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DRAWN UP BY
MR. FRANCIS BACON FOR THE EARL OF ESSEX,
IN A DEVICE
00BIBITED BY HIS LORDSHIP BEFORE QUEEN ELIZABETH, ON THE ANNIVERSARY OF HER ACCESSION TO THE
THRONE, NOVEMBER 17, 1595.
the earl came in.
THE SQUIRE'S SPEECH.
soldier, and a busy, tedious secretary. His petition
is, that he may be as free as the rest; and, at Most excellent and most glorious queen, give least, while he is here, troubled with nothing but me leave, I beseech your majesty, to offer my with care how to please and honour you. master's complaint and petition; complaint that, coming hither to your majesty's most happy day, he is tormented with the importunity of a melancholy, dreaming hermit, a mutinous, brain-sick THE HERMIT'S SPEECH IN THE PRESENCE.
Though our ends be diverse, and therefore may * Bishop Gibson's Papers, vol. v., No. 118.
+ An account of this device, which was much applauded, be one more just than another; yet the complaint is given by Mr. Rowland Whyte to Sir Robert Sydney, in a of this squire is general, and therefore alike unjust letter dated at London, Saturday, the 22d of Noveinber, against us all. Albeit he is angry, that we offer 1595, and printed in the Letters and Memorials of State of the Sydney Family, vol. i., p. 362. According to this letter, ourselves to his master uncalled, and forgets we the Earl of Essex, some considerable time before he came come not of ourselves, but as the messengers of himself into the Tilt-yard, sent his page with some speech to self-love, from whom all that comes should be well the queen, who returned with her majesty's glove; and when his lordship came himself, he was met by an old her taken. He saith, when we come, we are impormit, a secretary of state, a brave soldier, and an esquire. tunate. If he mean, that we err in form, we have The first presented him with a book of meditations; the that of his master, who, being a lover, useth no second with political discourses; the third with orations of bravely fought battles ; the fourth was his own follower, to other form of soliciting. If he will charge us to whom the other three imparted much of their purpose before err in matter, I, for my part, will presently prove
“Another,” adds Mr. Whyte, "devised that I persuade him to nothing but for his own with him, persuading him to this and that course of life, according to their inclinations. Comes into the Tilt-yard good. For I wish him to leave turning over the unthought upon, the ordinary postboy of London, a raggcd book of fortune, which is but a play for children; villain, all bemired, upon a poor lean jade, galloping and when there be so many books of truth and know i blowing for life, and delivered the secretary a packet of lelters, which he presently offered my Lord of Essex. And ledge, better worthy the revolving; and not fix his with this dumb show our eyes were fed for that time. In the view only upon a picture in a little table, when after-supper, before the queen, they first delivered a well there be so many tables of histories, yea, to life, penned speech to move this worthy knight to leave his follow.
Whether he being of love, and to betake him to heavenly meditation; the excellent to behold and admire. secretaries all tending to have him follow matters of state ; | lieve me or no, there is no prison to the prison of the soldiers persuading him to the war: but the squire the thoughts, which are free under the greatest anewered them all, and concluded with an excellent, but too plain, English, that this knight would never forsake his mis. tyrants. Shall any man make his conceit, as an tress's love, whose virtue made all his thoughts divine ; anchor, mured up with the compass of one beauty whose wisdom taught him all true policy; whose beauty and
or person, that may have the liberty of all conworth were at all times able to make him fit to command armies. He showed all the defects and imperfections of all templation? Shall he exchange the sweet traveltheir times; and, therefore, thought his course of life to be ling through the universal variety, for one wearibest in serving his mistress," Mr. Whyte then mentions, that the part of the old hermit was performed by him, who, some and endless round or labyrinth ? Let thy at Cambridge, played that of Giraldi; that Morley acted the master, squire, offer his service to the muses. It secretary; and that the soldier was represented by him who is long since they received any into their court. acted the pedant, and that Mr. Tobie Matthew was the squire. “The world,” says Mr. Whyte, “makes many un
They give alms continually at their gate, that true constructions of these speeches, comparing the hermit many come to live upon; but few they have ever and the secretary to two of the lords; and the soldier to Sir admitted into their palace. There shall he find Roger Williams. But the queen said, that if she had thought secrets not dangerous to know; sides and parties there had been so much said of her, she would not have been there that night;' and so went to bed.”
