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and root while it grew. 12. Part of the wood of a more active habit. Cardamon is in Latin that shined was steeped in oil, and retained the “nasturtium,” and with us water-cresses; which, shining a fortnight. 13. The like succeeded in it is certain, is an herb that, whilst it is young, some steeped in water, and much better. 14. is friendly to life. As for the quickening of How long the shining will continue, if the wood natural heat, it must be done chiefly with exercise; be laid abroad every night, and taken in and and therefore no doubt much going to school, sprinkled with water in the day, is not yet tried. where they sit so much, hindereth the growth of 15. Trial was made of laying it abroad in frosty children; whereas country people that go not to weather, which hurt it not. 16. There was a school are commonly of better stature. And great piece of a root which did shine, and the again men must beware how they give children shining part was cut off till no more shined; yet any thing that is cold in operation, for even long after two nights, though it were kept in a dry sucking doth hinder both wit and stature. This room, it got a shining.
hath been tried, that a whelp that hath been fed
with nitre in milk hath become very little, but Erperiment solitary touching the acceleration of extreme lively: for the spirit of nitre is cold. birth.
And though it be an excellent medicine in strength 353. The bringing forth of living creatures may of years for prolongation of life; yet it is in childbe accelerated in two respects: the one, if the em- ren and young creatures an enemy to growth: bryo ripeneth and perfecteth sooner: the other, if and all for the same reason, for heat is requisite there be some cause from the mother's body, of to growth; but after a man is come to his middle expulsion or putting it down: whereof the former age, heat consumeth the spirits, which the coldness is good, and argueth strength; the latter is ill, of the spirit of nitre doth help to condense and and cometh by accident or disease. And therefore correct. the ancient observation is true, that the child born in the seventh month doth commonly well; but Experiments in consort touching sulphur and merborn in the eighth month, doth for the most part cury, two of Paracelsus's principles. die. But the cause assigned is fabulous; which There be two great families of things, you may is, that in the eighth month should be the return term them by several names; sulphurous and merof the reign of the planet Saturn, which as they curial, which are the chymists' words, for as for say, is a planet malign; whereas in the seventh their “sal,” which is their third principle, it is a is the reign of the moon, which is a planet propi compound of the other two; inflammable and not intious. But the true cause is, for that where there flamable; mature and crude, oily and watery. For is so great a prevention of the ordinary time, it we see that in subterranies there are, as the fathers is the lustiness of the child; but when it is less, of their tribes, brimstone and mercury ; in vegetait is some indisposition of the mother.
bles and living creatures there is water and oil:
in the inferior order of pneumaticals there is air Experiment solitary touching the acceleration of and flame, and in the superior there is the body growth and stature.
of the star and the pure sky. And these pairs, 354. To accelerate growth or stature, it must though they be unlike in the primitive differences proceed either from the plenty of the nourishment, of matter, yet they seem to have many consents : or from the nature the nourishment, or from the for mercury and sulphur are principal materials quickening and exciting of the natural heat. For of metals; water and oil are principal materials the first excess of nourishment is hurtful; for it of vegetables and animals, and seem to differ but maketh the child corpulent; and growing in in maturation or concoction : flame, in vulgar breadth rather than in height. And you may take opinion, is but air incensed; and they both have an experiment from plants, which if they spread quickness of motion, and facility of cession, much much are seldom tall. As for the nature of the alike: and the interstellar sky, though the opinion nourishment; first, it may not be loo dry, and be vain, that the star is the denser part of his orb, therefore children in dairy countries do wax more hath notwithstanding so much affinity with the tall, than where they feed more upon bread and star, that there is a rotation of that, as well as of flesh. There is also a received tale, that boiling the star. Therefore it is one of the greatest of daisy roots in milk, which it is certain are great “magnalia naturæ,” to turn water or watery driers, will make dogs little. But so much is juice into oil or oily juice: greater in nature than true, that an over-dry nourishment in childhood to turn silver or quicksilver into gold. putteth back stature. Secondly, the nourishment 355. The instances we have wherein crude and must be of an opening nature, for that attenuateth watery substance turneth into fat and oily, are of the juice, and furthereth the motion of the spirits four kinds. First in the mixture of earth and upwards. Neither is it without cause, that Xeno- water; which mingled by the help of the sun phon, in the nurture of the Persian children, doth so gather a nitrous fatness, more than either of them much commend their feeding upon cardamon, have severally; as we see in that they put forth which, he saith, made them grow better, and be plants, which need both juices.
