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and root while it grew. 12. Part of the wood that shined was steeped in oil, and retained the shining a fortnight. 13. The like succeeded in some steeped in water, and much better. 14. How long the shining will continue, if the wood be laid abroad every night, and taken in and sprinkled with water in the day, is not yet tried. 15. Trial was made of laying it abroad in frosty weather, which hurt it not. 16. There was a great piece of a root which did shine, and the shining part was cut off till no more shined; yet after two nights, though it were kept in a dry room, it got a shining.
of a more active habit. Cardamon is in Latin "nasturtium," and with us water-cresses; which, it is certain, is an herb that, whilst it is young, is friendly to life. As for the quickening of natural heat, it must be done chiefly with exercise; and therefore no doubt much going to school, where they sit so much, hindereth the growth of children; whereas country people that go not to school are commonly of better stature. And again men must beware how they give children any thing that is cold in operation, for even long sucking doth hinder both wit and stature. This hath been tried, that a whelp that hath been fed with nitre in milk hath become very little, but
Experiment solitary touching the acceleration of extreme lively: for the spirit of nitre is cold.
353. The bringing forth of living creatures may be accelerated in two respects: the one, if the embryo ripeneth and perfecteth sooner: the other, if there be some cause from the mother's body, of expulsion or putting it down: whereof the former is good, and argueth strength; the latter is ill, and cometh by accident or disease. And therefore the ancient observation is true, that the child born in the seventh month doth commonly well; but born in the eighth month, doth for the most part die. But the cause assigned is fabulous; which is, that in the eighth month should be the return of the reign of the planet Saturn, which as they say, is a planet malign; whereas in the seventh is the reign of the moon, which is a planet propitious. But the true cause is, for that where there is so great a prevention of the ordinary time, it is the lustiness of the child; but when it is less, it is some indisposition of the mother.
And though it be an excellent medicine in strength of years for prolongation of life; yet it is in children and young creatures an enemy to growth: and all for the same reason, for heat is requisite to growth; but after a man is come to his middle age, heat consumeth the spirits, which the coldness of the spirit of nitre doth help to condense and correct.
Experiments in consort touching sulphur and mer
cury, two of Paracelsus's principles.
There be two great families of things, you may term them by several names; sulphurous and mercurial, which are the chymists' words, for as for their "sal," which is their third principle, it is a compound of the other two; inflammable and not inflamable; mature and crude, oily and watery. For we see that in subterranies there are, as the fathers of their tribes, brimstone and mercury; in vegetables and living creatures there is water and oil: in the inferior order of pneumaticals there is air Experiment solitary touching the acceleration of and flame, and in the superior there is the body
growth and stature.
354. To accelerate growth or stature, it must proceed either from the plenty of the nourishment, or from the nature of the nourishment, or from the quickening and exciting of the natural heat. For the first excess of nourishment is hurtful; for it maketh the child corpulent; and growing in breadth rather than in height. And you may take an experiment from plants, which if they spread much are seldom tall. As for the nature of the nourishment; first, it may not be too dry, and therefore children in dairy countries do wax more tall, than where they feed more upon bread and flesh. There is also a received tale, that boiling of daisy roots in milk, which it is certain are great driers, will make dogs little. But so much is true, that an over-dry nourishment in childhood putteth back stature. Secondly, the nourishment must be of an opening nature, for that attenuateth the juice, and furthereth the motion of the spirits upwards. Neither is it without cause, that Xenophon, in the nurture of the Persian children, doth so much commend their feeding upon cardamon, which, he saith, made them grow better, and be
of the star and the pure sky. And these pairs, though they be unlike in the primitive differences of matter, yet they seem to have many consents: for mercury and sulphur are principal materials of metals; water and oil are principal materials of vegetables and animals, and seem to differ but in maturation or concoction: flame, in vulgar opinion, is but air incensed; and they both have quickness of motion, and facility of cession, much alike: and the interstellar sky, though the opinion be vain, that the star is the denser part of his orb, hath notwithstanding so much affinity with the star, that there is a rotation of that, as well as of the star. Therefore it is one of the greatest "magnalia naturæ," to turn water or watery juice into oil or oily juice: greater in nature than to turn silver or quicksilver into gold.
355. The instances we have wherein crude and watery substance turneth into fat and oily, are of four kinds. First in the mixture of earth and water; which mingled by the help of the sun gather a nitrous fatness, more than either of them have severally; as we see in that they put forth plants, which need both juices.