not factious to hold; precepts and commandments 2 x 2
not penal to disobey. The gardens of love, where , of games are but counterfeits and shadows; and in he now placeth himself, are fresh to-day, and when, in a lively tragedy, a man's enemies are fading to-morrow, as the sun comforts them, or is sacrificed before his eyes to his fortune. turned from them. But the gardens of the muses Then, for the dignity of military profession, is it keep the privilege of the golden age;
they ever not the truest and perfectest practice of all virtues ? flourish, and are in league with time. The monu- of wisdom, in disposing those things, which are ments of wit survive the monuments of power. most subject to confusion and accident; of justice, The verses of a poet endure without a sylla- in continual distributing rewards ; of temperance, ble lost, while states and empires pass many in exercising of the straightest discipline; of forperiods. Let him not think he shall descend ; titude, in toleration of all labours and abstinence for he is now upon a hill, as a ship is mount- from effeminate delights; of constancy, in beared upon the ridge of a wave; but that hill ing and digesting the greatest variety of fortune. of the muses is above tempests, always clear and So that when all other places and professions recalm; a hill of the goodliest discovery that man quire but their several virtues, a brave leader in can have, being a prospect upon all the errors and the wars must be accomplished with all. It is wanderings of the present and former times. Yea, the wars, that are the tribunal seat, where the in some cliff it leadeth the eye beyond the horizon highest rights and possessions are decided; the of time, and giveth no obscure divinations of times occupation of kings, the root of nobility, the proto come. So that if he will indeed lead vitam tection of all estates. And, lastly, lovers never vitalem, a life that unites safety and dignity, thought their profession sufficiently graced, till pleasure and merit; if he will win admiration they have compared it to a warfare. All that in without envy; if he will be in the feast, and not any other profession can be wished for, is but to in the throng; in the light, and not in the heat; live happily : but to be a brave commander in the let him embrace the life of study and contempla- field, death itself doth crown the head with glory. tion. And if he will accept of no other reason, yet Therefore, squire, let thy master go with me; because the gift of the muses will enworthy him and though he be resolved in the pursuit of his in love, and where he now looks on his mistress's love, let him aspire to it by the noblest means. outside with the eyes of sense, which are dazzled For ladies count it no honour to subdue them and amazed, he shall then behold her high per- with their fairest eyes, which will be daunted fections and heavenly mind with the eyes of judg- with the fierce encounter of an enemy. And they ment, which grow stronger by more nearly and will quickly discern a champion fit to wear their more directly viewing such an object.
glove from a page not worthy to carry their pantofle. Therefore, I say again, let him seek his fortune in the field, where he may either lose his
love, or find new argument to advance it. THE SOLDIER'S SPEECH. Squire, the good old man hath said well to you; but I dare say, thou wouldst be sorry to leave to carry thy master's shield, and to carry
THE STATESMAN'S SPEECH. his books: and I am sure thy master had rather be a falcon, a bird of prey, than a singing bird in SQUIRE, my advice to thy master shall be as a a cage. The muses are to serve martial men, to token wrapped up in words; but then will it show sing their famous actions; and not to be served by itself fair, when it is unfolded in his actions. To them. Then hearken to me.