upon the air,
356. The second is in the assimilation of nou- said, yet some that have kept chameleons a whole rishment, made in the bodies of plants and living year together could never perceive that ever they creatures, whereof plants turn the juice of mere fed upon any thing else but air, and might observe water and earth into a great deal of oily matter : their bellies to swell after they had exhausted the living creatures, though much of their fat and air, and closed their jaws; which they open comflesh are out of oily aliments, as meat and bread, monly against the rays of the sun. They have a yet they assimilate also in a measure their drink foolish tradition in magic, that if a chameleon be of water, &c. But these two ways of version of burnt upon the top of a house, it will raise a water into oil, namely, by mixture and by assimi- tempest; supposing, according to their vain dreams lation, are by many passages and percolations, of sympathies, because he nourisheth with air, his and by long continuance of soft heats, and by cir- body should have great virtue to make impression cuits of time.
357. The third is the inception of putrefaction; as in water corrupted : and the mothers of
Experiment solitary touching subterrany fires. waters distilled; both which have a kind of fatness 361. It is reported by one of the ancients, that or oil.
in part of Media there are eruptions of flames out 358. The fourth is in the dulcoration of some of plains; and that those flames are clear, and cast metals, as “saccharum Saturni, &c."
not forth such smoke, and ashes, and pumice, as 359. The intention of version of water into a mountain flames do. The reason, no doubt, is, more oily substance is by digestion ; for oil is al because the flame is not pent, as it is in mounmost nothing else but water digested, and this di- tains and earthquakes which cast flame. There gestion is principally by heat, which heat must be also some blind fires under stone, which flame be either outward or inward : again, it may be by not out, but oil being poured upon them they provocation or excitation, which is caused by the name out. The cause whereof is, for that it seemmingling of bodies already oily or digested: for eth the fire is so choked as not able to remove they will somewhat communicate their nature the stone, it is heat rather than flame, which neverwith the rest. Digestion also is strongly effected theless is sufficient to inflame the oil. by direct assimilation of bodies crude into bodies digested, as in plants and living creatures, whose
Experiment solitary touching nitre. nourishment is far more crude than their bodies : 362. It is reported that in some lakes the water but this digestion is by a great compass, as hath is so nitrous, as if foul clothes be put into it, it been said. As for the more full handling of these scoureth them of itself; and if they stay any whit two principles, whereof this is but a taste, the long, they moulder away. And the scouring virinquiry of which is one of the profoundest inqui- tue of nitre is the more to be noted, because it is ries of nature, we leave it to the title of version a body cold; and we see warm water scoureth of bodies, and likewise to the title of the first better than cold. But the cause is, for that it congregations of matter; which, like a general hath a subtle spirit, which severeth and divideth assembly of estate, doth give law to all bodies. any thing that is foul and viscous, and sticketh
upon a body. Experiment solitary touching chameleons. 360. A chameleon is a creature about the big- Erperiment solitary touching congealing of air. ness of an ordinary lizard : his head unpropor
363. Take a bladder, the greatest you can get, tionably big: his eyes great: he moveth his head fill it full of wind, and tie it about the neck with without the writhing of his neck, which is in- a silk thread waxed, and upon that put likewise flexible, as a hog doth : his back crooked; his wax very close; so that when the neck of the skin spotted with little tumours, less eminent bladder drieth, no air may possibly get in nor out. nearer the belly; his tail slender and long: on Then bury it three or four foot under the earth in each foot he hath five fingers, three on the outside, a vault, or in a conservatory of snow, the snow and two on the inside; his tongue of a marvel- being made hollow about the bladder, and after lous length in respect of his body, and hollow at some fortnight's distance, see whether the bladder the end; which he will launch out to prey upon be shrunk; for if it be, then it is plain that the fiies. Of colour green, and of a dusky yellow, coldness of the earth or snow hath condensed the brighter and whiter towards the belly; yet spot- air, and brought it a degree nearer to water: which ted with blue, white, and red. If he be laid upon is an experiment of great consequence. green, the green predominateth; if upon yellow, the yellow; not so if he be laid upon blue, or red, Experiment solitary touching congealing of water or white; only the green spots receive a more
into crystal. orient lustre; laid upon black he looketh all black, 364. It is a report of some good cred that in though not without a mixture of green. He feed- deep caves there are pensile crystals, and degrees eth not only upon air, though that be his principal of crystal that drop from above, and in some other, sustenance, for sometimes he taketh flies, as was though more rarely, that rise from below: which though it be chiefly the work of cold, yet it may in the midst, and it burnt only to the space of be that water that passeth through the earth, eighty-seven pulses. Mixed with the sixth part gathereth a nature more clammy, and fitter to con- of a spoonful of milk, it burnt to the space of geal and become solid than water of itself. There- one hundred pulses; and the milk was curdled. fore trial would be made, to lay a heap of earth, Mixed with the sixth part of a spoonful of water, in great frosts, upon a hollow vessel, putting a it burnt to the space of eighty-six pulses, with an canvass between, that it falleth not in: and pour equal quantity of water, only to the space of four water upon it, in such quantity as will be sure to pulses. A small pebble was laid in the midst, soak through, and see whether it will not make and the spirit of wine burnt to the space of ninetya harder ice in the bottom of the vessel, and less four pulses. A piece of wood of the bigness of an apt to dissolve than ordinarily. I suppose also arrow, and about a finger's length, was set up in that if you make the earth narrower at the bottom the midst, and the spirit of wine burnt to the space than at the top, in fashion of a sugar-loaf reversed, of ninety-four pulses. So that the spirit of wine it will help the experiment. For it will make the simple endured the longest ; and the spirit of wine ice, where it issueth, less in bulk, and evermore with the bay-salt, and the equal quantity of water, smallness of quantity is a help to version. were the shortest.
