sown, hanged up in wells some distance less esculent than they were before. And it may from the water, and see what the event will be. be likewise, some wild herbs you may make salad herbs. This is the first rule for transmutation of Experiments in consort touching the procevily, and plants.
lowness, and artificial dwarfing of trees. 527. The second rule shall be, to bury some 532. It is certain, that timber trees in coppice few seeds of the herbs you would change, amongst woods grow more upright and more free from other seeds; and then you shall see whether the under-boughs, than those that stand in the fields : juice of those other seeds do not so qualify the the cause whereof is, for that plants have a earth, as it will alter the seed whereupon you natural motion to get to the sun; and besides, work. As for example, put parsley seed amongst they are not glutted with too much nourishment; onion seed, or lettuce seed amongst parsley seed, for that the coppice shareth with them, and reor basil seed amongst thyme seed; and see the pletion ever hindereth stature: lastly they are change of taste or otherwise. But you shall do kept warm, and that ever in plants helpeth mountwell to put the seed you would change into a little ing. linen cloth, that it mingle not with the foreign 533. Trees that are of themselves full of heat, seed.
which heat appeareth by their inflammable gums, 523. The third rule shall be, the making of as firs, and pines, mount of themselves in height some medley or mixture of earth with some other without side-boughs, till they come towards the plants bruised or shiven either in leaf or root; as top. The cause is partly heat, and partly tenuity for example, make earth with a mixture of cole- of juice, both which send the sap upwards. As wort leives stainped, and set in it artichokes or for juniper, it is but a shrub, and groweth not big parsnips; so take earth made with marjorani, or enough in hody to maintain a tall tree. oriyanım, or wild thyme, bruised or stamped, and 531. It is reported that a good sirong canvass, set in it fennel seed, &c. In which operation the spread over a tree grafted low, soon after it putteth process of nature still will be, as I conceive, not forth, will dwarf it and make it spread. The cause that the herb you work upon should drew tie is plain; for that all things that grow, will grow juice of the foreign herb, for that opinion we have as they find room. for merly reject d. but there will be a new con- 5.35. 'Trees are generally set of roots or kernels : fection of mould, which perhaps will alter the but if you set thein of slips, as of soina trees you seed, and yet not to lie kind of the former herb.
may, by name the mulberry, soine of the slips will 523. The forth rule shall be, to mark what I take; and those that take, as is reported, will be Vol. II.-10
dwarf trees. The cause is, for that a slip draweth 543. The moister sort of trees yield but little nourishment more weakly than either a root or moss, as we see in asps, poplars, willows, beeches, kernel.
&c., which is partly caused for the reason that 536. All plants that put forth their sap hastily hath been given, of the frank putting up of the sap have their bodies not proportionable to their into the boughs; and partly for that the barks of length, and therefore they are winders and creep- those trees are more close and smooth than those ers; as ivy, briony, hops, woodbine; whereas of oaks and ashes ; whereby the moss can the dwarfing requireth a slow putting forth, and less hardlier issue out. vigour of mounting.
544. In clay-grounds all fruit-trees grow full
of moss both upon body and boughs, which is Experiments in consort touching the rudiments of caused partly by the coldness of the ground,
plants, and of the excrescences of plants, or super- whereby the plants nourish less, and partly by the plants.
roughness of the earth, whereby the sap is shut in, The Scripture saith, that Solomon wrote a Na- and cannot get up to spread so frankly as it should tural History, " from the cedar of Libanus, to the do. moss growing upon the wall;" for so the best 545. We have said heretofore, that if trees be translations have it. And it is true that moss is hide-bound, they wax less fruitful, and gather but the rudiment of a plant; and, as it were, the moss; and that they are holpen by hacking, &c. mould of earth or bark.