356. The second is in the assimilation of nou- | said, yet some that have kept chameleons a whole rishment, made in the bodies of plants and living year together could never perceive that ever they creatures, whereof plants turn the juice of mere fed upon any thing else but air, and might observe water and earth into a great deal of oily matter: their bellies to swell after they had exhausted the living creatures, though much of their fat and air, and closed their jaws; which they open comflesh are out of oily aliments, as meat and bread, monly against the rays of the sun. They have a yet they assimilate also in a measure their drink foolish tradition in magic, that if a chameleon be of water, &c. But these two ways of version of burnt upon the top of a house, it will raise a water into oil, namely, by mixture and by assimi- tempest; supposing, according to their vain dreams lation, are by many passages and percolations, of sympathies, because he nourisheth with air, his and by long continuance of soft heats, and by cir- body should have great virtue to make impression cuits of time. upon the air.
357. The third is the inception of putrefaction; as in water corrupted: and the mothers of waters distilled; both which have a kind of fatness or oil.
Experiment solitary touching subterrany fires. 361. It is reported by one of the ancients, that in part of Media there are eruptions of flames out 358. The fourth is in the dulcoration of some of plains; and that those flames are clear, and cast metals, as "saccharum Saturni, &c."
359. The intention of version of water into a more oily substance is by digestion; for oil is almost nothing else but water digested, and this digestion is principally by heat, which heat must be either outward or inward: again, it may be by provocation or excitation, which is caused by the mingling of bodies already oily or digested: for they will somewhat communicate their nature with the rest. Digestion also is strongly effected by direct assimilation of bodies crude into bodies digested, as in plants and living creatures, whose nourishment is far more crude than their bodies:
but this digestion is by a great compass, as hath been said. As for the more full handling of these two principles, whereof this is but a taste, the inquiry of which is one of the profoundest inquiries of nature, we leave it to the title of version of bodies, and likewise to the title of the first congregations of matter; which, like a general assembly of estate, doth give law to all bodies.
Experiment solitary touching chameleons. 360. A chameleon is a creature about the bigness of an ordinary lizard: his head unproportionably big: his eyes great: he moveth his head without the writhing of his neck, which is inflexible, as a hog doth: his back crooked; his skin spotted with little tumours, less eminent nearer the belly; his tail slender and long: on each foot he hath five fingers, three on the outside, and two on the inside; his tongue of a marvellous length in respect of his body, and hollow at the end; which he will launch out to prey upon flies. Of colour green, and of a dusky yellow, brighter and whiter towards the belly; yet spotted with blue, white, and red. If he be laid upon green, the green predominateth; if upon yellow, the yellow; not so if he be laid upon blue, or red, or white; only the green spots receive a more orient lustre; laid upon black he looketh all black, though not without a mixture of green. He feedeth not only upon air, though that be his principal sustenance, for sometimes he taketh flies, as was
not forth such smoke, and ashes, and pumice, as mountain flames do. The reason, no doubt, is, because the flame is not pent, as it is in mountains and earthquakes which cast flame. There be also some blind fires under stone, which flame not out, but oil being poured upon them they flame out. The cause whereof is, for that it seemeth the fire is so choked as not able to remove the stone, it is heat rather than flame, which nevertheless is sufficient to inflame the oil.
Experiment solitary touching nitre.
362. It is reported that in some lakes the water is so nitrous, as if foul clothes be put into it, it scoureth them of itself; and if they stay any whit long, they moulder away. And the scouring virtue of nitre is the more to be noted, because it is a body cold; and we see warm water scoureth better than cold. But the cause is, for that it hath a subtle spirit, which severeth and divideth any thing that is foul and viscous, and sticketh upon a body.
Experiment solitary touching congealing of air.
363. Take a bladder, the greatest you can get, fill it full of wind, and tie it about the neck with a silk thread waxed, and upon that put likewise wax very close; so that when the neck of the bladder drieth, no air may possibly get in nor out. Then bury it three or four foot under the earth in a vault, or in a conservatory of snow, the snow being made hollow about the bladder, and after some fortnight's distance, see whether the bladder be shrunk; for if it be, then it is plain that the coldness of the earth or snow hath condensed the air, and brought it a degree nearer to water: which is an experiment of great consequence.
Experiment solitary touching congealing of water into crystal.