367. Consider well, whether the more speedy Experiments solitary touching preserving of rose- going forth of the flame be caused by the greater leaves both in colour and smell.
vigour of the flame in burning, or by the resistance 365. Take damask roses, and pull them, then of the body mixed, and the aversion thereof to dry them upon the top of a house, upon a lead or take flame; which will appear by the quantity of terras, in the hot sun, in a clear day, between the the spirit of wine that remaineth after the going hours only of twelve and two, or thereabouts. out of the flame. And it seemeth clearly to be Then put them into a sweet dry earthen bottle, or the latter; for that the mixture of things least a glass, with narrow mouths, stuffing them close apt to burn is the speediest in going out. And together, but without bruising : stop the bottle or note, by the way, that spirit of wine burned till glass close, and these roses will retain not only it go out of itself will burn no more: and tasteth their smell perfect, but their colour fresh, for anothing so hot in the mouth as it did: no, nor yet year at least. Note, that nothing doth so much sour, as if it were a degree towards vinegar, which destroy any plant, or other body, either by putre- burnt wine doth; but flat and dead. faction or arefaction, as the adventitious moisture 368. Note, that in the experiment of wax aforewhich hangeth loose in the body, if it be not drawn said, the wax dissolved in the burning, and yet out. For it betrayeth and tolleth forth the innate did not incorporate itself with spirit of wine to and radical moisture along with it when itself produce one flame; but wheresoever the wax float goeth forth. And therefore in living creatures, ed, the flame forsook it, till at last it spread all moderate sweat doth preserve the juice of the body. over, and put the flame quite out. Note, that these roses, when you take them from 369. The experiments of the mixtures of the the drying, have little or no smell; so that the spirit of wine inflamed are things of discovery, smell is a second smell, that issueth out of the and not of use: but now we will speak of the flower afterwards.
continuance of flames, such are used for candles,
lamps, or tapers; consisting of inflammable matExperiments in consort touching the continuance of ters, and of a wick that provoketh inflammation. flame.
And this importeth not only discovery, but also 366. The continuance of flame, according unto use and profit; for it is a great saving in all such the diversity of the body inflamed, and other cir- lights, if they can be made as fair and bright as cumstances, is worthy the inquiry ; chiefly, for others, and yet last longer. Wax pure made that though flame be almost of a momentary last- into a candle, and wax mixed severally into ing, yet it receiveth the more, and the less: we candle-stuff, with the particulars that follow, viz. will first therefore speak at large of bodies inflamed water, aqua vitæ, milk, bay-salt, oil, butter, nitre, wholly and immediately, without any wick to brimstone, saw-dust, every of these bearing a help the inflammation. A spoonful of spirit of sixth part to the wax; and every of these canwine, a little heated, was taken, and it burnt as dles mixed, being of the same weight and wick long as came to a hundred and sixteen pulses. with the wax pure, proved thus in the burning and The same quantity of spirit of wine mixed with lasting. The swiftest in consuming was that the sixth part of a spoonful of nitre, burnt but to with saw-dust; which first burned fair till some the space of ninety-four pulses. Mixed with the part of the candle was consumed, and the dust like quantity of bay-salt, eighty-three pulses gathered about the snaste; but then it made the Mixed with the like quantity of gunpowder, which snaste big and long, and to burn duskishly, and dissolved into a black water, one hundred and ten the candle wasted in half the time of the wax pulses. A cube or pallet of yellow wax was pure. The next in swiftness were the oil and taken, as much as half the spirit of wine, and set butter, which consumed by a fifth part swifter