wish him to change from one humour to another, It is the war that giveth all spirits of valour, were but as if, for the cure of a man in pain, one not only honour, but contentment. For mark, should advise him to lie upon the other side, but whether ever you did see a man grown to any not enable him to stand on his feet. If from a honourable commandment in the wars, but, when- sanguine, delightful humour of love, he turn to a soever he gave it over, he was ready to die with melancholy, retired humour of contemplation, or a melancholy ? Such a sweet felicity is in that turbulent, boiling humour of the wars; what doth noble exercise, that he, that hath tasted it he but change tyrants ? Contemplation is a thoroughly, is distasted for all other. And no dream; love a trance; and the humour of a war marvel ; for if the hunter takes such solace in his is raving. These be shifts of humour, but no rechase; if the matches and wagers of sport pass claiming to reason. I debar him not studies nor away with satisfaction and delight; if the looker books, to give him stay and variety of conceit, to on be affected with pleasure in the representation refresh his mind, to cover sloth and indisposition, of a feigned tragedy; think what contentment a and to draw to him from those that are studious, man receiveth, when they, that are equal to him respect and commendation. But let him beware, in nature, from the height of insolency and fury lest they possess not too much of his time; that are brought to the condition of a chased prey; they abstract not his judgment from present exwhen a victory is obtained, whereof the victories perience, nor make him presume upon knowing much, to apply the less. For the wars, I deny event. And ever rather let him take the side which him no enterprise, that shall be worthy in great- is likeliest to be followed, than that which is soundness, likely in success, or necessary in duty; not est and best, that every thing may seem to be carmixed with any circumstance of jealousy, but ried by his direction. To conclude, let him be true duly laid upon him. But I would not have him to himself, and avoid all tedious reaches of state, take the alarm from his own humour, but from the that are not merely pertinent to his particular. occasion; and I would again he should know an And if he will needs pursue his affection, and go employment from a discourting. And for his on his course, what can so much advance him in love, let it not disarm his heart within, as it make his own way? The merit of war is too outwardly him too credulous to favours, nor too tender to glorious to be inwardly grateful; and it is the unkindnesses, nor too apt to depend upon the exile of his eyes, which, looking with such affecheart he knows not. Nay, in his demonstration tion upon the picture, cannot but with infinite of love, let him not go too far; for these seely contentment behold the life. But when his mislovers, when they profess such infinite affection tress shall perceive, that his endeavours are beand obligation, they tax themselves at so high a come a true support of her, a discharge of her care, rate, that they are ever under arrest. It makes a watchman of her person, a scholar of her wisdom, their service seem nothing, and every cavil or im- an instrument of her operation, and a conduit of putation very great. But what, Squire, is thy her virtue; this, with his diligences, accesses, humimaster's end? If to make the prince happy he lity, and patience, may move him to give her further serves, let the instructions to employ men, the degrees and approaches to her favour. So that I relations of ambassadors, the treaties between conclude, I have traced him the way to that, princes, and actions of the present time, be the which hath been granted to some few amare et books he reads; let the orations of wise princes, sapere, to love and be wise. or experimented counsellors in council or Parliament, and the final sentences of grave and learned judges in weighty and doubtful causes, be the lecturers he frequents. Let the holding of affec
THE REPLY OF THE SQUIRE. tion with confederates without charge, the frustrating of the attempts of enemies without battles, WANDERING hermit, storming soldier, and the entitling of the crown to new possessions hollow statesman, the enchanting orators of without show of wrong, the filling of the prince's Philautia, which have attempted by your high coffers without violence, the keeping of men in charms to turn resolved Erophilus into a statue appetite without impatience, be the inventions he deprived of action, or into a vulture attending about seeks out. Let policy and matters of state be the dead bodies, or into a monster with a double chief, and almost the only thing, he intends. But heart; with infinite assurance, but with just if he will believe Philautia, and seek most his indignation, and forced patience, I have suffered own happiness, he must not of them embrace all you to bring in play your whole forces. For I kinds, but make choice, and avoid all matter of would not vouchsafe to combat you one by one, peril, displeasure, and charge, and turn them over as if I trusted to the goodness of my breath, and to some novices, that know not manacles from not the goodness of my strength, which little bracelets, nor burdens from robes. For himself, needeth the advantage of your severing, and much let him set for matters of commodity and strength, less of your disagreeing. Therefore, first, I would though they be joined with envy. Let him not know of you all what assurance you have of the trouble himself too laboriously to sound into any fruit whereto you aspire. matter deeply, or to execute any thing exactly; You, father, that pretend to truth and knowbut let himself make himself cunning rather in ledge, how are you assured that you adore not vain the humours and drifts of persons, than in the chimeras and imaginations ? that in your high nature of business and affairs. Of that it sufficeth prospect, when you think men wander up and to know only so much, as may make him able to down, that they stand not indeed still in their make use of other men's wits, and to make again place, and it is some smoke or cloud between you a smooth and pleasing report. Let him entertain and them, which moveth, or else the dazzling of the proposition of others, and ever rather let him your own eyes? Have not many, which take have an eye to the circumstances, than to the themselves to be inward counsellors with nature, matter itself; for then shall he ever seem to add proved but idle believers, which told us tales, somewhat of his own; and, besides, when a man which were no such matter? And, soldier, what doth not forget so much as a circumstance, men do security have you for these victories and garlands think his wit doth superabound for the substance. which you promise to yourself? Know you not In his councils let him not be confident; for that of many, which have made provision of laurel for will rather make him obnoxious to the success; the victory, and have been fain to exchange it with but let him follow the wisdom of oracles, which cypress for the funeral ? of many which have beuttered that which might ever be applied to the spoken fame to sound their triumphs, and have been glad to pray her to say nothing of them, and not bondman to Philautia, you, that presume to bind to discover them in their flights ?