364. It is a report of some good credit, that in deep caves there are pensile crystals, and degrees of crystal that drop from above, and in some other, though more rarely, that rise from below: which
though it be chiefly the work of cold, yet it may in the midst, and it burnt only to the space of be that water that passeth through the earth, eighty-seven pulses. Mixed with the sixth part gathereth a nature more clammy, and fitter to con- of a spoonful of milk, it burnt to the space of geal and become solid than water of itself. There- one hundred pulses; and the milk was curdled. fore trial would be made, to lay a heap of earth, Mixed with the sixth part of a spoonful of water, in great frosts, upon a hollow vessel, putting a it burnt to the space of eighty-six pulses, with an canvass between, that it falleth not in: and pour equal quantity of water, only to the space of four water upon it, in such quantity as will be sure to pulses. A small pebble was laid in the midst, soak through, and see whether it will not make and the spirit of wine burnt to the space of ninetya harder ice in the bottom of the vessel, and less four pulses. A piece of wood of the bigness of an apt to dissolve than ordinarily. I suppose also arrow, and about a finger's length, was set up in that if you make the earth narrower at the bottom the midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the space than at the top, in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed, of ninety-four pulses. So that the spirit of wine it will help the experiment. For it will make the simple endured the longest ; and the spirit of wine ice, where it issueth, less in bulk, and evermore with the bay-salt, and the equal quantity of water, smallness of quantity is a help to version. were the shortest.
367. Consider well, whether the more speedy
Experiments solitary touching preserving of rose- going forth of the flame be caused by the greater
leaves both in colour and smell.
365. Take damask roses, and pull them, then dry them upon the top of a house, upon a lead or terras, in the hot sun, in a clear day, between the hours only of twelve and two, or thereabouts. Then put them into a sweet dry earthen bottle, or a glass, with narrow mouths, stuffing them close together, but without bruising: stop the bottle or glass close, and these roses will retain not only their smell perfect, but their colour fresh, for a year at least. Note, that nothing doth so much destroy any plant, or other body, either by putrefaction or arefaction, as the adventitious moisture which hangeth loose in the body, if it be not drawn out. For it betrayeth and tolleth forth the innate and radical moisture along with it when itself goeth forth. And therefore in living creatures, moderate sweat doth preserve the juice of the body. Note, that these roses, when you take them from the drying, have little or no smell; so that the smell is a second smell, that issueth out of the flower afterwards.
vigour of the flame in burning, or by the resistance of the body mixed, and the aversion thereof to take flame; which will appear by the quantity of the spirit of wine that remaineth after the going out of the flame. And it seemeth clearly to be the latter; for that the mixture of things least apt to burn is the speediest in going out. And note, by the way, that spirit of wine burned till it go out of itself will burn no more: and tasteth nothing so hot in the mouth as it did no, nor yet sour, as if it were a degree towards vinegar, which burnt wine doth; but flat and dead.
368. Note, that in the experiment of wax aforesaid, the wax dissolved in the burning, and yet did not incorporate itself with spirit of wine to produce one flame; but wheresoever the wax floated, the flame forsook it, till at last it spread all over, and put the flame quite out.
369. The experiments of the mixtures of the spirit of wine inflamed are things of discovery, and not of use: but now we will speak of the continuance of flames, such are used for candles, lamps, or tapers; consisting of inflammable mat
Experiments in consort touching the continuance of ters, and of a wick that provoketh inflammation.
And this importeth not only discovery, but also 366. The continuance of flame, according unto use and profit; for it is a great saving in all such the diversity of the body inflamed, and other cir- lights, if they can be made as fair and bright as cumstances, is worthy the inquiry; chiefly, for others, and yet last longer. Wax pure made that though flame be almost of a momentary last- into a candle, and wax mixed severally into ing, yet it receiveth the more, and the less: we candle-stuff, with the particulars that follow, viz. will first therefore speak at large of bodies inflamed water, aqua vitæ, milk, bay-salt, oil, butter, nitre, wholly and immediately, without any wick to brimstone, saw-dust, every of these bearing a help the inflammation. A spoonful of spirit of sixth part to the wax; and every of these canwine, a little heated, was taken, and it burnt as dles mixed, being of the same weight and wick long as came to a hundred and sixteen pulses. with the wax pure, proved thus in the burning and The same quantity of spirit of wine mixed with lasting. The swiftest in consuming was that the sixth part of a spoonful of nitre, burnt but to with saw-dust; which first burned fair till some the space of ninety-four pulses. Mixed with the part of the candle was consumed, and the dust like quantity of bay-salt, eighty-three pulses. gathered about the snaste; but then it made the Mixed with the like quantity of gunpowder, which snaste big and long, and to burn duskishly, and dissolved into a black water, one hundred and ten the candle wasted in half the time of the wax pulses. A cube or pallet of yellow wax was pure. The next in swiftness were the oil and taken, as much as half the spirit of wine, and set butter, which consumed by a fifth part swifter
han the pure wax. Then followed in swiftness the clear wax itself. Then the bay-salt, which lasted about an eighth part longer than the clear wax. Then followed the aqua vitæ, which lasted about a fifth part longer than the clear wax. Then followed the milk and water with little difference from the aqua vitæ, but the water slowest. And in these four last, the wick would spit forth little sparks. For the nitre, it would not hold lighted above some twelve pulses, but all the while it would spit out portions of flame, which afterwards would go out into a vapour. For the brimstone, it would hold lighted much about the same time with the nitre; but then after a little while it would harden and cake about the snaste; so that the mixture of bay-salt with wax will win an eighth part of the time of lasting, and the water a fifth.