han the pure wax. Then followed in swiftness that hole; and then set it upright again; and the clear wax itself. Then the bay-salt, which put a wick in at the hole, and lighten it; you lasted about an eighth part longer than the clear shall find that it will burn slow, and a long time: wax. Then followed the aqua vitæ, which lasted which is caused, as was said last before, for about a fifth part longer than the clear wax. that the flame fetcheth the nourishment afar off. Then followed the milk and water with little You shall find also, that as the oil wasteth and difference from the aqua vitæ, but the water descendeth, so the top of the turret by little and slowest. And in these four last, the wick would little filleth with air; which is caused by the raspit forth little sparks. For the nitre, it would refaction of the oil by the heat. It were worthy. not hold lighted above some twelve pulses, but the observation to make a hole in the top of the all the while it would spit out portions of fame, turret, and to try when the oil is almost consumed, which afterwards would go out into a vapour. whether the air made of the oil, if you put to it a For the brimstone, it would hold lighted much fiame of a candle, in the letting of it forth, will about the same time with the nitre; but then after inflame. It were good also to have the lamp a little while it would harden and cake about the made, not of tin, but glass, that you may see how snaste ; so that the mixture of bay-salt with wax the vapour or air gathereth by degrees in the top. will win an eighth part of the time of lasting, 374. A fourth point that importeth the lasting and the water a fifth.
of the flame, is the closeness of the air wherein 370. After the several materials were tried, the flame burneth. We see that if wind bloweth trial was likewise made of several wicks; as of upon a candle it wasteth apace. We see also it ordinary cotton, sewing thread, rush, silk, straw, lasteth longer in a lantern than at large. And and wood. The silk, straw, and wood would there are traditions of lamps and candles, that flame a little, till they came to the wax, and then have burnt a very long time in caves and tombs. go out: of the other three, the thread consumed 375. A fifth point that importeth the lasting of faster than the cotton, by a sixth part of time; the flame, is the nature of the air where the flame the cotton next; then the rush consumed slower burneth ; whether it be cold or hot, moist or dry. than the cotton, by at least a third part of time. The air, if it be very cold, irritateth the fiame, For the bigness of the flame, the cotton and and maketh it burn more fiercely, as fire scorcheth thread cast a flame much alike; and the rush in frosty weather, and so furthereth the consumpmuch less and dimmer. Query, Whether wood tion. The air once heated, I conceive, maketh and wicks both, as in torches, consume faster the flame burn more mildly, and so helpeth the than the wicks simple.
continuance. The air, if it be dry, is indifferent: 371. We have spoken of the several materials, the air, if it be moist, doth in a degree quench the and the several wicks: but to the lasting of the flame, as we see lights will go out in the damps flame it importeth also, not only what the mate of mines, and howsoever maketh it burn more rial is, but the same material whether it be hard, dully, and so helpeth the continuance. soft, old, new, &c. Good housewives, to make their candles burn longer, use to lay them one by Experiments in consort touching burials or infuone in bran or flour, which make them harder,
sions of divers bodies in earth. and so they consume the slower: insomuch as 376. Burials in earth serve for preservation, and by this means they will outlast other candles of for condensation, and for induration of bodies. the same stuff almost half in half. For bran and And if you intend condensation or induration, you four have a virtue to harden; so that both age, may bury the bodies so as earth may touch them: and lying in the bran, doth help to the lasting. as if you will make artificial porcelane, &c. And And we see that wax candles last longer than tal- the like you may do for conservation, if the low candles, because wax is more firm and hard. bodies be hard and solid; as clay, wood, &c. But
372. The lasting of flame also dependeth upon if you intend preservation of bodies more soft and the easy drawing of the nourishment; as we see in tender, then you must do one of these two: either the Court of England there is a service which you must put them in cases, whereby they may they call Allnight; which is as it were a great not touch the earth, or else you must vault the cake of wax, with the wick in the midst; where-earth, whereby it may hang over them and not by it cometh to pass, that the wick fetcheth the touch them: for if the earth touch them, it will nourishment farther off. We see also that lamps do more hurt by the moisture, causing them to last longer, because the vessel is far broader than putrefy, than good by the virtual cold, to conserve the breadth of a taper or candle.