occasion, and to overwork fortune, I would ask Corrupt statesman, you that think, by your you but one question. Did ever any lady, hard to engines and motions, to govern the wheel of for- please, or disposed to exercise her lover, enjoin tune; do you not mark, that clocks cannot be long him so good tasks and commandments as Phiin temper? that jugglers are no longer in request lautia exacteth of you? While your life is no when there tricks and sleights are once perceived ? thing but a continual acting upon a stage; and Nay, do you not see, that never any man made that your mind must serve your humour, and yet his own cunning and practice (without religion your outward person must serve your end; so as and moral honesty) his foundation, but he over- you carry in one person two several servitudes to built himself, and in the end made his house a contrary masters. But I will leave you to the windfall ? But give ear now to the comparison scorn of that mistress whom you undertake to of my master's condition, and acknowledge such govern; that is, to fortune, to whom Philautia a difference, as is betwixt the melting hailstone hath bound you. And yet, you commissioner of and the solid pearl. Indeed it seemeth to depend, Philautia, I will proceed one degree farther : if I as the globe of the earth seemeth to hang in the allowed both of your assurance, and of your air; but yet it is firm and stable in itself. It is values, as you have set them, may not my master like a cube, or a die-form, which, toss it or throw enjoy his own felicity; and have all yours for adit any way, it ever lighteth upon a square. Is he vantage? I do not mean, that he should divide himdenied the hopes of favours to come? He can self in both pursuits, as in your feigning tales toresort to the remembrance of contentments past.wards the conclusion you did yield him; but beDestiny cannot repeal that which is past. Doth cause all these are in the hands of his mistress he find the acknowledgment of his affection small? more fully to bestow, than they can be attained He may find the merit of his affection the greater. by your addresses, knowledge, fame, fortune. Fortune cannot have power over that which is For the muses, they are tributary to her majesty within. Nay, his falls are like the falls of Antæus; for the great liberties they have enjoyed in her they renew his strength. His clouds are like the kingdom, during her most flourishing reign; in clouds of harvest, which make the sun break forth thankfulness whereof, they have adorned and with greater force. His wanes are changes like the accomplished her majesty with the gifts of all the moon's, whose globe is all light towards the sun, sisters. What library can present such a story when it is all dark towards the world; such is the of great actions, as her majesty carrieth in her excellency of her nature, and of his estate. At- royal breast by the often return of this happy tend, you beadsman of the muses, you take your day? What worthy author, or favourite of the pleasure in a wilderness of variety ; but it is but muses, is not familiar with her? Or what lanof shadows. You are as a man rich in pictures, guage, wherein the muses have used to speak, is medals, and crystals. Your mind is of the water, unknown to her? Therefore the hearing of her, which taketh all forms and impressions, but is the observing of her, the receiving instructions weak of substance. Will you compare shadows from her, may be to Erophilus a lecture exceedwith bodies, picture with life, variety of many ing all dead monuments of the muses. For fame, beauties with the peerless excellency of one ? the can all the exploits of the war win him such a element of water with the element of fire ? And title, as to have the name of favoured and selected such is the comparison between knowledge and servant of such a queen? For fortune, can any love.
insolent politique promise to himself such a forCome out, man of war; you must be ever in tune, by making his own way, as the excellency noise. You will give laws, and advance force, of her nature cannot deny to a careful, obsequious, and trouble nations, and remove landmarks of and dutiful servant ? And if he could, were it kingdoms, and hunt men, and pen tragedies in equal honour to obtain it by a shop of cunning, blood; and, that which is worst of all, make all as by the gift of such a hand ? the virtues accessary to bloodshed. Hath the Therefore Erophilus's resolution is fixed: he practice of force so deprived you of the use of renounceth Philautia, and all her enchantments. reason, as that you will compare the interruption For her recreation, he will confer with his muse; of society with the perfection of society? the for her defence and honour he will sacrifice his conquest of bodies with the conquest of spirits ? life in the wars, hoping to be embalmed in the the terrestrial fire, which destroyeth and dissolveth, sweet odours of her remembrance. To her service with the celestial fire, which quickeneth and will he consecrate all his watchful endeavours, giveth life? And such is the comparison be- and will ever bear in his heart the picture of her tween the soldier and the lover.
beauty ; in his actions, of her will; and in his And as for you, untrue politique, but truest | fortune, of her grace and favour.