And therefore by the reason of contraries, if trees 537. Moss groweth chiefly upon ridges of be bound in with cords, or some outward bands, houses tiled or thatched, and upon the crests of they will put forth more moss; which, I think, walls; and that moss is of a lightsome and pleasant happeneth to trees that stand bleak, and upon the green. The growing upon slopes is caused, for cold winds. It would also be tried, whether, if that moss, as on the one side it cometh of moisture you cover a tree somewhat thick upon the top and water, so on the other side the water must but after his polling it will not gather more moss. slide, and not stand or pool. And the growing I think also the watering of trees with cold founupon tiles, or walls, &c., is caused for that those tain-water will make them grow full of moss. dried earths, having not moisture sufficient to put 546. There is a moss the perfumers have, which forth a plant, do practise germination by putting cometh out of apple trees, that hath an excellent forth moss; though when, by age, or otherwise, scent. Query, particularly for the manner of the they grow to relent and resolve, they sometimes put growth, and the nature of it. And for this expeforth plants, as wall-flowers. And almost all moss riment's sake, being a thing of price, I have set hath here and there little stalks, besides the low down the last experiments how to multiply and thrum.
call on mosses. 538. Moss groweth upon alleys, especially such Next unto moss, I will speak of mushrooms ; as lie cold and upon the north ; as in divers which are likewise an imperfect plant. The terraces: and again, they be much trodden; mushrooms have two strange properties; the one, or if they were at the first gravelled; for where that they yield so delicious a meat; the other, soever plants are kept down, the earth putteth forth that they come up so hastily, as in a night; and moss.
yet they are unsown. And therefore such as are 539. Old ground, that hath been long unbroken upstarts in state they call in reproach mushrooms. up, gathereth moss; and therefore husbandmen It must needs be, therefore, that they be made of use to cure their pasture grounds when they grow much moisture; and that moisture fat, gross, and to moss, by tilling them for a year or two: which yet somewhat concocted. And, indeed, we find also dependeth upon the same cause ; for that the that mushrooms cause the accident which we call more sparing and starving juice of the earth, in- “incubus” or the mare in the stomach. And theresufficient for plants, doth breed moss.
fore the surfeit of them may suffocate and empoison. 540. Old trees are more mossy far than young; And this showeth that they are windy; and that for that the sap is not so frank as to rise all to the windiness is gross and swelling, not sharp or gripboughs, but tireth by the way, and putteth out moss. ing. And upon the same reason mushrooms are a
541. Fountains have moss growing upon the venerous meat. ground about them :
547. It is reported, that the bark of white or " Muscosi fontes."
red poplar, which are of the moistest of trees, cut The cause is, for that the fountains drain the small, and cast into furrows well dunged, will water from the ground adjacent, and leave but cause the ground to put forth mushrooms at all sufficient moisture to breed moss : and besides, seasons of the year fit to be eaten. Some add to the coldness of the water conduceth to the same. the mixture leaven of bread dissolved in water.
542. The moss of trees is a kind of hair; for it 548. It is reported, that if a hilly field, where is the juice of the tree that is excerned, and doth the stubble is standing, be set on fire in the not assimilate. And upon great trees the moss showery season, it will put forth great store of gathereth a figure like a leaf.
549. It is reported, that hartshorn, shaven, or feedeth upon a seed, which many times she cannot in small pieces, mixed with dung and watered, digest, and so expelleth it whole with her excre. patteth up mushrooms. And we know that harts- ment: which falling upon a bough of a tree that horn is of a fat and clammy substance: and it hath some rift, putteth forth the misseltoe. But may be ox-horn would do the like.
this is a fable, for it is not probable that birds 550. It hath been reported, though it be scarce should feed upon that they cannot digest. But credible, that ivy hath grown out of a stag's horn; allow that, yet it cannot be for other reasons ; for which they suppose did rather come from a confri- first, it is found but upon certain trees; and those cation of the horn upon the ivy, than from the trees bear no such fruit, as may allure that bird horn itself. There is not known any substance to sit and feed upon them. It may be, that bird but earth, and procedures of earth, as tile, stone, feedeth upon the misseltoe-berries, and so is often &c., that yieldeth any moss or herby substance. found there; which may have given occasion to There may be trial made of some seeds, as that the tale. But that which maketh an end of the of fennel-seed, mustard-seeds, and rape-seeds, put question is, that misseltoe hath been found to put into some little holes made in the horns of stags, forth under the boughs, and not only above the or oxen, to see if they will grow.