370. After the several materials were tried, trial was likewise made of several wicks; as of ordinary cotton, sewing thread, rush, silk, straw, and wood. The silk, straw, and wood would flame a little, till they came to the wax, and then go out of the other three, the thread consumed faster than the cotton, by a sixth part of time; the cotton next; then the rush consumed slower than the cotton, by at least a third part of time. For the bigness of the flame, the cotton and thread cast a flame much alike; and the rush much less and dimmer. Query, Whether wood and wicks both, as in torches, consume faster than the wicks simple.
that hole; and then set it upright again; and put a wick in at the hole, and lighten it; you shall find that it will burn slow, and a long time: which is caused, as was said last before, for that the flame fetcheth the nourishment afar off. You shall find also, that as the oil wasteth and descendeth, so the top of the turret by little and little filleth with air; which is caused by the rarefaction of the oil by the heat. It were worthy, the observation to make a hole in the top of the turret, and to try when the oil is almost consumed, whether the air made of the oil, if you put to it a flame of a candle, in the letting of it forth, will inflame. It were good also to have the lamp made, not of tin, but glass, that you may see how the vapour or air gathereth by degrees in the top.
374. A fourth point that importeth the lasting of the flame, is the closeness of the air wherein the flame burneth. We see that if wind bloweth upon a candle it wasteth apace. We see also it lasteth longer in a lantern than at large. And there are traditions of lamps and candles, that have burnt a very long time in caves and tombs.
375. A fifth point that importeth the lasting of the flame, is the nature of the air where the flame burneth; whether it be cold or hot, moist or dry. The air, if it be very cold, irritateth the flame, and maketh it burn more fiercely, as fire scorcheth in frosty weather, and so furthereth the consumption. The air once heated, I conceive, maketh the flame burn more mildly, and so helpeth the continuance. The air, if it be dry, is indifferent: the air, if it be moist, doth in a degree quench the flame, as we see lights will go out in the damps of mines, and howsoever maketh it burn more dully, and so helpeth the continuance.
Experiments in consort touching burials or infusions of divers bodies in earth.
371. We have spoken of the several materials, and the several wicks: but to the lasting of the flame it importeth also, not only what the material is, but the same material whether it be hard, soft, old, new, &c. Good housewives, to make their candles burn longer, use to lay them one by one in bran or flour, which make them harder, and so they consume the slower: insomuch as 376. Burials in earth serve for preservation, and by this means they will outlast other candles of for condensation, and for induration of bodies. the same stuff almost half in half. For bran and And if you intend condensation or induration, you flour have a virtue to harden; so that both age, may bury the bodies so as earth may touch them: and lying in the bran, doth help to the lasting. as if you will make artificial porcelane, &c. And And we see that wax candles last longer than tal- the like you may do for conservation, if the low candles, because wax is more firm and hard. bodies be hard and solid; as clay, wood, &c. But 372. The lasting of flame also dependeth upon if you intend preservation of bodies more soft and the easy drawing of the nourishment; as we see in tender, then you must do one of these two: either the Court of England there is a service which you must put them in cases, whereby they may they call Allnight; which is as it were a great not touch the earth, or else you must vault the cake of wax, with the wick in the midst; where-earth, whereby it may hang over them and not by it cometh to pass, that the wick fetcheth the nourishment farther off. We see also that lamps last longer, because the vessel is far broader than the breadth of a taper or candle.
373. Take a turreted lamp of tin, made in the form of square; the height of the turret being thrice as much as the length of the lower part whereupon the lamp standeth: make only one hole in it, at the end of the return farthest from the turret. Reverse it, and fill it full of oil by
touch them: for if the earth touch them, it will do more hurt by the moisture, causing them to putrefy, than good by the virtual cold, to conserve them, except the earth be very dry and sandy.