REMEMBRANCES FOR THE KING,
BEFORE HIS GOING INTO SCOTLAND.
MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY,
It is true I cannot foresee any such case of such Although your journey be but as a long pro- sudden necessity, except it should be the apprehengress, and that your majesty shall be still within sion of some great offenders, or the adjournment your own land, and therefore any extraordinary of the term upon sickness, or some riot in the course neither needful, nor, in my opinion, fit; city, such as hath been about the liberties of the yet, nevertheless, I thought it agreeable to my Tower, or against strangers, &c.
But your duty and care of your service to put you in mind majesty, in your great wisdom, may perhaps of those points of form, which have relation, not think of many things that I cannot remember or so much to a journey into Scotland, as to an ab- foresee: and therefore it was fit to refer those sence from your city of London for six months, or things to your better judgment. to a distance from your said city near three hun- Also my lord chancellor's age and health is dred miles, and that in an ordinary course; where- such as it doth not only admit, but require the in I lead myself by calling to consideration what accident of his death* to be thought of, which things there are that require your signature, and may fall in such a time as the very commissions may seem not so fit to expect sending to and fro; of ordinary justice beforementioned, and writs, and therefore to be supplied by some precedent which require present despatch, cannot well be warrants.
put off. Therefore your majesty may be pleased First, your ordinary commissions of justice, of to take into consideration, whether you will not assizes, and the peace, need not your signature, have such a commission as was prepared about but pass of course by your chancellor. And your this time twelvemonth in my lord's extreme sickcommissions of lieutenancy, though they need ness, for the taking of the seal into custody, and your signature, yet, if any of the lieutenants for the seal of writs and commissions for ordinary should die, your majesty's choice and pleasure justice, till you may advise of a chancellor or may be very well attended. Only I should think keeper of the great seal. fit, under your majesty's correction, that such of Your majesty will graciously pardon my care, your
lord lieutenants as do not attend your person which is assiduous; and it is good to err in caring were commanded to abide within their countries even rather too much than too little. These respectively.
things, for so much as concerneth forms, ought to For grants, if there were a longer cessation, I proceed from my place, as attorney, unto which think your majesty will easily believe it will do you have added some interest in matter, by RO hurt. And yet if any be necessary, the con- making me of your privy council. But for the tinual despatches will supply that turn. main they rest wholly in your princely judgment,
That which is chiefly considerable is proclama- being well informed; because miracles are ceased, tions, which all do require your majesty's signa- though admiration will not cease while you live. ture, except you leave some warrant under your
Endorsed, great seal to your standing council here in London.
February 21, 1616.
ACCOUNT OF COUNCIL BUSINESS.
For remedy against the infestation of pirates, / writing, on the behalf of the merchants of London, than which there is not a better work under heaven, that there will be a contribution of twenty thouand therefore worthy of the great care his majesty sand pounds a year, during two years' space, hath expressed concerning the same, this is done: towards the charge of repressing the pirates ; First, Sir Thomas Smith* hath certified in
pany of Virginia. He built a magnificent house at Deptford, * Of Biborough in Kent, second son of Thomas Smith, of which was burnt on the 30th of January, 1618; and in April, Ostenhanger, of that county, Esq. He had farmed the cus- 1619, he was removed from his employments of governor and toms in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and was sent by King treasurer, upon several complaints of frauds committed by James I. ambassador to the court of Russia, in March, 1601; him. from whence returning, he was made governor of the society * He died at the age of seventy, on the 15th of March, of merchants trading to the East Indies, Muscovy, the French 1616-7, having resigned the great seal on the third of that and suinmer Islands ; and treasurer for the colony and con. month; which was given on the 7th to Sir Francis Bacon. Vol. II.-68