boughs; so it cannot be any thing that falleth 551. There is also another imperfect plant, that upon the bough. Misseltoe groweth chiefly upon in show is like a great mushroom: and it is crab-trees, apple-trees, sometimes upon hazles, sometimes as broad as one's hat; which they call and rarely upon oaks : the misseltoe whereof is a toad's stool; but it is not esculent; and it grow-counted very medicinal. It is ever green winter eth, commonly, by a dead stub of a tree, and like and summer, and beareth a white glistering wise about the roots of rotten trees : and there- berry: and it is a plant utterly differing from the fore seemeth to take his juice from wood putrefi- plant upon which it groweth. Two things thereed. Which showeth, by the way, that wood pu- fore may be certainly set down: first, that supertrefied yieldeth a frank moisture.
fætation must be by abundance of sap in the 552. There is a cake that groweth upon the bough that putteth it forth : secondly, that that side of a dead tree, that hath gotten no name, but sap must be such as the tree doth excern, and it is large, and of a chestnut colour, and hard and cannot assimilate; for else it would go into a pithy; whereby it should seem, that even dead bough, and besides, it seemeth to be more fat and trees forget not their putting forth : no more than unctuous than the ordinary sap of the tree; both the carcasses of men's bodies, that put forth hair by the berry, which is clammy; and by that it and nails for a time.
continueth green winter and summer, which the 553. There is a cod, or bag, that groweth com- tree doth not. monly in the fields; that at the first is hard like 557. This experiment of misseltoe may give a tennis-ball, and white; and after groweth of a light to other practices. Therefore trial would mushroom colour, and full of light dust upon the be made by ripping of the bough of a crab-tree in breaking, and is thought to be dangerous for the the bark, and watering of the wound every day eyes if the powder get into them, and to be good with warm water dunged, to see if it would bring for kibes. Belike it hath a corrosive and fretting forth misseltoe, or any such like thing. But it nature.
were yet more likely to try it with some other 554. There is an herb called Jew's ear, that watering or anointing, that were not so natural to groweth upon the roots and lower parts of the the tree as water is; as oil, or barm of drink, &c., bodies of trees ; especially of elders, and some- so they be such things as kill not the bough. times ashes. It hath a strange property; for in warm 558. It were good to try, what plants would water it swelleth, and openeth extremely. It is put forth, if they be forbidden to put forth their not green, but of dusky brown colour. And it natural boughs; poll therefore a tree, and cover it is used for squinancies and inflammations in the some thickness with clay on the top, and see what throat; whereby it seemeth to have a mollifying it will put forth. I suppose it will put forth roots; and lenifying virtue.
for so will a cion, being turned down into the 555. There is a kind of spungy excrescence, clay : therefore, in this experiment also, the tree which groweth chiefly upon the roots of the la- would be closed with somewhat that is not so naser-tree; and sometimes upon cedar and other tural to the plant as clay is. Try it with leather, trees. It is very white, and light, and friable; or cloth, or painting, so it be not hurtful to the which we call agaric. It is famous in physic for tree. And it is certain, that a brake hath been the purging of tough phlegm. And it is also an known to grow out of a pollard. excellent opener for the liver; but offensive to the 559. A man may count the prickles of trees to alomach: and in taste, it is at the first sweet, and be a kind of excrescence; for they will never be after bitter.
boughs, nor bear leaves. The plants that have 556. We find no super-plant that is a formed prickles are thorns, black and white; brier, rose, plant, but misseltoe. They have an idle tradi- lemon-trees, crab-trees, gooseberry, berberry ; zion, that there is a bird called a misselbird, that these have it in the bough : the plants that have prickles in the leaf are, holly, juniper, whin-bush, can; but after that the earth is somewhat loosened thistle; nettles also have a small venomous at the top, the ordinary grass cometh up. prickle, so hath borage, but harmless. The cause 566. It is reported, that earth being taken out must be hasty putting forth, want of moisture, and of shady and watery woods some depth, and potthe closeness of the bark, for the haste of the spi-ted, will put forth herbs of a fat and juicy subrit to put forth, and the want of nourishment to stance; as pennywort, purslane, houseleek, pennyput forth a bough, and the closeness of the bark, royal, &c. cause prickles in boughs, and therefore they are 567. The water also doth send forth plants ever like a pyramis, for that the moisture spendeth that have no roots fixed in the bottom, but they after a little putting forth. And for prickles in are less perfect plants, being almost but leaves, leaves, they come also of putting forth more juice and those small ones; such is that we call duckinto the leaf than can spread in the leaf smooth, weed, which hath a leaf no bigger than a thyme and therefore the leaves otherwise are rough, as leaf, but of a fresher green, and putteth forth a borage and nettles are. As for the leaves of holly, little string into the water far from the bottom. they are smooth but never plain, but as it were As for the water-lily, it hath a root in the ground; with folds, for the same cause.