377. An orange, lemon, and apple, wrapt in a linen cloth, being buried for a fortnight's space four foot deep within the earth, though it were in a moist place, and a rainy time, yet came forth noways mouldy or rotten, but were become a little harder than they were; otherwise fresh in
their colour; but their juice somewhat flatted. | ground that heat and moisture cause putrefaction. But with the burial of a fortnight more they became putrefied.
378. A bottle of beer, buried in like manner as before, became more lively, better tasted, and clearer than it was. And a bottle of wine in like manner. A bottle of vinegar so buried came forth more lively and more odoriferous, smelling almost like a violet. And after the whole month's burial, all the three came forth as fresh and lively, if not better than before.
379. It were a profitable experiment to preserve -oranges, lemons, and pomegranates, till summer, for then their price will be mightily increased. This may be done, if you put them in a pot or vessel well covered, that the moisture of the earth come not at them; or else by putting them in a conservatory of snow. And generally, whosoever will make experiments of cold, let him be provided of three things; a conservatory of snow; a good large vault, twenty foot at least under the ground; and a deep well.
380. There hath been a tradition, that pearl, and coral, and turquois-stone, that have lost their colours, may be recovered by burying in the earth, which is a thing of great profit, if it would sort: but upon trial of six weeks' burial, there followed no effect. It were good to try it in a deep well, or in a conservatory of snow; there the cold may be more constringent; and so make the body more united, and thereby more resplendent. Experiment solitary touching the effects in men's
bodies from several winds.
In England it is found not true; for many times there have been great plagues in dry years. Whereof the cause may be, for that drought, in the bodies of islanders habituate to moist airs, doth exasperate the humours, and maketh them more apt to putrefy or inflame: besides, it tainteth the waters, commonly, and maketh them less wholesome. And again, in Barbary, the plagues break up in the summer months, when the weather is hot and dry.
Experiment solitary touching an error received about epidemical diseases.
384. Many diseases, both epidemical and others, break forth at particular times. And the cause is falsely imputed to the constitution of the air at that time when they break forth or reign; whereas it proceedeth, indeed, from a precedent sequence and series of the seasons of the year: and therefore Hippocrates in his prognostics doth make good observations of the diseases that ensue upon the nature of the precedent four seasons of the year.
Experiment solitary touching the alteration or preservation of liquors in wells or deep vaults.
385. Trial hath been made with earthen bottles well stopped, hanged in a well of twenty fathom deep at the least, and some of the bottles have been let down into the water, some others have hanged above, within about a fathom of the water; and the liquors so tried have been beer, not new, but ready for drinking, and wine, and milk. The proof hath been, that both the beer and the wine, as well within the water as above, hath not been palled or deaded at all; but as good or somewhat better than bottles of the same drinks and staleness kept in a cellar. But those which did hang above water were apparently the best; and that beer did flower a little; whereas that under water did not, though it were fresh. The milk soured and began to putrefy. Nevertheless it is true, that there is a village near Blois, Experiment solitary touching winter and summer where in deep caves they do thicken milk in such
381. Men's bodies are heavier, and less disposed to motion, when southern winds blow than when northern. The cause is, for that when the southern winds blow, the humours do in some degree melt and wax fluid, and so flow into the parts; as it is seen in wood and other bodies, which, when the southern winds blow, do swell. Besides, the motion and activity of the body consisteth chiefly in the sinews, which, when the southern wind bloweth are more relax.
382. It is commonly seen that more are sick in the summer, and more die in the winter; except it be in pestilent diseases, which commonly reign in summer or autumn. The reason is, because diseases are bred, indeed, chiefly by heat; but then they are cured most by sweat and purge; which in the summer cometh on or is provoked more easily. As for pestilent diseases, the reason why most die of them in summer is, because they are bred most in the summer: for otherwise those that are touched are in most danger in the winter.
sort that it becometh very pleasant: which was some cause of this trial of hanging milk in the well: but our proof was naught; neither do I know whether that milk in those caves be first boiled. It were good therefore to try it with milk sodden, and with cream; for that milk of itself is such a compound body, of cream, curds, and whey, as it is easily turned and dissolved. It were good also to try the beer when it is in wort, that it may be seen whether the hanging in the well will accelerate the ripening and clarifying of it.
Experiment solitary touching pestilential seasons. Experiment solitary touching stutling. 383. The general opinion is, that years hot and 386. Divers, we see, do stut. The cause may moist are most pestilent; upon the superficial | be, in most the refrigeration of the tongues VOL. I.-8