them, except the earth be very dry and sandy. 373. Take a turreted lamp of tin, made in the 377. An orange, lemon, and apple, wrapt in a form of square; the height of the turret being linen cloth, being buried for a fortnight's space thrice as much as the length of the lower part four foot deep within the earth, though it were in whereupon the lamp standeth : make only one a moist place, and a rainy time, yet came forth hole in it, at the end of the return farthest from noways mouldy or rotten, but were become a the turret. Reverse it, and fill it full of oil by little harder than they were; otherwise fresh in
their colour; but their juice somewhat flatted.ground that heat and moisture cause putrefaction. But with the burial of a fortnight more they be- In England it is found not true; for many times came putrefied.
there have been great plagues in dry years. 378. A bottle of beer, buried in like manner as Whereof the cause may be, for that drought, in before, became more lively, better tasted, and the bodies of islanders habituate to moist airs, clearer than it was. And a bottle of wine in doth exasperate the humours, and maketh them like manner. A bottle of vinegar so buried came more apt to putrefy or inflame: besides, it tainteth forth more lively and more odoriferous, smelling the waters, commonly, and maketh them less almost like a violet. And after the whole month's wholesome. And again, in Barbary, the plagues burial, all the three came forth as fresh and break up in the summer months, when the weather lively, if not better than before.
is hot and dry. 379. It were a profitable experiment to preserve oranges, lemons, and pomegranates, till summer, Experiment solitary touching an error received for then their price will be mightily increased.
about epidemical diseases. *This may be done, if you put them in a pot or ves- 384. Many diseases, both epidemical and sel well covered, that the moisture of the earth others, break forth at particular times. And the come not at them; or else by putting them in a cause is falsely imputed to the constitution of the conservatory of snow. And generally, whosoever air at that time when they break forth or reign; will make experiments of cold, let him be provid- whereas it proceedeth, indeed, from a precedent ed of three things; a conservatory of snow; a sequence and series of the seasons of the year: good large vault, twenty foot at least under the and therefore Hippocrates in his prognostics doth ground; and a deep well.
make good observations of the diseases that ensue 380. There hath been a tradition, that pearl, upon the nature of the precedent four seasons of and coral, and turquois-stone, that have lost their the year. colours, may be recovered by burying in the earth, which is a thing of great profit, if it would sort: Experiment solitary touching the alteration or but upon trial of six weeks' burial, there followed preservation of liquors in wells or deep vaults. no effect. It were good to try it in a deep well, or
385. Trial hath been made with earthen bottles in a conservatory of snow; there the cold may well stopped, hanged in a well of twenty fathom be more constringent; and so make the body deep at the least, and some of the bottles have more united, and thereby more resplendent. been let down into the water, some others have
hanged above, within about a fathom of the Experiment solitary touching the effects in men's water; and the liquors so tried have been beer, bodies from several winds.
not new, but ready for drinking, and wine, and 381. Men's bodies are heavier, and less disposed milk. The proof hath been, that both the beer to motion, when southern winds blow than when and the wine, as well within the water as above, northern. The cause is, for that when the southern hath not been palled or deaded at all; but as winds blow, the humours do in some degree melt good or somewhat better than bottles of the same and wax fluid, and so flow into the parts; as it is drinks and staleness kept in a cellar. But those seen in wood and other bodies, which, when the which did hang above water were apparently the southern winds blow, do swell. Besides, the best; and that beer did flower a little; whereas motion and activity of the body consisteth chiefly that under water did not, though it were fresh. in the sinews, which, when the southern wind The milk soured and began to putrefy. Neverbloweth are more relax.
theless it is true, that there is a village near Blois, Experiment solitary louching winter and summer where in deep caves they do thicken milk in such sicknesses.
sort that it becometh very pleasant: which was 382. It is commonly seen that more are sick some cause of this trial of hanging milk in the in the summer, and more die in the winter; except well: but our proof was naught; neither do I it be in pestilent diseases, which commonly reign know whether that milk in those caves be first in sommer or autumn. The reason is, because boiled. It were good therefore to try it with milk diseases are bred, indeed, chiefly by heat; but sodden, and with cream; for that milk of itself then they are cured most by sweat and purge; is such a compound body, of cream, curds, and which in the summer cometh on or is provoked whey, as it is easily turned and dissolved. It more easily. As for pestilent diseases, the reason
were good also to try the beer when it is in wort, why most die of them in summer is, because they that it may be seen whether the hanging in the are bred most in the summer: for otherwise those well will accelerate the ripening and clarifying that are touched are in most danger in the winter. of it. Experiment solitary touching pestilential seasons. Experiment solitary touching stutling. 383. The general opinion is, that years hot and 386. Divers, we see, do stut.
The cause may moist are most pestilent; upon the superficial be, in most the refrigeration of the tongues