and so have a number of other herbs that grow in 560. There be also plants, that though they ponds. have no prickles, yet they have a kind of downy 568. It is reported by some of the ancients, and or velvet rind upon their leaves; as rose-campion, some modern testimony likewise, that there be stockgillyslowers, colt's-foot; which down or nap some plants that grow upon the top of the sea, becometh of a subtile spirit, in a soft or fat sub- ing supposed to grow of some concretion of slime stance. For it is certain, that both stockgilly- from the water, where the sun beateth hot, and flowers and rose-campions, stamped, have been where the sea stirreth little. As for alga marina, applied with success to the wrists of those that sea weed, and eryngium, sea thistle, both have have had tertian or quartan agues; and the va-roots; but the sea weed under the water, the sea pour of colt's-foot hath a sanative virtue towards thistle but upon the shore. the lungs, and the leaf also is healing in surgery. 569. The ancients have noted, that there are
561. Another kind of excrescence is an exuda- some herbs that grow out of snow laid up close tion of plants joined with putrefaction; as we see together and putrefied, and that they are all bitter, in oak-apples, which are found chiefly upon the and they name one specially, “ flomus,” which we leaves of oaks, and the like upon willows: and call moth-mullein. It is certain, that worms are country people have a kind of prediction, that if found in snow commonly, like earth-worms; and the oak-apple broken be full of worms, it is a sign therefore it is not unlike, that it may likewise put of a pestilent year, which is a likely thing, be-forth plants. cause they grow of corruption.
570. The ancients have affirmed, that there are 562. There is also upon sweet, or other brier, a some herbs that grow out of stone, which may be, fine tuft or brush of moss of divers colours; which for that it is certain that toads have been found if you cut you shall ever find full of little white in the middle of a free-stone. We see also that
flints, lying above ground, gather moss; and wall
flowers, and some other flowers, grow upon walls; Experiments in consort touching the producing of but whether upon the main brick or stone, or wheperfect plants without seed.
ther out of the lime or chinks, is not well obsery563. It is certain, that earth taken out of the ed : for elders and ashes have been seen to grow foundations of vaults and houses, and bottoms of out of steeples; but they manifestly grow out of wells, and then put into pots, will put forth sun- clests; insomuch as when they grow big they will dry kinds of herbs: but some time is required for disjoin the stone. And besides, it is doubtful the germination: for if it be taken but from a fa- whether the morlar itself putteth it forth, or whethom deep, it will put forth the first year; if Inuch ther some seeds be not let fall by birds. There deeper, not till after a year or two.
be likewise rock-herbs, but I suppose those are 564. The nature of the plants growing out of where there is some mould or earth. It hath earth so taken up, doth follow the nature of the likewise been found, that great trees growing upon mould itself; as, if the mould be soft and fine, it quarries have put down their root into the stone. putteth forth soft herbs, as grass, plantain, and the 571. In some mines in Germany, as is reported, like; if the earth be harder and coarser, it putteth there grow in the bottom vegetables, and the workforth herbs more rough, as thistles, firs, &c. folks use to say they have magical virtue, and will
565. It is common experience, that where alleys not suffer men to gather them. are close gravelled, the earth putteth forth the first 572. The sea sands seldom bear plants. year knot grass, and after spire grass. The Whereof the cause is yielded by some of the ancause is, for that the hard gravel or pebble at the cients, for that the sun exhaleth the moisture befirst laying will not suffer the grass to come forth fore it can incorporate with the earth, and yield a upright, but turneth it to find his way where it nourishment for the plant. And it is affirmed also
that sand hath always its root in clay; and that much moisture, either watery or oily. And there there be no veins of sand any great depth within fore crocus vernus also being an herb that hath an the earth.
oily juice, putteth forth early; for those also find 573. It is certain, that some plants put forth for the sun sooner than the drier trees. The grains a time of their own store, without any nourish- are, first, rye and wheat, then oats and barley, then ment from earth, water, stone, &c., of which vide peas and beans. For though green peas and the experiment 29.
beans be eaten sooner, yet the dry ones that are
used for horse meat, are ripe last; and it seemeth Experiments in consort touching foreign plants. that the fatter grain cometh first. The earliest
574. It is reported, that earth that was brought fruits are strawberries, cherries, gooseberries, curout of the Indies and other remote countries for rants; and after them early apples, early pears, ballast of ships, cast upon some grounds in Italy, apricots, rasps; and after them damascenes, and did put forth foreign herbs, to us in Europe not most kind of plums, peaches, &c., and the latest known; and, that which is more, that of their are apples, wardens, grapes, nuts, quinces, alroots, barks, and seeds, contused together, and monds, sloes, brier-berries, hips, medlars, services, mingled with other earth, and well watered with cornelians, &c. warm water, there came forth herbs much like the 578. It is to be noted, that, commonly, trees other.
that ripen latest blossom soonest; as peaches, cor575. Plants brought out of hot countries will nelians, sloes, almonds, &c.; and it seemeth to be endeavour to put forth at the same time that they a work of providence that they blossom so soon; usually do in their own climate; and therefore to for otherwise they could not have the sun long preserve them, there is no more required, than to enough to ripen. keep them from the injury of putting back by cold. 579. There be fruits, but rarely, that come twice It is reported also, that grain out of the hotter a year; as some pears, strawberries, &c. And it countries translated into the colder, will be more seemeth they are such as abound with nourishforward than the ordinary grain the cold coun- ment; whereby after one period, before the sun try. It is likely that this will prove better in waxeth too weak, they can endure another. The grains than in trees, for that grains are but annual, violet also, amongst flowers, cometh twice a year, and so the virtue of the seed is not worn out; especially the double white; and that also is a whereas in a tree it is embased by the ground to plant full of moisture. Roses come twice, but it which it is removed.
is not without cutting, as hath been formerly said. 576. Many plants which grow in the hotter 580. In Muscovy, though the corn come not up countries, being set in the colder, will neverthe- till late spring, yet their harvest is as early as less, even in those cold countries, being sown of ours. The cause is, for that the strength of the seeds late in the spring, come up and abide most ground is kept in with the snow; and we see part of the summer; as we find it in orange with us, that if it be a long winter, it is comand lemon seeds, &c., the seeds whereof sown in monly a more plentiful year; and after those the end of April will bring forth excellent salads, kind of winters likewise, the flowers and corn, mingled with other herbs. And I doubt not, but which are earlier and later, do come commonly the seeds of clove-trees, and pepper seeds, &c., if at once, and at the same time, which trouthey could come hither green enough to be sown, bleth the husbandman many times; for you shall would do the like.
have red roses and damask roses come together;
and likewise the harvest of wheat and barley. Erperiments in consort touching the seasons in which But this happeneth ever, for that the earlier stayplants come forth.
eth for the later, and not that the later cometh 577. There be some flowers, blossoms, grains, sooner. and fruits, which come more early, and others 581. There be divers fruit trees in the hotcounwhich come more late in the year. The flowers tries, which have blossoms, and young fruit, and that come early with us are primroses, violets, ripe fruit, almost all the year succeeding one ananemonies, water-daffodillies, crocus vernus, and other. And it is said the orange hath the like with some early tulips. And they are all cold plants; us for a great part of summer, and so also hath the which therefore, as it should seem, have a quicker i fig. And no doubt the natural motion of plants is perception of the heat of the sun increasing than the to have so; but that either they want juice to hot herbs have; as a cold hand will sooner find a spend, or they meet with the cold of the winter; little warmth than a hot. And those that come and therefore this circle of ripening cannot be but next after are wallflowers, cowslips, hyacinths, in succulent plants and hot countries. rosemary flowers, &c., and after them pinks, roses, 582. Some herbs are but annual, and die, root flower-de-luces, &c., and the latest are gillyflowers, and all, once a year : as borage, lettuce, cucumholyoaks, larksfoot, &c. The earliest blossoms bers, musk-melons, basil, tobacco, mustard-seed, are the blossoms of peaches, almonds, cornelians, and all kinds of corn: some continue many years; mezerions, &c., and they are of such trees as havel as hyssop, germander, lavender, fennel, &c.